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Tom Wilson: gentle rebel 
The phone call from 
the police a 







In the December Leader I read 
a detailed account of the new 
Messenger starting Jan. 7. 

May I suggest as a regular fea- 
ture a department of nationwide 
news concerning peace, peace 
action, including reprints from 
pacifist papers such as Fellowship, 
The Peacemaker, CCCO News 
Notes, etc. For many Brethren 
there is no source other dian the 
Messenger for such activities as 
ending the draft, helping COs in 
prison, and acting against civil de- 
fense. Such news is usually missing 
or tvvisted in the regular press. How 
shall the people know unless there 
is a "publisher" of good news? 
Robert L. Lam 
Springville, Iowa 


As a student who missed being 
of voting age by a few months, I 
would like to ask a question of the 
older, more "mature" citizens. Why 
do you deliberately cast aside one 
of the most important rights and/or 
privileges of being a part of the 
United States? In the recent elec- 
tion many did not vote because 
they did not care to choose "the 
lesser of two evils." However, I 
feel that every citizen owes both to 
himself and to his country the job 
of being well-informed and objec- 
tive. If he is, his choice will be 
clear. Perhaps he does not realize 
that his one vote will make a differ- 
ence in the future. 

I have heard much about the 
"younger generation going to the 
dogs," but have we thought that 
the much greater "adult delin- 
quency" may be causing this up- 
surge of juvenile delinquency? Do 
older folks really care about the 
future (after they are gone) and 

about instilling the ideals and hopes 
of democracy into the lives of young 
people? A people who have little 
initiative to help themselves, who 
seem to care only about their wal- 
lets and stomachs, who want to be 
given all by the government cannot 
expect the younger people who look 
up to them to be any different. 

Mary Royer 
Saint Davids, Pa. 


In the Oct. 31 issue a letter en- 
titled "A Call to Concrete Witness," 
signed by Bethany professors and 
students, urged us to vote for John- 
son. Perhaps our church and its 
institutions should put in more time 
and effort on winning people to 
Christ and less on politics and social 

Perhaps some people voted 
for Goldwater because he voted 
against the Civil Rights Act. But 
he is not a racist. A letter preced- 
ing the one referred to, by Donald 
Jones, explains his stand on that 
issue. Read it. 

May we as a church be more 
concerned about our spiritual re- 

Walter Replogle 
Fruitdale, Ala. 


I am writing with reference to 
an article by Bro. Charles M. Bieber 
entitled "You Don't Have to Know 
Theology, You Just Have to Know 
God," which appeared in the Nov. 
7 issue. 

First, let me say that no theolo- 
gian with whom I am acquainted, 
either personally or through his 
writing, would disagree with 
Brother Bieber's thesis that our sal- 
vation depends on the centrality of 
Jesus Christ in our lives rather than 
on knowledge of any sort. 

But beyond that his article, by 
implication if not by intent, seems 
to perpetuate an attitude among 

Brethren which does a disservice 
both to theology and to our denom- 
ination. We should be quite clear 
at this point what we mean by 
theology. It is commonly defined 
as rational thought about God or 
as reflection upon religious experi- 
ence. Obviously, such thinking can 
occur only after the fact of some 
personal religious experience, some 
encounter with Jesus Christ. 

Brother Bieber is quite obviously 
convinced that the good news of 
God's redemptive activity in Christ 
Jesus must be testified to, and it is 
precisely at that point that he, and 
each of us, if we are to fulfill our 
calling as Christians, become un- 
avoidably theologians. And the 
only question for us then is whether 
it will be rigorous, honest, biblical- 
ly-oriented reflection upon our 
religious experience, or whether it 
will be something less. 

The end product of that attempt 
to think critically about our ex- 
perience need not be something 
complex or difficult to understand. 
Brother Bieber is quite right in 
suggesting, by implication, that one 
of the tests of such thought is the 
ease with which it may be under- 

David Kreider 
Los Angeles, Calif. 


Leland Nelson's recent message 
on ministering to social outcasts 
(Oct. 31 issue) was interesting. 
. . . There is another deep need 
the church has seemed to overlook, 
the mentally retarded. 

There are many who need help 
in this field. The church should 
awaken to the need and see that 
homes are available for those who 
need them, homes under Christian 
leadership such as w^e now have 
for the aged. 

Esther J. Gosneli. 
Mt. Airy, Md. 

MESSENGER, Vol. 114, No. 1. Jan. 7, 1965, publication 
of the Church of the Brethren continuing "The Gospel 

Editor: Kenneth I. Morse 
Managing Editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh 
Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Weigle 
Director of News Service: Hov\/ard E. Royer 

MESSENGER, official publication of the Church of the Brethren, is 
owned and published every other week by the General Brotherhood 
Board — Church of the Brethren, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120, 
Norman J. Baugher, general secretary. Editor, Kenneth I. Morse; 
managing editor, Wilbur E. Brumbaugh; editorial assistant, Elizabeth 
Weigle. Filing date, Oct. 1, 1963. Entered as second-class matter Aug. 
20, 1918, under Act of Congress of Oct. 17, 1917. Second-class postage 
paid at Elgin, Ml. 

MESSENGER is copyright 1965 by the General Brotherhood Board, 
Church of the Brethren. 



MESSENGER is a member of the Associated Churcli Press and 
subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 
Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are 
from the Revised Standard Version. 

Subscription rates: $3.75 per year for individual subscriptions; $3.00 
per year for church group plan; $2.50 per year for every home plan; 
life subscription, $60; husband and wife, $75. 

If you move, clip old address from MESSENGER and send with new 
address. Allow at least fifteen days for address change. 

Cover: On January 14 Albert Schweitzer will be ninety years old. 
Some of the most recent pictures of Dr. Schweitzer appear in a recent 
book by Erica Anderson (reviewed on page 25), published by Harper 
and Row, by whose permission we are privileged to use this striking 
portrait of the world-renowned humanitarian and spiritual leader. 

PHOTO CREDITS: 1, 2, 3, 15 Don Honick; 
Service; 16 World Council of Churches 

16, 25 Religious News 

He had to do something worthwhile 



"Even good Christian people seldom let a Negro 
forget he is a Negro," says Tom Wilson, young 
pastor of the First Church of the Brethren in 
Chicago. "When I go to Annual Conference and 
other church meetings, I can feel the curious stares 
of many people. Even those who try to be friendly 
display a basic uneasiness." 

Is he bitter? By no means! Pastor Wilson 
good-naturedly accepts being treated as an oddity 
in the Church of the Brethren as a natural result 
of a general society which has as its pattern keep- 
ing the races apart. He believes that as long as 
artificial barriers tend to keep the Negro "in his 
place," friendship between persons of differing 
races will continue to be difficult. 

As pastor of an inclusive congregation located 
in Chicago's inner city. Pastor Wilson, with the 
assistance of fellow ministers, Philip Brown and 
Fabricio Guzman, shepherds a flock of approxi- 
mately 355 members. Thirty-five of these are 
members of the Spanish-speaking fellowship. The 
membership of the English-speaking fellowship 
includes about forty-five Negroes. 

But a great portion of First church's ministry 
is to persons who are not members. The church 
school is predominantly made up of Negro chil- 
dren from the immediate community. In addition, 
many persons are served who are seen only once 
or twice. These are persons who will not go inside 
a church but who come to the pastor in need of 
material, psychological, or spiritual help. They 
may be hungry, in need of clothing, frustrated, 
or in despair. They may walk in off the street 
of their own accord, or they may be referred by 
an agency. In turn, they may be given counseling 
or assistance directly, or they may be referred to 
a specialized agency, if this seems advisable. But 
in every case an attempt is made to change the 
direction of the person's life. "Sometimes we have 
only one opportunity to proclaim the gospel to 
a certain person," reflects Pastor Wilson. 

Tom believes that the white members who 
have remained in First church are there because 
they are committed, at varying levels, to the wit- 
ness and work of the church in this particular 
place and situation. Historic attachment to the 
Church of the Brethren is not enough to hold 
the white members there, in his opinion. He is 
also confident that any who might have remained 
out of curiosity have long since pulled up stakes. 

"One of the real problems which remains is 
how a church can be flexible and creative enough 
to speak both to the sophisticated and to the un- 
sophisticated. "For example," he asks, "how can 
a church serve both an ADC recipient and a 

HOW did a Negro born in New Orleans ever 
become a pastor in the Church of the Breth- 
ren? The answer requires some glimpses of the 
boyhood and young manhood of a sensitive and 
determined person. 

One of five sons of a Baptist free minister, 
Tom early became an active participant in church 
life. Having a great respect for his pious parents, 
he considered the possibility of becoming a min- 
ister early in life. "But strange as it may seem," 
he recalls, "I received my greatest impetus toward 
the ministry while in military service." There he 
met countless young men who were idling their 
lives away, drinking and living in promiscuity with 
no thought for tomorrow. This caused him to 
realize that he must do something worthwhile 
with his life. Because he had a keen interest in 
persons, he felt that he would choose a vocation 
which involved working with people. 

Following his stint in the air force he took 
advantage of the GI Bill of Rights and enrolled 
in Dillard University in New Orleans, which he 
had been unable to do earlier because of inade- 
quate finances. At Dillard his adviser and pro- 

2 MESSENGER 1-7-65 


fessor of religion and philosophy, who was a min- 
ister as well, gained his admiration. During 
courses under this professor it became increasingly 
clear to Tom that the ministry would be his choice 
of vocation. 

This professor assisted him in securing a schol- 
arship to the Chicago Theological Seminary, fol- 
lowing his graduation in 1956. That fall Tom 
entered CTS with less than half the money the 
seminary advised him to come with. Despite the 
scholarship and work at a variety of jobs during 
his vacation periods, after two years it appeared 

that he must withdraw for lack of finances. The 
dean of the seminary and Dr. Alvin Brightbill, 
professor at Bethany Theological Seminary, whom 
he met at CTS, both advised him not to discon- 
tinue his training if at all possible. At Dr. Bright- 
bill's suggestion he made an appointment to see 
Dr. William Beahm, then dean of Bethany. As a 
result, arrangements were made for him to enter 
Bethany that fall while he continued his work 
as assistant minister at the nearby Warren Avenue 
Congregational church. 

After graduating from Bethany in 1960, Tom continued 

Upper left: Tom finds personal counseling a growing part of his pastoral work. Upper right: Tom 
and Philip Brown, also on the staff of First church, Chicago, discuss common concerns. Lower left: 
The Wilson family, Tom, his wife, Ethel, and children, Douglas, 6, and Elizabeth, 3. Lower right; Ethel, 
center, finds time to teach a class and to work with the girls' club 





worked for a year as a caseworker for the Cook 
County Department of Public Aid while he con- 
tinued his services to the Warren Avenue church. 
The next spring he joined the staff of the First 
Church of the Brethren under the intern program 
of the Chicago City Missionary Society. Follow- 
ing the year's internship he remained on the staff 
and in September of 1963 became the minister 
in charge. 

But what factors made this young minister 
willing to stand in the "rebellious" position of 
being the Hrst Negro minister in a predominantly 
white church? Again a glance at his early experi- 
ences provides some interesting clues. 

As is true in many Southern cities, the New 
Orleans community in which Tom spent his boy- 
hood days was racially integrated, as far as hous- 
ing was concerned. Negro and white boys played 
together with little awareness of racial differences. 
Of course, Tom attenc'ed a segregated school and 
drank from "colored" water fountains and rode 
in the back of buses. 

One of his earliest awarenesses of discrimina- 
tion came when he was about seven years old. 
A Negro and a white man had both been injured 
in a Hre. He watched while an ambulance came, 
picked up the white man, and took him by way 
of a twenty-minute ferry ride to the hospital. The 
ambulance later returned via the same ferry, 
picked up the injured Negro man, and again 
crossed the river. Although there was sufficient 
room in the ambulance, the driver was not al- 
lowed to take the Negro and the white man at 
the same time. 

AT ABOUT junior high school age the white 
children began to assume the habits of their 
elders and no longer played with the Negro chil- 
dren. During his early years of high school Tom 
recalls working for a vegetable and fruit vendor 
for fifty cents a day. It was also during high school 
that he first began to question openly the patterns 
of discrimination. He could not understand why 
a white minister often came to speak in his father's 
church but his father was never invited in return 
to speak in the white minister's church. 

After finishing high school Tom took a job at 

a soda fountain and soon became head porter with 
five other Negroes working under him. One day 
his white supervisor arbitrarily announced that 
they should come to work a half hour earlier every 
day but offered no pay increase. Tom urged the 
other workers to ignore this order unless extra 
pay was given. Consequently, his supervisor 
threatened to discharge him and even withheld 
his check until forced by the labor board to re- 
lease it. 

'While studying at Dillard, Tom attempted re- 
peatedly to secure a summer job. He was aware 
that as a college student he would be suspected 
of not "knowing his place." He was turned down, 
time after time, always with the excuse that they 
did not need workers, although he knew that they 
were hiring. Finally, in desperation, he secured 
a job at a bed factory by denying that he had 
any advanced education. 

He soon discovered why college Negroes were 
not wanted. The Negroes worked on one side of 
the factory and the whites on the other. Although 
the same work was done by both groups, the 
whites were paid twice as much. They also had 
several work breaks, while the Negroes had none. 
During his lunch time Tom began talking to the 
Negro workers and pointing out to them that 
part of the reason the white workers had higher 
pay and better working conditions was that they 
were organized. Before he left, a union man had 
been called in to help them organize, and they 
were later unionized. 

An experience which profoundly affected 
Tom's thinking came in 1949. While he was rid- 
ing on an interstate bus to Texas, a car carrying 
six white men pulled out to pass the bus. It was 
unable to pull back into its lane in time to avoid 
colliding head on with an oncoming car carrying 
five Negroes. The bus was stopped so that as- 
sistance could be rendered. Eleven bodies were 
seen lying on the highway, nine of them 

After ambulances and police had been noti- 
fied, three white men on the bus remarked that 
they would go outside and see if they could help. 
They walked under the window at which Tom, 
the only Negro on the bus, was sitting. They 
spoke loudly, apparently for his benefit, "Let's 
see if there is anything we can do to help the 
white folk — it's obvious the niggers are only 
playing dead." 

4 MESSENGER 1-7-65 

Pastor Wilson is convinced that ttie Brethren 

ideals, if taken seriously, are sufficient 

for the task of ministering in a rapidly 

changing world. The church, he challenges, 

must give up the security of the past 

and face the unknown with courage 

At that moment the depth of the race problem 
came home to Tom. He suddenly realized that, 
if such remarks could be made in this tragic 
situation, then the rift between the races was 
very deep and would require considerable effort 
to overcome. He knew that he must rebel against 
the patterns of discrimination which deny dignity 
to many human beings. His life must count 
toward changing these patterns. 

AS A minister. Pastor Wilson finds many evi- 
dences of discrimination affecting members 
of his congregation. Of special concern to him 
is the problem of unemployment, a condition 
which strikes twice as many non whites as whites. 
As unemployment is always higher among young 
people than adults, the problem among Negro 
youth is especially severe. 

In January of 1964 he served as the Brethren 
delegate to a Consultation on the Church and 
Youth Employment sponsored by the National 
Council of Churches. In reporting on this con- 
ference Pastor Wilson stated that the trend 
toward unemployment is on the increase because 
of automation, the technological revolution in 
agriculture, the entry of large numbers of youth 
into the labor market, and other reasons. In 
working toward a solution of this growing and 
acute problem he favors the guidelines suggested 
by that consultation: elimination of discrimina- 
tory hiring practices, improved educational op- 
portunities, additional job training and retraining, 
helping youth toward self-discipline and a proper 
attitude toward work, and stimulation of eco- 
nomic growth. He is certain that unemployment 
and poverty are major causes of Negro unrest, 
such as has been evidenced by recent rioting by 
some Negroes in certain cities. 

Does a pastor so involved in the pressing 
problems of his church and community find time 
for relaxation? Not enough, think his attractive 
wife, Ethel, and his active children, Douglas, six, 
and Elizabeth, three. Though he may impress 
people with his reserve and seriousness upon first 
meeting, those who know him better soon discover 
that he is fun loving and has a lively sense of 
humor. His leisure-time interests include reading. 

bowling, and attending theatrical productions. 
He prizes opportunities to go on fishing trips with 
his family. 

He feels he is fortunate to have a wife who 
shares his interest in the ministry and in working 
for brotherhood among all people. In addition to 
her many duties as a wife and mother, she finds 
time to teach a church school class and to lead 
a girls' club. She considers herself a little less 
patient than her husband with the slow pace of 
racial progress. 

Pastor Wilson expresses the belief that his 
mission far exceeds the boundaries of his local 
community. He is convinced that he and First 
church have a ministry to the entire Brotherhood. 
He feels that they can help confront the church 
in general with a major task of the church today, 
that is, reconciliation between the races. 

Tom is convinced that, if the Church of the 
Brethren is to continue as a body, it will have 
to provide a ministry in urban situations. The 
church's rural background need not be a hin- 
drance. In fact, the Brethren ideals of servant- 
hood and brotherhood, if taken seriously, fit the 
denomination very well for the task of ministering 
in a rapidly changing society and world. 

Tom Wilson, a gentle rebel, challenges the 
church to give up the security of the past and to 
face the unknown future with courage. D 

1-7-65 MESSENGER 5 




Has the Supreme Court upheld the ConstJ^^^tiopZ 



Much that we read in rehgious literature 
on the subject of Bible reading and prayer 
in the public schools shows little knowledge of 
history and frequently no acquaintance with the 
constitutional provisions involved. 

Our government is organized on the basis. of 
three separate and independent departments: one 
to make the laws, another to enforce them, and 
a third to interpret them, with a little overlapping 
between the legislative and the executive. 

The first and basic provision of our Constitu- 
tion is the First Amendment. The applicable 
portion reads: "Congress shall make no law re- 
specting an establishment of religion, or prohibit 
the free exercise thereof ..." This simply pro- 
hibits Congress from establishing a national 
church or interfering with religious worship, and 
nothing more. 

The distortion of this simple constitutional 
provision by the Supreme Court in recent years 
is an outrage. A great distortion came in 1940, 
when the Supreme Court held that the 14th 

Amendment prevented the states from doing 
what the other provisions of the Constitution 
prevented Congress from doing. 

All know that the 14th Amendment was en- 
acted solely to make the Negroes citizens and to 
prevent any state from impairing their rights as 
citizens. The present interpretation of the 14th 
Amendment is a complete twisting of its language 
and its clear intent. 

The case of Engel v. Vitale, 370 U. S. 421, 
decided on June 25, 1962, was the backbreaker, 
even though theologians — a few writing in our 
own church literature — have been completely 
blind to the fact that this decision and others 
which followed as certain as the night follows 
the day — such as condemning the reading of the 
Bible, the reciting of the Lord's Prayer, and the 
saying of grace — locked God out of our public 
schools for the first time in our history. 

A number of public schools, because of this 
and subsequent decisions, have abolished Thanks- 
giving, Christmas, and Easter programs and have 
quit having baccalaureate sermons. 

In this and the three kindred decisions which 

6 MESSENGER 1-7-65 



Recently the United States Supreme 
Court in two historic decisions reaffirmed 
the constitutional principle that government shall 
establish no religion. Public reaction to these 
decisions was violently antagonistic, and move- 
ments were initiated to amend the Constitution. 
Much of the reaction is the result of a misunder- 
standing of the Court's decisions. Since this is a 
question of serious concern to all citizens it is 
necessary that we have a clear understanding of 
what the Court actually held, the purpose of the 
first amendment, and a fundamental principle of 
the Church of the Brethren. 

In Engel v. Vitale the Court ruled that the 
Board of Regents of New York could not direct 
that a prescribed prayer be read aloud at the 
beginning of each school day. The seemingly 
innocuous and nondenominational prayer was, 
"Almighty God, we acknowledge our dependence 
upon thee, and we beg thy blessings upon us, 
our parents, our teachers and our country." Later 
in Abington School District v. Schempp the Court 

held that states could not require the reading 
of Bible verses and recitation of the Lord's Prayer 
by the students at the opening of each school 
day. The Court considered both the prayer and 
Bible reading to be religious exercises promul- 
gated by the state. 

The decision in both cases rested on the es- 
tablishment clause of the First Amendment to 
the Constitution which reads: "Congress shall 
make no law respecting an establishment of 
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise there- 
of . . ." Americans today are far removed from 
the political and religious climate out of which 
the First Amendment emerged. We must consid- 
er the historical forces which produced this 
amendment in order to understand the principle 
of separation of church and state which is so 
firmly embedded in our heritage. 

For many centuries in Europe prior to the 
colonization of America, the church and state 
were one. The state supported the church by ^ore qn 
taxes and forced attendance of the people. As page 8 

followed there is not a syllable uttered against 
atheism, communism, or any form of pure 

In New York state Jewish, Roman Catholic, 
and Protestants worked together to produce this 
simple school prayer. It is: "Almighty God, we 
acknowledge our dependence upon thee, and we 
beg thy blessing upon us, our parents, our teach- 
ers, and our country." Any atheist or anyone 
opposed to praying was not required to recite 
this lovely school prayer and needed not be 
present when the same was recited. 

This prayer was approved by the trial court, 
by both appellate courts of the state of New York, 
and by their highest court by a five to two 
decision. Their chief judge among other things 
said: "But there is no problem of constitu- 

Judge Burke wrote a reply to the two dissent- 
ing judges. Part of it is: "There is no language 
in the amendment (1st) which gives the slightest 
basis for the interpolation of a Marxist concept 
that mandates a prescribed ethic. According to 
the opinion (minority), the separation of church 
and state which was intended to encourage reli- 

gious interests among our people would become 
the constitutional basis for the compulsory ex- 
clusion of any religious element and the conse- 
quent promotion and advancement of atheism. 
It is not mere neutrality to prevent voluntary 
prayers to a Creator; it is an interference by the 
courts, contrary to the plain language of the 
Constitution, on the side of those who oppose 

After the case was considered by the U. S. 
Supreme Court Justice Black wrote the opinion 
for six of the judges. Justice Douglas wrote a 
concurring opinion. Justice Frankfurter and Jus- 
tice White did not participate. Justice Stewart 
wrote a strong dissenting opinion. 

The Court held, six to one, that the voluntary 
recital of this short and beautiful school prayer 
was the "establishment of a religion." In my opin- 
ion, this is the greatest distortion of the First 
Amendment ever announced by any Court at any 

The Court further said that the prayer: 
"Breached the constitutional wall of separation 
of church and state." There is no such, or even j^qre on 
similar, language in the Constitution. page s 

1-7-65 MESSENGER 7 


a result of this church-state combination people 
were forced to support ideas, beliefs, and institu- 
tions which were incompatible with their own 
beliefs. Even after the Reformation and the 
emergence of the Protestant Church the evil of 
the established church persisted — the established 
church merely being changed from the Roman 
Catholic to the Anglican or Protestant Church. 

The principle of the established church, so 
prevalent in Europe, was carried to the colonies. 
As late as 1776 there was an established church 
or government-supported religion in twelve of the 
thirteen colonies. The evils of the established 
church were apparent to many framers of our 
Constitution, notably James Madison and Thomas 
Jefferson. They led the forces in Virginia which 
resulted in the passage in 1786 of the Virginia 
Bill for Religious Liberty. 

A few years later the first Amendment was 
added to the Constitution as a guarantee that 
the power of the Federal government would not 
be used to support any religion or to dictate to 
the American people any religious observance 
or any particular kind of prayer. It was the in- 
tention by the adoption of this amendment to 

achieve complete separation of church and state, 
and a long line of Supreme Court decisions has 
upheld this principle. 

Members of the Church of the Brethren should 
be particularly appreciative of the Court's con- 
tinued adherence to the principle of freedom of 
religion. The Church of the Brethren was 
founded upon the belief that there should be no 
force in religion. Religion is a matter of personal 
belief, and the individual should be free to be- 
lieve according to the dictates of his conscience. 
This principle is diametrically opposed to the 
idea that any government by legislative fiat can 
prescribe particular religious exercises which 
must be observed by the citizens. Each person 
must be left free to engage in whatever religious 
activity he deems proper. 

The 1964 Annual Conference adopted a reso- 
lution endorsing the historic principles of no 
force in religion and separation of church and 
state. We submit that these Court decisions are 
completely compatible with our fundamental 
freedom of religion and should be supported by 
all Brethren and, indeed, all Americans. 



Thomas Jefferson, who came strongly under 
the influence of the French Revolution and great- 
ly feared the tyranny of an established church, 
said something of like nature in a letter, but 
nothing like it is in the Constitution. 

The justices said the government must be 
neutral in religious matters. The Constitution 
does not say anything of the kind. 

In 1954 in a five to four decision — Everson 
case — the Court said: "We cannot say that the 
First Amendment prohibits New Jersey from 
spending tax-raised funds to pay bus fares of 
parochial school children." The quotation was 
written by Black, and Douglas agreed with it. 
Paradoxically that case has not been reversed, 
and is yet the law of the land. 

Douglas implied that he is opposed to the 
prayer of the bailiff at the opening of the Court 
when he says: "God save the United States and 
this honorable court." 

In a footnote he implied that he is against 
churches, church educational institutions, etc., 
being exempt from property taxes and is opposed 
to taxpayers being given credit on their income 

''Each person must be free to engage 
in whatever religious activity he deems 
proper," write Wise and Kennedy 

"Patriotic organizations have been 
more aggressive in trying to keep God 
in our public life than churches," 
challenges See 

tax returns for contributions to the same. 

He would not permit chaplains for Congress, 
state legislatures, and other public bodies; for 
military academies, camps, armies, etc. 

If the judges of this Court had read the classi- 
cal opinion of Judge Brewer of 1892 in the Holy 
Trinity church case, in which he discusses religion 
in America to that date, they should blush with 
shame at the tommyrot they have been proclaim- 
ing to be constitutional law. 

It is a later and much darker day than many 
realize. Our Christian heritage is being fastly 
eroded, and we are rapidly becoming a non- 


8 MESSENGER 1-7-65 

■ * ■ i»mA< 







Song is the marcher, 
Song is the way. 
Song is our rest 
At the end of the day 


— ( 

■ 1 

Song causes brother 

To grasp brother's hand. 

Song is the pass 

To the Promised Land. 

n ' 


■ M if ■ ■ 

"I NEVER thought it would happen to us — 
right in our own family. 1 don't think I'll ever 
be able to hold up my head again." 

One look at Ruth convinced -me that she 
meant exactly what she said. I had never seen 
her wrung so dry of her usual enthusiasm for 

"Our Tom and that widow's son he has 
been chumming with," Ruth explained, "were 
picked up for shoplifting. And I thought I knew 
something about child rearing. 

"Just last week, after Tom opened the 
garage door for us, John and I talked about 
what a fine young teen-ager he was — a swell 
kid, if we ever saw one. And then, whamo! 
Late Saturday afternoon we got that call from 
police headquarters to come and pick him up. 

"The police had caught Tom and Richard 
with the goods on them. I was furious. Only 
my husband's common sense and the cooling 
off period between the telephone conversation 
and the time John brought Tom home kept me 
from tearing him limb from limb. I was livid 
with rage. Tom had money in his pocket. He 
could have bought the records he had swiped. 
We had impressed on him the necessity of 
living an honest life. Where did we go wrong? 

How could he do this to us?" 

The news stunned me so that I could not 
have given Ruth a pat answer if I had had one. 
Good kids do not get mixed up with the law — 
or do they? 

Then I remembered young Glen, whose 
license was revoked. His parents had been 
summoned late at night because he took a dare 
and drove the car over sidewalk and lawn to 
deposit a girl right on her doorstep. 

I could think of young Jim. His Halloween 
pranks took on major proportions when he got 
into a fight that involved the front teeth of 
another lad. And 1 could also recall an inno- 
cent thirteen-year-old who had to pay a fine 
for jaywalking. 

Tomorrow the telephone may ring in my 
home and the police may say, "We have your 
son — or daughter — down at the station." 
What will I do? What would you do? 

Let us go back for a minute to Ruth. Here 
is what she did — after the initial shock of 
getting that call from the police. 

She kept her son busy every Saturday with 
jobs of physical labor for which he was duly 
paid. She and her husband have spent much 
time with the boy, establishing a new and 
better relationship. On a fishing trip Tom 
volunteered the information that he had shop- 
lifted because it was a kind of initiation into a 
peer group of which he sought to be a part. 
Without choosing his friends for him, Ruth and 
John are trying to help him establish criteria 
for judging new friendships and providing 

10 MESSENGER 1-7-65 

opportunities for contact with desirable com- 

It has not been easy for Ruth and John to 
divest themselves of the thought, "What has 
this boy done to the family name?" and to 
think instead, "How can I help this boy to 
withstand group pressure?" They let him 
know that his family has faith in his ultimate 
outcome as an individual. It has taken much 
time. It has meant that mother or dad have 
had to be home on weekends except when 
Tom accompanied them elsewhere. It has 
meant arranging special activities of interest 
to Tom and including desirable friends for Tom. 
It has meant showing their trust in the boy by 
allowing him to do lawn-care work for others. 

For John and Ruth it has meant also that 
they have had to be extra careful to set a good 
example. (They must drive only thirty-five 
miles an hour if that is the legal speed limit. 
They must stop when the light is red regardless 
of the fact that no one is in sight.) They dis- 
cussed with Tom the reasons why all prices 
are raised to cover the cost to merchants of 
articles that are stolen. They have had to ex- 
plain by word and deed that with every free- 
dom goes responsibility. They have begun to 
realize that ignoring or criticizing laws will not 
help their son or themselves. Instead, they 
must take a special interest in lawmaking and 
in exercising their right to vote. 

It is not necessarily easy to rear a teen- 
ager, but it can be a challenge. When young 
people overstep the rules of society they need 

their parents' wise guidance more than ever 
before. Here are some basic guidelines that 
will help parents whose young people may 
happen to have a brush with the law. 

1. The young people must be helped to 
accept full consequences for their action as 
determined by law. 

2. They must realize that their actions 
affect all members of the family to which they 

3. They must be reassured of their parents' 
concern for them personally, not merely for 
the family name. 

4. They need to be so challenged for use- 
ful living that there is no time for trouble. 

5. They need help in making themselves 
acceptable to their own peer group. (This may 
mean achieving skills that take time and money 
to develop.) 

6. They need to be able to confide in some- 
one who has the time and patience to listen 
to them without condemning them for their 

When you have a teen-ager around the 
house there is scarcely ever a dull moment, 
although there may be many sad ones and 
many nerve-racking ones. Remember that 
there are also possibilities for uplifting experi- 
ences and cozy, quiet confidences. Even a 
teen-ager's first encounter with the law may 
provide an opportunity to help him grow, n 

by Wilmer and Jeannette Tolle 

1-7-65 MESSENGER 11 




Although we may be in complete agreement 
with the religious ideas expressed in the pre- 
scribed prayer in the Engel case and the religious 
exercises involved in the Abingdon School Dis- 
trict case, if the states were permitted the power 
to dictate these forms of religious activities, they 
would also have the power to dictate religious 
activities which could be completely offensive to 
us. James Madison, the author of the First 
Amendment, clearly expressed this concept in 
stating: "It is proper to take alarm at the first 
experiment on our liberties. . . . Who does not 
see that the same authority which can establish 
Christianity, in exclusion of all other religions, 
may establish with the same ease any particular 
sect of Christians, in exclusion of all other sects? 
That the same authority which can force a citizen 
to contribute three pence only of his property 
for the support of any one establishment may 
force him to conform to any other establishment 
in all cases whatsoever?" D 


Christian nation. 

In the last five cases brought by atheists, 
the ungodly have won all of them — the religious 
people none. 

Atheists have filed suits in at least three states, 
seeking to have the expression under God in our 
pledge of allegiance, act of Congress of 1954, 
declared unconstitutional. The New York case 
is now pending in the Supreme Court. 

I predict that unless the Court hears the ground 
rumbling from churches and patriotic societies 
they will declare that expression unconstitutional. 
Incidentally, patriotic organizations have been 
more aggressive in trying to keep God in our 
public life than the churches. It will be difficult 
for their judicial antenna to pick up earth tremors 
as long as a few of our supposedly top church 
leaders insist upon jumping up and shouting 
"Hallelujah, Amen!" every time the Court de- 
clares God unconstitutional in some phase of pub- 
lic life. D 

:__, '^:^?lOi^ 

"^ y ^ ^ --. ^~"' — ~^ ^ 

Airf'^ J^ y^ ^ Up is 

^ ^^ a tracery of ebony boughs 

^ cottoned with white flakes clinging. 

s^ Down Is 

a writhing of slush-rutted tire -tiacks i j 

and mud-puddled gutters. ^ ^ ■ Avl 

^ Up ^ ') 

is a better view 
thar\ dow^. .''' 


Harry Durtee 


you ask 

Should chQdren who have not yet 
been baptized but who accompany 
their parents to church be permit- 
ted to partake of the Lord's Supper? 

Christians observe the Lord's Sup- 
per upon the invitation and indeed 
the commandment of Jesus himself, 
" 'Do this in remembrance of me' " 
(1 Cor. 11:24-25). Our Lord in- 
stituted this sacred observance as 
a sign of the new covenant, sealed 
in his own death and resurrection, 
that constitutes his church, the 
new Israel, as the heir of his king- 
dom. The Christian participates in 
the Lord's Supper as a pledge that 
he, as a disciple confessing Christ 
as Lord, partakes of the benefits 
of Christ's redeeming work. It ex- 
presses his renewal of his personal 
covenant with Christ as his Savior. 
Because of the profound ex- 
pression of the commitment in the 
observance of the Lord's Supper, 
it would not be proper for chil- 
dren who do not understand its 
meaning to participate in it. One 
could hardly offer the renewal of a 
covenant if the covenant itself were 
not already established through 
baptism. For this reason, only 
baptized Christians should partake 
of the elements in the holy com- 
munion. Even among the churches 
practicing infant baptism, where 
children are regarded as "heirs of 
the covenant" through the partici- 
pation of their parents, they may 
not participate in the Lord's Supper 
until their baptismal vows, made by 
their parents, are confirmed by their 
own choice. 

Do Roman Catholics have the same 
Bible that Protestants use? Are 
there differences besides differences 
in translation? 

The Bible has come to us through 
the ages in many ancient manu- 
scripts. All of our present trans- 
lations, those made by both Roman 
Catholics and Protestants, have 
gone to the same sources for the 
text of the various books. The 
standard Roman Catholic version 
of the Bible, the Douay, is a trans- 
lation of the Latin Vulgate and 
thus is a translation of a translation. 
Most Roman Catholic Bibles also 
have copious footnotes explaining 
the text in the light of traditional 
Catholic theology. In more recent 
years, Roman Catholic scholars 
have been much freer to go back 
to the oldest manuscripts available 
for their text and to make transla- 
tions of these into modern lan- 
guages and everyday speech. 

A principal difference between 
the Protestant and Catholic Bible 
is the inclusion in the Catholic Old 
Testament of several books re- 
garded by Protestants as apocryphal 
or not worthy to be considered in 
the canon of sacred scriptures. The 
Revised Standard Version, a Prot- 
estant American translation, was 
recently accepted for use by the 
Roman Catholic churches of Great 
Britain. The Revised Standard 
Version of the Apocrypha will be 
added to their edition to make it 
conform more nearly to the ac- 
cepted canonical books of the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

To what extent, if any, is the or- 
ganization of the Church of the 
Brethren a congregational organi- 

The Brethren in Colonial America 
organized themselves into congre- 
gations which were each indepen- 
dently constituted. However, these 
congregations soon began occasion- 
al meetings together for fellowship 
and a discussion of mutual con- 
cerns. It was out of these meetings 
that the Annual Conference of the 
Church of the Brethren has come. 
Little by little, the Annual Con- 
ference began to take on a more 
authoritative role, until the church 
began to look to the Conference 
for the kind of corporate decisions 
that would direct the life and work 
of the Brotherhood. Later, churches 
were organized into districts, which 
also assumed an important function 
in the coordination of the work of 
local congregations. 

Thus, in the Church of the Breth- 
ren, there are three policy-making 
units, the local church, the district 
meeting, and the Annual Confer- 
ence. Both district meeting and 
the Annual Conference are rep- 
resentative assemblies. Local con- 
gregations in the Church of the 
Brethren are not independent of 
one another, but are under the 


Since 1953 Dr. Paul M. Robinson has been 
president of Bethany Theological Seminary. 
Trior to that time he was for thirteen years 
the minister of the Hagerstown church, 
Maryland. He took his undergraduate work 
at Juniata College and has graduate degrees 
from Princeton Theological Seminary and 
the Lutheran Seminary of Mount Airy, 
Philadelphia. He was moderator of Annual 
Conference in 1955-56 and was president 
of the Chicago Church Federation. 

If you have a question you would like to have answered 
on this page, send it to Questions You Ask, Messenger, 
Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 

Faith Looks Up 




ONE autumn day eight years ago three of us stood in the middle 
of a wheat field to make an on-the-spot business decision. We 
had searched three years for the right place to erect an office 

The president of the company spoke audibly for us, asking 
God for guidance, then he turned and asked, "Is this the place?" 
I recall how clear i was as I voted yes. 

Since that time, in the light of developments we could not 
then foresee, we have often remarked, "We decided better than 
we knew." Business friends have related many similar situations 
in which they have asked God for guidance and then operated 
"over their heads." 

The Ever-Present Help operates every day. We are blessed 
when we, are aware of this truth. Life is filled with illustrations. 
May I share just one other. 

About ten years ago we purchased a new varityper but had 
no operator. The machine arrived one forenoon. Urgent work 
assignments were waiting. For lunch I found a quiet place, 
reviewed all of the sources of employment, and then asked for 
help beyond my own. 

You may well imagine my awakening when I returned to work 
and found Joan waiting in the lobby. During our interview she 
related, "Last evening my husband and I prayed about the matter 
of my working to help him through college. This morning we 
talked to a friend and he said I should come to see you." 

Joan, a radiant Christian, was in our employ many years and 
became one of the best varityper operators in the city. 

Some of my friends tell me these events are just coinci- 
dences. I do not think so. While majoring in mathematics I 
learned that the laws of change do not account for so great a 
number of answered needs from Him who has promised, "Seek 
and you will find." 

I would not want to face the problems and decisions of any 
business day without first opening up and tuning in. God has 
intentions for my life and for yours for every day. I pray that my 
decisions and acts shall lie within the scope of his intentions. 
May life be to you also according to your faith. 

Arlo Gump has been working 

since 1945 at the home office of the 

Brotherhood Mutual Life Insurance Company 

in Fort Wayne, Indiana. He is now 

vice-president and secretary of the corporation. 

Arlo is married, the father of two daughters, 

a graduate of Manchester College and the 

University of Wisconsin. A member of the 

Beacon Heights church in Fort Wayne, he was 

elected at the Lincoln Annual Conference to 

the General Brotherhood Board 

direction of both the district of 
which they are a part and the 

This would indicate that the 
Church of the Brethren has moved 
from pure Congregationalism to a 
representative or synodical form of 
government. Almost all of the 
changes of polity in recent years 
have moved the church a little 
further toward this more centralized 
kind of organization. For example, 
ministers in the Church of the 
Brethren are now ordained by the 
district, not the local church. While 
the local church must concur in 
the ordination, the power of ordi- 
nation rests with the district. This 
is a clear move away from Con- 
gregationalism. Annual Confer- 
ence has become more and more 
authoritative in the life of the 
church and is expected to speak 
for the whole Brotherhood. This 
confirms the trend toward a syn- 
odical or Presbyterian form of or- 

At the same time, the church 
still gives local congregations a 
great amount of freedom to organ- 
ize their life and work as will 
best suit the needs of their own 
members. While recognized as 
authoritative, Annual Conference 
has always taken a very permissive 
attitude toward its decisions so that 
they usually read may or should 
rather than must. Since the Church 
of the Brethren, unlike some of 
her sister denominations in the 
congregational tradition, is not a 
convention of churches or an inter- 
national association of congrega- 
tions but a church, we must 
conclude that she is not basically 
congregational in polity but has 
made strong concessions to con- 
gregational organization. 


Interviewing candidates: foreign missions' Long and Thompson 

Profile of today's missionary recruit 

What are the qualifications of the 
typical missionary sent abroad 

A composite sketch of the most 
recent Church of the Brethren 
missionaries reveals that the aver- 
age candidate was married, was a 
college graduate, and had at least 
some years of professional experi- 
ence. The average age was 

This profile was drawn from a 
study of the seventeen new re- 
cruits deployed by the General 
Brotherhood Board in the past 
church year, of whom fifteen were 
sent to Nigeria and two to Ecua- 
dor. In addition, two medical doc- 
tors have just left for Nigeria for 
three months of service. 

From the analysis of the past 

year's assignments, Joel K. Thomp- 
son, director of mission education 
and recruitment, noted the follow- 
ing trends: 

• An increasing number of pro- 
fessionally trained persons with 
specific technical skills are very 
much in demand. 

• Assignment often is on a short- 
term basis, though many persons 
anticipate remaining in mission 
service for an indefinite time. 

• An increasing number of 
Brethren missionaries are over 
thirty years of age. Only one third 
of the candidates placed in the 
program were in their twenties. 

• Fewer ordained churchmen 
are being sent to the fields while 
more laymen are being placed. 

"All of this makes it quite clear 

that the role of the missionary is 
changing," commented foreign 
mission secretary J. Henry Long. 
"As our sister churches overseas 
mature, the missionary has become 
the co-worker or partner who 
shares his insights and skills with 
his brothers. The missionary is a 
mechanic working with Nigerians 
to keep vehicles running smoothly. 
He is a churchman working with 
pastors in their parishes where 
they need counsel as they under- 
take evangelistic and pastoral 
tasks. He is an accountant, a. biol- 
ogy teacher, or an agriculturist. 

"Most of all, he is a person dedi- 
cated to the building of Christ's 
church and is doing so, temporari- 
ly at least, in another land and in 
another culture." 



Ecumenical Enugu 

For the fiest time the Central 
Committee of the World Council 
of Churches will meet in Africa. 
The council is not foreign there, 
however, for 32 of its 209 member 
communions are from Africa. 

Sir Francis Ibiam, governor of 
the Eastern Province of Nigeria 
and one of the six presidents of 
the World Council, will formally 
welcome the 100-member body to 
Enugu, Eastern Nigeria's capital 
city, for sessions extending from 
Jan. 12 to 21. 

On the docket will be items on 
race relations, international affairs 
with specific reference to nuclear 
weapons testing and disarmament, 
religious liberty, and possible over- 
tures to the Roman Catholic 
Church on forms of practical 

WCC's Visser 't Hooft and Rodger 

The Central Committee also will 
act on the nomination of the Rev. 
Patrick Rodger as general secre- 
tary of the World Council, suc- 
ceeding Dr. W. A. Visser 't Hooft, 
who has held the top executive 
post since the council's formation 
in 1948. The latter will continue 
in his post until 1966. 

Mr. Rodger is an Episcopal min- 
ister from Scotland and head of 
the World Council's Faith and Or- 

der Department. He was nomi- 
nated in August by the World 
Council's fourteen-member execu- 
tive committee. 

In attendance will be Central 
Committee member Norman J. 
Baugher, general secretary of the 
General Brotherhood Board. Fol- 
lowing the Enugu sessions he will 
visit Brethren first in Northern Ni- 
geria for two weeks, then in India 
for the same period. 


At midnight Julian Perez and a 
score of friends, members of the 
Messiah Church of the Brethren, 
waited at the Kansas City airport. 
In their hands they held gifts and 
flowers and signs of welcome. In 
their hearts they held to a hope 
which for some months many 
scarcely had believed could come 

At 12:15 a.m. there was a mes- 
sage. The word: Delay. Delay as 
they had come to know again and 
again in the months preceding. 
The flight they had planned to 
meet was late in its departure from 
Spain. It was rescheduled for ar- 
rival ten hours hence. 

Later that Sunday morning the 
party reassembled, and this time, 
for the first since Julian Perez left 
Cuba two and a half years ago, 
he and his wife, Violeta, son, 
Julian, eleven, and daughters, 
Maria, twelve, and Lucy, three, 
were reunited. 

Perez, whose grocery in Penar 
del Rio, Cuba, was nationalized by 
the Castro regime, fled from his 
home country in a fishing boat, 
along with six companions. Seven 
days later, they landed on the 
northern tip of Mexico, exhausted 
from hunger and constant seasick- 
ness. Perez went from Mexico to 
Texas to Miami to Kansas City, 
there to be assisted in relocation 
by the Messiah church. 

He worked double shifts to earn 
the $3,000 needed for his family's 
passage to Spain, their only outlet 

In their hands signs of welcome 

from Cuba, and then to the United 
States. He also filled out myriads 
of forms and affidavits, transmitted 
funds by way of Mexico and Can- 
ada, and finally acquired visas and 
tickets. Then for ten months the 
family waited their turn to leave 

When the family arrived last 
May in Spain, there was more de- 
lay, this time with the United 
States government. With the help 
of Congressman Richard Boiling, 
the processes were speeded up to 
bring the family to this country in 

Immediately upon his family's 
arrival, Perez expressed his thanks 
to the church by having a small 
reception in their apartment. The 
church, in turn, later had a basket 
dinner reception in honor of their 
Cuban family and new members 
of the church. 

As the Perezes reestablish their 
family and adapt to their home 
in a new country, Julian affirms 
tliey are here to stay. Whatever 
their future, they and one Breth- 
ren congregation are experiencing 
afresh what it means "to heal the 

16 MESSENGER 1-7-65 


How big will our colleges get? 

THIS FALL 5,335 students will 
matriculate at the six Brethren col- 
leges — 1,850 more students than a 
decade ago. From 1966 to 1974, 
when each succeeding year's crop 
of seventeen-year-olds will be big- 
ger than the ones before, the pres- 
sure for still larger student bodies 
will mount. 

Is there an end in sight for the 
growth of our Brethren colleges? 
How big will they become? 

After contacting the college 
presidents in this regard. Messen- 
ger determined that the pattern is 
toward a gradual but steadily 
paced growth in enrollment for 
the next several years. 

Manchester has held the line at 
about 1,200 students for four 
years; it will review the size of its 
enrollment in a new ten-year study 
under way. Elizabethtown's en- 
rollment approaches 1,200, a level 
the trustees expect to hold at least 
until 1973, though they are open 
to revision. Juniata, with an en- 
rollment of 882, plans for 1,100 to 
1,200 by 1970; Bridgewater, now 
with 670, estimates 800; McPher- 
son, now with 608, estimates 850; 
and La Verne, now with 458, esti- 
mates 500, plus an additional 175 
graduate students. 

The pressure for admission to 
the colleges varies. Altogether the 
colleges in 1964 turned down 1,100 
applicants, of whom about one 
third were academically qualified. 
Three of the colleges, Bridgewater, 
La Verne, and McPherson, cur- 
rently could accommodate addi- 
tional students due to long-range 
building programs just completed. 
When choices need to be made in 
admissions, qualified Church of 
the Brethren students are given 

Prospective students are en- 
couraged to apply during or soon 
after their junior year or not later 
than September to December prior 
to entry the following September. 

As to the ratio of Brethren en- 
rolled, the colleges predict for 
1970 about the same proportion as 
today: Bridgewater, Manchester, 
and McPherson, about half; Eliza- 
bethtown and La Verne, one third, 
and Juniata, one sixth. 

Cost for tuition, board, and 
room have nearly doubled since 
1955 in all the colleges. For the 
four colleges which estimated 
costs for 1970, the range was from 
$1,700 to $2,400 per student per 

How worried are the colleges 

about the enrollment spiral? There 
is no alarm. The viewpoint of 
Manchester's A. Blair Helman is 
typical: Growth enables stronger 
departments, more faculty mem- 
bers, better curriculum. "There 
really is little advantage in per- 
petuating 'mediocrity in an inti- 
mate setting' if colleges can devel- 
op a sounder educational program 
by modest, planned increases in 
size," he said. 

One concern centers in main- 
taining faculties that are "well- 
prepared, Christian, intellectually 
curious, and adequately paid," said 

D. W. Bittinger of McPherson. 

Another general concern is keep- 
ing the church related to the col- 
lege and the college related to the 
church. Said Elizabethtown's Roy 

E. McAuley: "How much govern- 
ment subsidy and control can be 
accepted within a free and inde- 
pendent academic-religious effort 
will be most difficult to determine." 

As society becomes increasingly 
secular, the colleges have a unique 
role in merging faith and learning. 
To accomplish this task effectively, 
in the midst of change, is seen as 
the crux of all the issues that lie 

t '/;*'iu7 


A golden egg? 

Gambling is a hen that lays golden 
eggs, some government oflBcials 
contend. If only the state could 
legalize gambling, then it could 
control it and tax it, reaping a vast 
new source of revenue for schools 
and other work. 

The adherents to such argu- 
ments are growing. New York's 
mayor, Robert F. Wagoner, has re- 
newed his push for the state legis- 
lature to endorse off-track betting 
for New York City. In New Hamp- 
shire, where the first state-run lot- 
tery in this century has been es- 
tablished, reportedly $2.5 million 
was netted in 1964 to aid local 
schools. In Arkansas, California, 
and Washington, constitutional 
amendments were proposed in No- 
vember to legalize certain types 
of gambling. Voters overwhelm- 
ingly rejected the proposals. 

The first church-sponsored na- 
tional consultation on gambling, 
called by the National Council of 
Churches, recently assessed the im- 
plications of legal, organized gam- 
bling. Among the points made: 

— Organized gambling, legal or 
illegal, is the foundation for organ- 

ized crime in this country, the 
'Tjankroll of the Mafia." 

— In the United Kingdom, the 
number of gamblers increased 400 
percent after gambling was legal- 

— Las Vegas, Nevada, has the 
highest per capita crime rate in 
the country — twice that of Chi- 

— All factors weighed, legalized 
gambling is a sorry substitute for 
responsible state tax policies. 

Surplus shortage 

A SHORTAGE of contributed dry 
milk under the United States gov- 
ernment P.L. 480 Title III pro- 
gram seriously threatens the 
churches' overseas feeding pro- 

James McCracken, Church 
World Service official, said govern- 
ment-donated milk supplies to 
voluntary agencies may be cut up 
to fifty percent this year under 
the P.L. 480 program. 

CWS feeding programs in Asia 
and Africa will be the hardest hit, 
especially in Hong Kong, India, 
Korea, Taiwan, Algeria, and the 

To purchase and send dry milk 
overseas apart from the commodity 
surplus program will cOst volun- 
tary agencies up to thirty times 

more than previously, estimated 
Albert W. Farmer, national CROP 

"All things new" 

Christian renewal, as noted in 
Rev. 2:15, "Rehold, I make all 
things new," marks the theme of 
this year's Week of Prayer for 
Christian Unity, Jan. 18-25. 

In commenting on the obser- 
vance, Joseph Cardinal Ritter, Ro- 
man Catholic archbishop of St. 
Louis, declared that "evidences of 
renewal within the churches 
abound to such a marked degree 
that we can see clearly that God 
is again redeeming his pledge 'to 
make all things new.' " 

The World Council of Churches 
urges all Christians to join in 
prayers for a greater manifestation 
of unity. 

Denominations commend volunteer service programs 

Velunlarism is catching 

Two denominations recently have 
commended forms of Brethren 
Volunteer Service to their own 

One, the Free Methodist 
Church, late last year inaugurated 
Volunteers in Service Abroad, a 
program that enlists both young 
people and adults in established 
mission activities. 

A similar program for youth was 
recently called for by the presi- 
dent of the American Baptist Con- 
vention, Dr. J. Lester Harnish of 
Portland, Oregon. It too would 

entail one or two years given to 
home or foreign mission projects. 
Meanwhile, another group of 
forty-five volunteers having com- 
pleted one or two years of service 
under the Church of the Brethren 
were invited to participate in the 
quarterly end-of-project confer- 
ence at the General OflBces on Jan. 
12-13. Returning from projects in 
twelve states and in eleven coun- 
tries abroad, the group is among 
the two thousand persons who 
have entered BVS since it was con- 
ceived in 1948. 

18 MESSENGER 1-7-65 

Growing edges 

Gratis, Ohio. A youth retreat 
house for year-round use has been 
established by the Southern Ohio 
Church of the Brethren Youth Fel- 
lowship. Located near here on a 
sparsely traveled country road, the 
property was rented to facilitate 
youth groups in leaving their nor- 
mal environment and living to- 
gether in retreat situations. Junior 
Shuff, a trained adult leader, is 
helping to direct the retreats and 
the district cabinet is subsidizing 
operational expenses. 

Harrisbiirg, Pa. Twenty mem- 
bers of First Church of the Breth- 
ren here last month rendered "This 
I Believe" statements over Radio 
WKBO. Each recorded message 
was broadcast three times on 
weekdays, at 8:15 a.m. and 2:15 
and 8:15 p.m. An additional twen- 
ty statements are being prepared 
by the church for futxu-e broad- 

Denver, Colo. The Prince of 
Peace Church of the Brethren was 
one of six churches, out of several 
hundred entries, given an honor 
award for architectural design by 
the American Institute of Archi- 
tects at a regional convention at 
Las Vegas, Nevada. 

North Manchester, Ind. This 
year the Eel River Church of the 
Brethren near here is staffed by 
a "coordinator of church activi- 
ties" rather than by a "pastor." 
Leon Neher of the sociology and 
rural life departments of Manches- 
ter College serves in this capacity, 
without pay. The full pastoral 
budget is supported, however, and 
the funds will be contributed to 
a yet-to-be-determined outreach 
project. The congregation ac- 
cepted Coordinator Neher's pro- 
posal that, except for the preach- 
ing, each member would undertake 
as much "church work" as he him- 
self assumes. 

Token of Atonement 

Berlin — We still hear about the danger of neo-Nazism in Germany. 
Indeed if one were to read only East German and certain other 
news sources he might conclude that the re-Nazification of West 
Germany were already well under way. That neo-Nazi elements 
and ideas are to be found in Germany — both West and East — is 
not to be denied, but most Germans have a strong desire to avoid 
anything like a repetition of the recent past — politically, physically, 
socially, and morally. 

One evidence of this is a positive program the Germans call 
Aktion Suhnezeichen. The challenge for Siihnezeichen, meaning 
"token of atonement," was given by Dr. Lothar Kreyssig, an East 
German pastor, in 1958, here in Berlin. In a call before his synod. 
Dr. Kreyssig said: "We Germans started the second World war 
and thereby, more than others, have caused humanity unmeasurable 
suffering. . . . We can still set a counteracting force in motion if 
we ourselves really forgive, beg forgiveness, and practice these 
convictions. In order to do this we shall request those peoples who 
have suffered from our might to allow us with our hands and our 
means to do something good in their land — to erect something as a 
token of penance — a village, a settlement, a church, a hospital, or 
whatever else of public utility which should be desired." 

The challenge set forth at this time brought a response in 
reality in 1959 when a group of thirty German youth went to 
Norway to construct an addition to a home for sick children. Since 
then other projects in other lands have been undertaken. Among 
them: the construction of a church in Kakelo, Norway; helping 
in the rebuilding of Servia, a small village in Greece; the construc- 
tion of a church in Taize in France; and the reconstruction of the 
Coventry Cathedral in England, demolished by the Nazi during 
the war. 

Perhaps the most significant work of Aktion — from the stand- 
point of the need for reconciliation — has been that performed in 
Israel. By and large this has consisted of German youth working 
on a Kibbuz — working side by side with young Israelis on a variety 
of projects (from farm to factory) and, more significantly, living 
and sharing within the communal life of the Kibbuz. 

Other projects continue to be undertaken — this year in Russia 
as well. The German youth hope that it will soon be possible to go 
to Poland. But even more important than the geographical spread 
of the movement is the depth of the spirit. The striving is for 
reconciliation at all levels, yes, within the church too. 

Not long ago it was my privilege to attend a meeting of Aktion 
in East Berlin. The group was made up mostly of Protestant and 
Catholic youth of East Germany. However, a number of French 
youth were also present. They were discussing a just completed 
tour of East Germany where, among other activities, they had 
visited old concentration camps along the way. The session closed 
with a worship service in which elements of both Protestant and 
Catholic liturgy were used. 

Realizing the difficulties facing the church in the East, it was 
quite thrilling to see how circumstances there are strangely being 
used to build ecumenical bridges. In times of pressure the true 
unity of the church is seen again. — Dale Ott 



On a hazy high horizon of the mountains called Mandara, 
I can see Kamale looming, as if hanging, in the mists. 
The sombre silhouette of its mighty soaring summit 
Seems baseless in a storm-dark summer sky, 
As though removed by choice from common earth. 

It stands a silent sentinel from ages past. 

Once a great volcanic mountain rose and flourished in this highland 

Where it spit and spewed abroad its molten death, 

Till it also, like its victims, having strangled on its lava, 

Came to grips with sure destruction. 

Died and settled into dust. 

The cruel force of wind and weather stripped it bare of soil and 

Sent them falling down to settle at the base. 
Till at last was left Kamale, this core of crystals called Kamale, 
This god-carved obelisk rising in the sky. 

Man can only stand and marvel at this thousand feet of splendor. 
At this god-theme of the pagans in its cloud-wreathed majesty. 

It dominates the spreading valley of the winding Yedseram river 
In the northlands of Nigeria, where it flows to meet Lake Chad. 

20 MESSENGER 1-7-65 

By kecmon thorriASon 

hiQilAnd; a new day dawns 

THE HIGI PEOPLE round Kamale call their sacred mountain 
"Chirgi." Chirgi and his nearby wife-peak, Hum-ta-male (wife of 
mountain), have a host of grotesque children, lesser peaks that dot 
the landscape. 

For ages this imposing pillar, straddled on the country's border, 
has seen an ever-changing pageant of man's life upon the earth. In 
the later eighteen hundreds, down the valleys of Mandara, came the 
conqueror, Haman Yaji, with his soldiers, seeking slaves. There these 
hordes of howling heathen hounded out the Higi people, sent them 
fleeing to the hillsides for their very lives. Those they caught they 
took to Haman. Some were killed and some made eunuchs. Others 
faced a fate more cruel: for the round walls of his compound, Haman 
Yaji had his prisoners stand in circles, while his masons molded walls 
of living men. All that showed were pleading faces when the walls 
had all been plastered. Lingering death was what awaited subjects 
of this cruel jest. 

Long the people had to sufiFer at the hands of these harsh 
scourges, until today it is no small wonder some still fear their 
fellowmen. Many live on rocky hillsides, where the caves still offer 

So it was to such a people, sunk in fear and superstition, that the 
Brethren sought to minister. 

Until 1951 the beautiful homeland of the Higi was closed to 
foreign penetration. No white men were allowed to venture there 
because the territory was declared "unsettled" by the Nigerian 
government. The Church of the Brethren mission, which already 
had thriving stations at nearby Lassa and Gulak, had for sometime 
been cultivating a small influence in Higiland by sending in native 
Christians to live among its people. But a full-fledged mission station 
in Higiland had been in hopefully advanced plans since 1947. The 
Catholics also eager to proselytize the Higi already had a station at 
Bazza, near the southern bounds of the forbidden territory. 

The fields had long since ripened unto harvest when the 
government finally "opened" the territory in 1951, and it was 
not the laborers but rather the funds that were too few. Eager 
to witness in Higiland, but straining to find the wherewithal 

This smiling mother in 
Higiland carries her child 
in a homemade basket on 
her back. Only the child's 
toes are showing 

1-7-65 MESSENGER 21 

to maintain their already ambitious Nigerian pro- 
gram, the Church of the Brethren asked its sister 
church, the Brethren, if she would like to join in 
a cooperative endeavor to witness in this virgin 
land, so long prostrated by wars, slave-raiding, 
and superstition, and now so open to opportunity. 

The magnificent challenge afforded by the in- 
vitation was taken up with great eagerness and 
enthusiasm by our brothers at Ashland. Funds 
and missionaries were soon available. In 1952, 
a Brethren couple. Bob and Bea Bischof, were 
consecrated at Richmond, and soon were working 
in Nigeria. At first the Bischofs were assigned 
to work out of Lassa and Gulak, while a home 
could be built for them in Higiland. It was de- 
cided to locate this new station at a place now 
called Mbororo, which is in central Higiland. 

In 1957 the station at Mbororo was ready for 
occupancy. Located in the valley of Futa Dou, 
Mbororo is perhaps the most beautiful station in 
the mission. Towering stone-clad hills, including 
Kamale, eight miles away, surround it, except 
toward the northwest, where the Yedseram river 
plain spreads to the far western horizon. Seen 
from the hilltops, Mbororo somewhat resembles 
an Australian sheep ranch with its scrub dotted 
plains and scattered buildings. But a closer look 
shows that the scattered buildings include two 
residences with the usual accompanying outbuild- 
ings spawned by varied missionary responsibili- 
ties, a dispensary, several school buildings, a 
church, and the compounds of the teachers and 
other villagers. 

ife at Mbororo is full of activity. Each month. 
Bob Bischof is busy visiting surrounding villages 
where evangelistic work is carried on by sixty 
native helpers. There are sixty-five preaching 
points in Higiland. Working closely with Bob is 
Daniel, an energetic Higi who, in 1963, was the 
first of his tribe to be ordained. Daniel is a 
product of the mission leprosarium at Garkida, 
where he got his spiritual training and was re- 
stored to health. With special shoes for his 
crippled feet, Daniel is able to move around 
normally now and carries heavy responsibilities, 
for all five of the organized churches in Higiland 
consider him their adviser and co-worker. In the 
last week of each month, Daniel and Bob meet 
with church committees and evangelists to check 

on progress and plan for future activities. In the 
last church year, eight hundred Higi were bap- 
tized, accounting for just less than half of the 
total baptisms of the whole mission for that year. 
The Higi, being mostly pagan, form a receptive 
group to Christian evangelism. Because of their 
mountainous environment, they more or less es- 
caped the influence of Islam, which swept over 
much of the northern part of Nigeria. 

Busy Bea heads the dispensary work and di- 
rects the girls' youth organization and the women's 
work of the church. She also conducts a women's 
school two months each year during the dry 
season, when farm work does not distract her 
students. The women who attend are trained in 
reading, writing, and cooking. 

Higiland is not the only area in the mission 
where the Brethren and Church of the Brethren 
are working side by side. At the Hillcrest School 
for missionary children, in Jos, Glen Shank serves 
as chaplain, and he and his wife, Jean, are dormi- 
tory houseparents. Prior to this service they did 
station work at Wandali and Marama and taught 
at Waka Teacher Training College. Four other 
Brethren missionaries have given service as teach- 
ers, nurses, and station workers. The Brethren 
Church has helped to build the Waka Chapel, the 
largest church building in the mission, and has 
aided the building program for Hillcrest School 
and the Theological College of Northern Nigeria 
at Bukuru. 

This spirit of cooperative endeavor between 
the two churches flows silently along, attracting 
little notice from the Nigerians. In the mission 
there are no distinctions drawn between Brethren 
and Church of the Brethren. To the Nigerians, 
we are simply "C.B.M.," and the abbreviated ap- 
pellation has been so long in use that the denomi- 
national connotation is seldom summoned to the 
Nigerian mind. 

In Africa, this ageless land of contrasts, where 
more history has been forgotten than America 
ever experienced, where a new day is dawning 
and a new order being established, a new spirit 
of Christian brotherhood seems not entirely out 
of keeping with the times. So in the shadow of 
that timeless tower, Kamale, a new day is dawning 
for the Higi, and through our ministry to them, 
through love-compelled service for our Nigerian 
brothers, we have perhaps ourselves discovered 
afresh the true meaning of that word brothers. O 

22 MESSENGER 1-7-65 

a devotional guide lor the family 

BEAUTIFULLY hued stained-glass windows decorated the church that 
Donna attended. During the worship services, when Donna's interest 
would lag, she enjoyed gazing at the works of art at the windows and 
imagining the life and times of Christ. The play of sunlight, bringing 
sudden brightness and brilliant colors here and there, attracted Donna's 
attention to varj'ing segments of the pictures. 

One day in church school Donna's teacher asked, "What is a Chris- 
tian?" Donna's mind flashed immediately to the pictures she had seen 
of Jesus and his followers, and she quickly raised her hand. "Christians 
are the ones who let the hght shine through," was her reply. 

We may smile at Donna's answer, but really she was right! Jesus 
said we are "the light of the world." With this as our central worship 
theme the next two weeks, let us concentrate first on the source of our 
light, followed by our role as lights. 

JANUARY 10-16 

Gen. 1:1-5. Light was the first ingredient God used 
in creating his world. It provides the atmosphere in 
which hfe can thrive. It keeps things in perspective. 

JANUARY 17-23 

Isa. 9:2-7. Light stands for courage, hope, beauty, 
and truth. Christ brings these to all who live in dark- 
ness and fear. 

Ps. 27:1-6. If God be for us, who can be against us? 
One man prayed, "Lord, don't let anything happen 
that you and I can't handle together." 

Matt. 5:13-16. Language barriers prohibit some com- 
munication but acts of kindness and love can be 
understood everywhere. 

Ps. 119:97-105. If you drive on a snowy night it is 
reassuring to have red taillights to follow! We can 
move ahead on the precepts of the Bible. 

John 1:6-14. Light gives itself completely, with no 
reserve. Christ gave himself completely for the world, 
holding back nothing. 

John 9:1-7; John 8:12. A ^gh^ bulb is dark until it 
comes in contact with a source of power. Christ is 
our source of light. 

Prov. 3:1-6. If our goal is heaven, what better guide 
could we have than he who dwells there? He loiows 
the way. 


John 3:16-21. Honest, upright citizens enjoy illumi- 
nated homes, streets, and restaurants. But evil thrives 
in the shadow of dimly lighted streets. 

Prov. 4:18-26. As we grow in understanding and the 
knowledge of God, our former doubts and confusions 
are made clear. Light wall come to those who are 
willing to walk in it. 

Eph. 5:8-17. As Christians, we are obligated (in fact, 
it should be an integral part of us) to exemplify 
goodness, justice, and truth. Fun is temporary, but 
joy satisfies. 

1 John 1:5-10. God will not go with us into the 
"twilight zone" where we claim to be Christians but 
enjoy sinning. His light reveals our real motives. 

Isa. 60:1-3, 19-20. We anticipate no darkness in 
heaven. God's glory supplies abundant light. 

2 Cor. 4:5-10. No mortal man, however good, is 
capable of creating light. When God's light floods 
our hearts, it can shine through us. 


1-7-65 MESSENGER 23 

DAY BY DAY is a new feature that will appear 
in every issue of Messenger. It has been planned 
to provide a guide for personal and family devo- 
tions. It offers a suitable theme for each two- 
week period, selected readings from the Bible, 
with brief comments as a guide to prayer and 
meditation. All of this appears on the first page. 
Now that you have turned the page we can 
be more informal. From here on, our purpose 
is to offer a number of suggestions that may be 
adapted to fit the needs of your family. Each 
family group, of course, is different — in the age 
and number of children — not to mention differ- 
ences in interests and educational background. 
The activities we suggest and the resources we 
recommend are chiefly directed to those families 
where there are small children, but we hope that 
everyone can profit by being stimulated to be 
more creative in worship at home. 

Worship by candlelight 

There are a number of ways in which the 
younger members of your family can be helped 
to value Jesus Christ as the light of the world. 
Why not select a single tall candle as an effective 
worship aid? Place it wherever there is a natural 
worship center in your home. For many families 
this will be right at the table where most meals 
are taken. For others it may be the mantel over 
the fireplace. In other situations it may be on 
the piano where you gather to sing. Or perhaps 
you have a special corner where you keep a good 
light and appropriate reading material. 

During the first week you may want to light 
the candle often, at mealtime or prayer time. 
Since participation in worship is so important, 
let the children as well as older ones take turns 
lighting the candle. You can make a little cere- 
mony of this task, using a simple hymn (see be- 
low) or some other musical number. Be sure to 
include on each occasion the key verse from John 
8:12. It could be a call to worship or a reminder 
of the theme. What is more, after repeated use 
everyone will have it memorized. 

During the second week, when the theme of 
the Bible readings relates more to our mission 
as bearers of the light, you may want to use ad- 
ditional candles. Choose one for each member 
of the family. Let them be of varying sizes, so 
that the tallest one, which would naturally burn 
the longest time, can represent the life of the 

youngest child, the shortest for the oldest member 
of the family. You can point out that the flames 
burn equally bright but they have varying lengths 
of time in which to spread their light. 

Do you recall a candlelight service in which 
every one of a hundred candles was lighted from 
one central candle, representing the light of 
Christ? Remember how the total light increased 
as each small candle was lighted? You can share 
this experience with the younger ones in your 
home by taking just a few minutes, perhaps 
around the table, planning a simple ceremony 
using your candles of varying sizes. Observe how 
the contribution, the "light," of every person in 
the home, makes the whole room brighter. 

This may be an appropriate time to think 
together about the importance of light. In what 
way was Jesus really the light of the world? How 
does the Bible give light? How does the church 
throw light on the problems we confront? How 
do individual Christians let their light shine, be- 
fore men? 


"It is better to light just one little candle than 

to stumble in the dark. 
Better far that you light just one little candle, 

All you need's a tiny spark. 
If we'd all say a pray'r that the world would be 

The wonderful dawn of a new day we'd see, 
And if ev'ryone lit just one little candle. 
What a bright world this would be."' 

"I said to the man who stood at the gate of the 
year, 'Give me light that I may safely tread into 
the unknown,' and he replied, 'Go out into the 
darkness and put your hand into the hand of 
God. That shall be to you better than light and 
safer than any known way.' "' 

"The Light of the World Is Jesus," No. 473, 

The Brethren Hymnal 

"Christian, Let Your Burning Light," No. 435 
"Fairest Lord Jesus" (stanza 3), No. 100 
"O Little Town of Bethlehem (stanza 1), No. 


"This Little Light of Mine" (children's song) 

' George Mysels and J. Maloy Roach. From the song, One 
Little Candle, Copyright 1961, 1962, Shawnee Press, Inc., 
Delaware Water Gap, Pennsylvania 
^ From The Gate of the Year, by Louise Haskins 

24 MESSENGER 1-7-65 


The question 

of Schv\reitzer: 
a hero in perspective 

Verdict on Schweitzer, The Man Behind the Leg- 
end at Lambarene, Gerald McKnight. The John Day 
Company, 1964. 254 pp., $4.95 

Albert Schweitzer's Gift of Friendship, Erica 
Anderson. Harper & Row, 1964. 152 pp., $4.95 

Here are two of a growing number of books 
engaged in the attempt to understand our 
century's foremost moral and spiritual hero, 
the man who is already a legend while still 
alive. These two represent, moreover, widely 
divergent viewpoints, ranging from the very 
critical to near hero worship. 

Gerald McKnight, British newspaper report- 
er and editor, now a free-lance writer, has here 
produced his first full-length study of a famous 
personage. The result is a well-written, pro- 
vocative, indeed audacious judgment of this 
hero of countless millions, based on extensive 
knowledge of the literature about and by 
Schweitzer and some personal contact with 
him and his mission station. His approach is 
that of a judge attempting to render a verdict 
between those who rate Schweitzer as sacri- 
ficial saint par excellence and others who see 
him as self-centered, domineering, and 

McKnight proceeds to test the man against 
the tremendous legend that surrounds him, 
with respect to his motives, the institution he 
has built up, the women he attracts, the men he 
repels, the gathering about him of eccentrics 
and unsung heroes, the tragedy of his wife and 
daughter, his dubious or mixed accomplish- 
ments in the fields of music, theology, philos- 
ophy, and medicine, and his failure to provide 

a successor. At every point the man falls far 
behind the legend, until, in the final verdict, 
as the questions raised throughout are posed 
in cumulative fashion against the evidence 
submitted, the reader is left either on the bitter 
edge of confusion and indecision or inclined 
to follow the author in his impression of 
Schweitzer as an egocentric do-gooder 
masking as a saint. 

Although both books want to get at "the 
man behind the legend" they differ radically 
in both style and judgment. Miss Anderson's 
book is chatty, detailed, and warm. Her picture 
of le Grand Docteur is that of a figure of 
towering greatness who progressively thaws 
out and becomes a warm and devoted friend, 
demonstrating his true stature in the little 
things of everyday life. 

Both books agree in presenting Albert 
Schweitzer as a tireless, dominant worker, 
old-fashioned and slow to change, the center 
of every situation as he is of the institution 
he has built. In these obvious character traits, 
however, Miss Anderson sees either marks of 
greatness or, at worst, minor irritations which 
but thinly veil the greatness. For Mr. McKnight 
these are but pointers toward more serious 
defects: an ego-driven man, perpetuating in 
his mission antiquated ways of life and medical 
care among a people he does not really love, 
incapable of giving himself deeply in friend- 
ship, and neglecting his family, but substituting 
for them the adulation of devotees, mostly 
women, vainly holding in balance, as he does, 
a reverence for minute forms of life and a 
philosophy of doom for all mankind. 

by Chalmer E. Faw 

1-7-65 MESSENGER 25 

The contribution of the An- 
derson book is the portrait of 
a friend which shines through 
interesting anecdotes, warm 
contacts, and witty observa- 
tions, a "Schweitzerana" en- 
livened by several pages of 
excellent photographs. Mc- 
Knight has subjected great- 
ness to careful scrutiny, call- 
ing to order our penchant for 
hero worship, and, with the 
scalpel of criticism, carving 
out the man from the legend, 
thus making his contribution 
to honest inquiry and research. 

Bbth books, however, have 
patent weaknesses. Both are 
written as from outside Africa 
by people coming in for short 
stays about a man who has 
made Africa the major part of 
a long life. For both authors, 
the Africans are still "natives" 
and the jungle a big, black 
mass of fear and not the home 
of real people. For both, 
indigenous African life is 
largely squalor, repulsive to 
sight and smell. Neither 
writer has yet penetrated the 
barrier of superficial impres- 
sion and come to understand 
the Africa of those who make 
it their home. 

Miss Anderson limits her- 
self to her own experiences 
with Schweitzer and in so 
doing relegates to the margins 
much of importance in the 
man's life and work. Mr. Mc- 
Knight, with much more com- 
plete coverage of the various 
aspects of the doctor's career, 
seems admirably equipped for 
an expose but hardly capable 
of a seasoned "verdict," as he 
chooses to style his search. 
There is an ill-concealed 
sneer which plays hide-and- 

seek with what seems at other 
times to be sympathetic under- 
standing. For example, he has 
no patience with Schweitzer's 
opposition to nuclear-testing 
and sees nothing but morbidity 
in his warnings and predic- 
tions of a nuclear holocaust 
which hovers over the world. 
He ridicules the doctor's 
reverence for life, showing 
only its extremes and its in- 
congruity with the medical 
profession. He is particularly 
naive in his dealing with 
Schweitzer's attitude toward 
himself, failing to understand 
that few famous men look as 
good under critical scrutiny as 
their legends sound and that 
particularly is the pioneer and 
worker-in-many-fields vulner- 
able at this point. He un- 
warrantedly concludes that 
Schweitzer regards himself as 
"a latter-day Jesus, showing 
the world by his example the 
way to eventual salvation" 
(p. 241). One wonders wheth- 
er this newsman, despite his 
skill in observing and collect- 
ing, has either the theological 
understanding or the spiritual 
sensitivity to render definitive 
judgment on the versatile 
doctor of Lambarene. In 
short, Mr. McKnight has pro- 
vided the reader not with a 
verdict on Schweitzer but 
some valuable negative con- 
siderations for viewing a hero 
in perspective. 

Peace Shall Destroy Many, 
Rudy Wiebe. Eerdmans, 1962. 
239 pages, $1.95 
THE AUTHOR comes out of 
an ethnic Mennonite commu- 
nity. Consequently, he is able 
to depict vividly and authen- 
tically the beliefs and life of a 

fictitious Canadian community, 
which he calls Wapiti. 

This novel has been banned 
in some Mennonite circles 
because it exposes the prej- 
udice and bigotry which can 
lurk beneath the surface of a 
people dedicated to the ways 
of peace. One of the main 
characters. Deacon Block, 
rules with an iron hand. He 
represents an idolatry of com- 
munity which undermines the 
mission and compassion of 
the church in order to keep 
clean and separate the com- 
munity for his son. Two 
schoolteachers represent the 
complications of cultural pene- 
tration from the outside. Other 
characters represent those 
who have rebelled in unac- 
ceptable behavior, the chief 
form being that of becoming 
a part of the armed forces of 
Canada during the second 
world war. 

The chief character is a 
sensitive teen-ager who strug- 
gles between obedience to the 
way of the fathers and his own 
belligerent urges. He likewise 
gets in trouble with the deacon 
because of his special Bible 
classes for the children of the 
"breeds," the unfortunate In- 
dian neighbors of the Men- 
nonites. His struggles lead 
him to the vision that there 
must be a way between the 
paths of "conscienceless vio- 
lence" espoused by rebellious 
Mennonite youth upon return 
from war duty and one man's 
misguided interpretation of 
tradition as espoused by Dea- 
con Block. 

The novel is relevant for all 
pacifists and those interested 
in religious communities. It 

26 MESSENGER 1-7-65 

is written in moving style, and 
Wiebe's ability to convey 
sensory and emotional experi- 
ence in unusual and fresh 
ways gives evidence of a gen- 
uine literary artistry. Dale W. 
Brown, Oak Brook, Illinois 

What in the World, Colin W. 
Williams. National Council of 
Churches, 1964. 105 pages, 

THIS is a study book, a follow- 
up to Where in the World, by 
the same author. He states his 
purpose as being "to help 
church groups." There is 
much evidence, he insists, of 
what he calls a "new mood" 
emerging at many places and 
at many levels in the life of 
the church. He senses a real 
"uneasiness" in the "institu- 
tional," or as he uses another 
term, the "residential" church. 
He proposes that the church 
must be released from its self- 
concern and find its life by 
becoming the servant body of 
Christ in the world. He sug- 
gests need for "a willingness 
to move out from the security 
of past forms to the shapes of 
contemporary need." 

This is no new theme. Much 
is being said and written today 
about the church "turning to 
the world." The Brethren are 
working with the idea. But 
this little book is dynamic and 
penetrating. It is designed for 
study, not casual reading. It 
is not really for the timid, 
those who are too fearful of 
being disturbed by new ideas. 

All Brethren should study 
this little book. Colin Williams 
will be one of the speakers at 
Annual Conference in 1965. 
G. A. Zook, McPherson, Kan- 

eir future 

The six colleges and seminary of the Church of the Brethren are 
engaged in helping young people to discover the resources of truth 
for meeting the issues of life. Each year these institutions graduate 
hundreds of Christian men and women who go throughout the 
world serving humanity. These colleges and the seminary merit 
the support of all Brethren. Your help in developing the capacities 
of worthy young people is essential to their lives and to the church 
of tomorrow. In addition to outright giving, contributors are using 
the following means: bequests in their wills, life income gifts, 
Annuity Plan gifts, Gifts of real estate with life use reserved, and 
life insurance gifts. You may designate your gift as a memorial to 
a loved one. The corporate name of each of our six colleges and 
the seminary are given below. An inquiry addressed to the institu- 
tion of your choice will be appreciated. You incur no obhgation 
in writing. All correspondence will be held in strict confidence. 

corporation, Bridgewater, Va., 
Dr. Wayne B. Geisert, President 

corporation, Elizabethtown, Pa., 
Dr. Roy E. McAuley, President 

JUNIATA COLLEGE, a corpora- 
tion, Huntingdon, Pa., Dr. Cal- 
vert N. Ellis, President 

LA VERNE COLLEGE, a corpor- 
ation, La Verne, Calif., Dr. Har- 
old D. Fasnacht, President 

coiporation. North Manchester, 
Ind., Dr. A. Blair Helman, Presi- 

Mcpherson college, a cor- 
poration, McPherson, Kansas, Dr. 
Desmond W. Bittinger, President 

SEMINARY, a corporation, But- 
terfield and Meyers Roads, Oak 
Brook, III., Dr. Paid Robinson, 

Invest in lives dedicated to serve 


Life Without Principle 

as seen in The Americanization of Emily 

TO BE alive — to live life without sacrificing 
yourself for any principle is the basic theme 
of The Americanization of Emily. This theme is 
consistently held right up to the end. And 
thus this reviewer is caught between heaping 
damnation or praise upon it. Reason? At one 
level Emily is the most consistently immoral 
film I have ever seen, if moral action is defined 
in terms of speaking the truth in love along 
with a concern and sense of responsibility for 
others. Yet, on another level, Emily, because 
of its point of view, takes some of the most 
potent satiric thrusts at the inanity of our 
attitudes toward war that I have seen on the 
screen this side of Dr. Strangelove. 

To begin with the positive aspect: Emily 
does not just say that war is evil, in fact, in 
one of its finer satiric moments it says just the 
opposite: that war places cowards into situa- 
tions that force them to be brave. On the 
contrary, it is our making war into a virtue that 
is deplorable. Monuments to dead soldiers, 
women making dead husbands and sons into 
heroes, glorification of one branch of the 
service are all expertly satirized and made into 
foils for the hero's (?) projection of himself as 
a professional coward. 

This main character (we might almost call 
him an antihero), Charlie Madison (James 
Garner), is a "dog robber," that is, a naval 
commander assigned to an admiral to make 
sure he has all creature comforts during World 
War II. Stationed in England, he falls in love 
with Emily (Julie Andrews), who is attracted to 
him because he is a coward, selfish, and ruth- 
less. Charlie's admiral (Melvyn Douglas) is 
becoming increasingly demented after the 
death of his wife, and he concocts the idea of 
having a navy man be the first dead man on D- 
Day in order to point up the importance of the 
navy. Charlie is sent to photograph the event. 

The irony is compounded in that Charlie's 
"bravery" is not even because of love of 
country but simply to satisfy an admiral's self- 
aggrandizement. And so Charlie becomes "the 
first dead man on Omaha Beach." 

But now come the knifelike twist. Charlie 
becomes a national hero and then turns up 
alive. The admiral has recovered and is 
happier to have a live hero; so he plans a 
hero's reception. Charlie wants no part of this 
and is willing to tell the truth about his "brav- 
ery" — that he was trying to run away. But here 
Emily intervenes, admonishing Charlie that he 
is going to give up everything he believes in 
and probably land in the brig because of a 
principle. She says, "Is this the Charlie 
Madison who told me, 'I let God take care of 
the truth; all I care about is me right at this 
moment'?" This is Emily's "Americanization": 
helping Charlie to see that the cowardice he 
preaches as a virtue must be maintained all 
the way down the line. The irony here is that, 
as an American, Charlie's complete adherence 
to cowardice is his only redeeming feature. 

This is not just an antiwar film, but also an 
antibravery, antiprinciple, and antiglorification 
of virtue film, but over against all these it is 
strongly pro-life. All of these features are 
indicated in one early scene when Charlie 
meets Emily's mother (Joyce Grenfel), who 
pretends her husband is still alive, even 
though she knows he was killed. Charlie's 
remarks that it is this kind of glorification of 
heroes which perpetuates war rather than the 
actions of statesmen and generals cause her 
to face the truth. This scene, although "talky," 
is the most important in terms of the ideas it 
conveys; for example, "In this war we are 
killing tens of thousands of humans in order to 
save humanity; in the next one we are going 
to kill off the entire human race in order to 

28 MESSENGER 1-7-65 


preserve its dignity." 

Emily is a well-made, well-acted, amazing, 
and provocative film. If you decide to see it, 
remember that there are at least two levels to 
it and that the medium for the whole is a biting 
satire. When it is concerned with our own 
attitudes toward the glorification of war's 
virtue, it gives us ample food for thought. 
When it is concerned with the relationship 
between life and principle, we need to raise 
at least the question: Are there not some 
principles which we are justified in fighting 
or even dying for? 

Editor's Note. Film reviews are a ne\v feature in 
Messenger. They will appear about once a month. 
The purpose of reviewing cunent films is not to rec- 
ommend or promote specific films for viewing or to 
offer a rating service covering many films. We hop6 
rather, by examining a few pictures critically, to help 
readers develop their own criteria for evaluating 
pictures and to become more aware of the way current 
films treat basic theological and moral issues. Even 
the reader who never goes to see a commercial film 
must be aware of what is being shown in his neighbor- 
hood. Since this year's movie quickly becomes next 
year's TV show, no one can afford to be indifferent to 
the quality or the content of current films. 

Our reviewer is Dave Pomeroy, minister of the 
People's church of Long Beach, Long Island, New- 
York. His reviews appear in the International Journal 
of Religious Education and in other magazines. 


ESTHER MOHLER HO, former BVSer and secretary 
in the Brethren Service office in Elgin, now lives 
in Chicago w/here her husband Winston, a Bethany 
Seminary graduate, is a Presbyterian minister. 
ERNEST A. SEE is a retired circuit court judge, now 
living in Keyser, West Virginia. ROBERT W. WISE 
and JOSEPH W. KENNEDY, both native lowans, are 
attorneys in Kansas, Wise in McPherson, and 
Kennedy in Wichita. WILMER and JEANNETTE TOLIE 
are active in church and community family life 
education. He is county welfare director in South 
Bend, Indiana. EARL and VIVIAN ZIEGLER, also 
active in family life education, live at Brodbecks, 
Pennsylvania, where he is pastor of the Black Rock 
church. DALE OTT is director of Brethren Service 
work in Germany, with headquarters in Berlin. 
KERMON THOMASON is a short-term missionary 
teaching at the Waka schools in Nigeria. CHALMER 
E. FAW, presently a professor at Bethany Theological 
Seminary, will be leaving for missionary service in 
Nigeria in June. EDITH LOVEJOY PIERCE, who lives 
in Evanston, Illinois, is the author of thre^ books 
of poetry and contributes regularly to many religious 
journals. ERNESTINE EMRICK is the wife of the 
pastor of the Ashland City church, Ohio. 

With this issue — the MESSENGER takes on a new look and new features. 

We made changes in prices too. Now the EVERY HOME PLAN is more attractive 
than ever. For only $2.50 per subscription per year, (formerly $2.75) every home 
in your congregation can receive the MESSENGER. 

Help every member to know more about the program and activities of the church. 

See your minister or MESSENGER representative for further details on how your 

congregation can be a part of the EVERY HOME PLAN — if they are not now — or 




by Carol and John Conner 


2. Small brown songbird with a 

short tail 
4. Fear and wonder 
6. Reddish-breasted bird 
9. Bright red bird with a crest 

on his head 
11. Large container for baths 

13. Hawk with long, pointed wings 

14. Birds can far, which 

helps them find food 




White water bird with long, 

^a 'SI 

curving neck 

aoi or 

gas fj 


Moving air 
"Work for 

anig -g 

8W3 ei 


A meadow has a 

si^O 'l 

qnx IT 

yellow breast and a sweet song 

>IIB1 "S 




lUBa £ 

uiqo^i -g 


A bird named after its color 


a^v 'f 


Frozen water 


uaJM. -Z 


Take place 



WTbxy is a snowflake? 

Hold out your hand and let a snowflake fall on your mitten. 

Look quickly before it melts! No wonder it sparkles in the sunlight. 

Each flake is a cluster of jewels. They look alike and 

yet each one is different. Many of them make you think of a 

six-pointed star. If God made the sun and the stars, surely he also 

made each snowflake. He took some mist from the high 

clouds, dropped the temperature below freezing and sent a 

million such flakes spinning and twirling on their way to you. 

Look at this one — and this one — and that one. 

And thank God for the snow. 

30 MESSENGER 1-7-65 


One of the busiest senior citizens of McFar- 
land, Calif., is Mrs. Emily Waller who collects 
thousands of stamps and sells them to 
collectors in order to purchase milk for chil- 
dren in orphanages and hospitals. ... A 
graduate of Juniata College, Dr. Thomas D. 
Garner has been named to head the book 
and magazine publishing and literature di- 
vision of the United Church of Christ. . . . 
R. Lowell Wine, an alumnus of Bridgewater, 
has just published a book entitled "Statistics 
for Scientists and Engineers." . . . Twenty 
years of pastoral service in the Parkerford 
congregation, Pa., on the part of Reverend 
and Mrs. Alvin Alderfer was recognized at 
an open house at the church. The pastor is 
also chaplain of the Pennsylvania Association 
for Safety Education. , . . Two men who 
played significant roles in the development 
of La Verne College were honored at the 
college's seventy-third anniversary dinner. 
They were J. Ross Hanawalt of La Verne and 
George A. ScoM of San Diego. . . . Receiving 
congratulations for recent golden wedding 
anniversaries are Mr. and Mrs. Robert Whitmer 
of Covington, Ohio; Reverend and Mrs. Earl 
DeardorfF of Panora, Iowa; Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry C. Fike, of Morgantown, W. Va.; Rev- 
erehd and Mrs. Oscar Stern, of Franklin Grove, 
III.; and Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd Group, also of 
Franklin Grove. 

Dr. Calvert N. Ellis, president of Juniata 
College, has been elected president of the 
Middle States Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools. It is one of six such 
regional groups in the United States. Among 
its functions is the general accrediting of 
institutions of higher education. . . . The new 
president of the Church Pensions Conference 
is Harl L. Russell, executive secretary of the 
Church of the Brethren Pension Board. . . . 
David and Laura Jean Rittenhouse have re- 
signed from missionary service and will con- 
tinue to serve the Pocohontas congregation 
in the Durbin, W. Va., area. ... P. Stein 
Hockman of Romney, W. Va., indicates that 
he is available for holding some evangelistic 
services in 1965. ... On the occasion of 
the twentieth anniversary of the Heifer Proj- 
ect, Dan West, founder of the project and 
its present honorary chairman, was the recipi- 
ent of an award. 


Baker, Ella F., Gainesville, Fla., on Nov. 10, 

1964, aged 82 
Barton, Cora Counts, Mountain Grove, Mo., 

on Nov. 15, 1964, aged 60 
Crickenberger, Peter M., Vienna, Va., on Nov. 

5, 1964, aged 83 
Davisson, Anna M., Warrensburg, Mo., on 

Oct. 28, 1964, aged 80 
Dean, Beulah, Harrisonburg, Va., on Sept. 4, 

1964, aged 65 
Dean, Samuel W., Harrisonburg, Va., June 11, 

Drudge, Harley M., Ft. Wayne, Ind., on Nov. 

13, 1964, aged 54 
Graves, Wanetta Grace, Covington, Ohio, on 

Oct. 4, 1964, aged 36 

Hershberger, Maude, Bedford, Pa., on Nov. 

3, 1964 
Huber, George F., Degraff, Ohio, on Oct. 20, 

1964, aged 77 
Klinger, Alice T., Dayton, Ohio, on Nov. 10, 

Killinger, Emma, Scalp Level, Pa., on Oct. 28, 

Myers, Anna Agnes, near Huntingdon, Pa., 

on Aug. 15, 1964, aged 89 
Oxiey, Charles F., Lamar, Colo., on Oct. 31, 

1964, aged 74 
Peck, Cornelia M., Waterloo, Iowa, on Nov. 

7, 1964, aged 79 
Rudy, John Eldon, Covington, Ohio, on Nov. 

12, 1964, aged 29 
Shirk, Diane, Waterloo, Iowa, on Sept. 23, 

1964, aged 5 
Smith, Ora V., Waterloo, Iowa, on Sept. 18, 

1964, aged 77 
Spaid, Bertha, Pleasant Dale, W. Va., on Nov. 

3, 1964, aged 81 
Turner, Sally, Harrisonburg, Va., on Aug. 30, 

1964, aged 79 
Wallace, Verne W., Greenfield, Iowa, on Nov. 

1, 1964, aged 52 
Whitehead, A. Neal, Charlotte, Mich,, on Nov. 

1, 1964, aged 77 
Widdowson, William C, Pittsburgh, Pa., on 

Oct. 3, 1964, aged 65 
Young, AAelvin R., Lansing, Mich., on Nov. 

14, 1964, aged 59 


The Pes Moines Valley church, Iowa, has 
purchased a fifteen-acre tract of land in the 
town of Ankeny, looking toward relocation. 
... A master building plan, anticipating 
needs for church school classrooms, a chapel, 
and a parking space, has been instituted by 
the La Verne church, Calif. The church council 
voted to increase its Brotherhood Fund giving 
by five percent annually. . . . Appointing a 
building committee to plan for a new sanctu- 
ary was the step taken recently by tlje 
Oak Grove church, Va. . . . Liberty Mills 
church in Indiana, having redecorated its 
sanctuary, now is considering its need for 
a parish hall. . . . Careful planning over a 
four-year period plus a huge amount of 

donated labor resulted in converting an older 
building into a new sanctuary for the New 
Haven church, Mich., dedicated Nov. 1. . . . 
A new educational building is in prospect 
for the Grossnickle church *in the Middletown 
Valley area of Maryland. The new building, 
expected to be ready for use in early spring, 
will contain classrooms, an office, and 


La Verne College will be host 
to the next Brethren Student 
Conference, scheduled for the 
Christmas holidays at the end 
of 1965. Dick Vaniman, a La 
Verne student, will serve as 
chairman for the BSCM during 
the year. He succeeds Mary 
Coffman of Bridgewater, who 
presided during the conference 
sessions held in November at 
Juniata. Students from all six 
Brethren-related colleges, Beth- 
any Seminary, Ohio State, and 
Purdue attended. . . . Sunday, 
Feb. 14, is the date announced 
as a homecoming and anni- 
versary for the Arcadia church, 
Fla. ... Dr. George Buttrick 
will be the principal leader at 
an Interdistrict Retreat for the 
men of the five districts of 
Pennsylvania. It is scheduled 
for the Holiday motel just west 
of Harrisburg, Pa., March 20- 
21. Wilbur Weaver of Eliza 
bethtown College is chairman 
of the planning committee. 


Jan. 3-10 

Jan. 17-23 

Jan. 18-25 

Jan. 20-22 

Jan. 31 — Feb. 5 

Jan. 31 -Feb. 7 

Feb. 7 

Feb. 14 

Feb. 21-28 

Feb. 28 

Feb. 28 - March 5 

March 5 

Universal Week of Prayer 

Church and Economic Life Week 

Week of Prayer for Christian Unity 

Brethren Homes and Hospital Conference, Chicago, III. 

Brethren Youth Seminar, Washington, D.C., and New York City 

National Youth Week 

Boy Scout Sunday 

Race Relations Sunday 

Brotherhood Week 

Brotherhood Interpretation Sunday 

Brethren Adult Seminar 

World Day of Prayer 

1-7-65 MESSENGER 31 


Message and Messenger 

Twenty-five hundred years ago there was no 
way you could get the news about an important 
event — even an event that would determine your 
own destiny — except by way of a personal 
messenger. It was important for Athenians in the 
year 490 B.C. to know that their forces, fighting 
at Marathon twenty miles away, had won a 
decisive victory over the invading Persians. But 
a long-distance runner had to exhaust all his 
strength to bring them the news that they need 
not surrender to the Persians even if their ships 
appeared in the harbor. Pheidippides was able 
to make it to the city, to cry out, "Rejoice, we 
conquer," before he fell dead. 

The pages of history give honor to many such 
messengers, whether like Paul Revere they 
mounted their horses to sound an alarm or 
whether they arrived breathless but happy to 
declare that a victory had been won. 

Our Christian cause needs messengers who 
will also spend their energies in announcing to 
discouraged hearts that Jesus Christ has already 
overcome the darkness that threatens the world. 
The apostle Paul was firm in his belief that 
Christians need not face defeat but could become 
"more than conquerors" through the grace and 
the power of God. Therefore, in his speaking and 
in his writing he became also a messenger of 
good news. His letters to early churches, which 
initiated the New Testament and laid the founda- 
tions for Christian literature, constantly echoed 
the message of reconciliation with which he as a 
messenger of Jesus Christ was entrusted. 

If we seem to overemphasize the role of a 
messenger it is for not only an obvious but also 
a very good reason. In this newly redesigned 
magazine we have given prominence to a title 

that we believe \vill continue to challenge us — 
to be a "messenger." It suggests to us that we 
are not called primarily to be entertaining, to be 
comforting, to be intellectually stimulating, but 
to be as faithful as we can in conveying the 
message that is basic to our faith and central in 
the life of our church. As a messenger we may 
not always bring pleasant news. The words we 
speak may have overtones of impending judg- 
ment as well as the offer of grace. But essentially 
our message is the good news that God is with 
us, that he continues to work among us, and that 
wherever men respond to his Spirit, his trans- 
forming power will renew their hearts and heal 
their broken relationships. 

A number of new or redesigned features in 
this paper have been planned quite deliberately 
to help modern readers hear this particular 
message. Guidance in family worship will be 
a means towards that end. The example and the 
testimony of other Christians, reflected in feature 
articles and personal statements, should be an 
incentive for greater faithfulness. We are con- 
fident also that we will be able to report good 
news about local churches as they discover 
sources of spiritual renewal and find a significant 
mission to the communities they serve. 

As a messenger that can be useful to Christ 
and his kingdom we hope that we can be alert 
to hear all that God is speaking to the world 
through Christ and the church. We believe also 
that Cod makes himself known in his world and 
may thereby speak to his church. We hope to be 
good listeners to the eternal message, by what- 
ever sources it comes, in order that we may in 
turn be a faitliful messenger. — k.m. 

32 MESSENGER 1-7-65 





Werner Picht. $6.50 

Mr. Picht's powerful study, which is a birthday anniversary 

volume, reveals Albert Schweitzer as an extraordinary -and 

uniquely self-sufficient human being. The book, however, is not 

a "hymn of praise," but rather a searching, critical, and deeply 

appreciative interpretation of Dr. Schweitzer's achievement and 



Erica Anderson. $4.95 

This is a heartwarming story of an extended friendship with 
Schweitzer and his staff as told in the first person by Erica Ander- 
son, noted photographer. 


Norman Cousins. $3.95 


Albert Schweitzer. $4.00 cloth, 60^ paper 


Charles R. Joy, editor. $5.95 


Albert Schweitzer. $1.50 


Gerald McKnight. $4.95 

The author, a responsible British journalist, presents a critical study 
of Albert Schweitzer and his work. Here is the first book to 
attempt a balanced judgment of the jungle doctor and the aura 
that surrounds him. 





Tom Wilson: gentle rebel, a closeup look at the busy pastor of a 
city church, explaining how a Negro born in New Orleans happens to be 
serving a Brethren church in Chicago, by Esther Ho. page 1 

The phone call from the police could be tor parents who just 

never thought their teen-agers would ever be in trouble with the law. 
by Wilmer and Jeannette Toile. page 10 

Bible reading and prayer In our public schools, was 

the Supreme Court right in declaring such devotional exercises uncon- 
stitutional? A former judge says the Court was wrong. Two Kansas at- 
torneys defend the Court decision, page 6 

HO}Af big will our colleges get? a news reporter sounds out 
Church of the Brethren related institutions to learn how they plan to meet 
the exploding student population, page 17 

Schweitzer: hero In perspective becomes a subject for de- 
bate in two recent books reviewed by Chalmer E. Faw. page 25 

NEW DEPARTMENTS introduced in this issue include Day by Day, a 
devotional guide for the family; Faith Looks Up, for sharing inspiration; 
Questions You Ask, answered by the president of Bethany Theological 
Seminary; a review of a current film; and a page especially for children. 


Many couples could save their marriage from going on the rocks by con- 
sulting a marriage counselor, observes Harold Bomberger in a feature 
addressed to all homemakers. . . . How a Virginia teacher helped to found 
a national organization (F.F.A.) and himself guided hundreds of young 
farmers, is told by Fred Swartz. . . . The current debate over the best way 
to finance medical care for the aging is viewed from two different stand- 
points by two Brethren physicians, Dr. Wayne Zook and Dr. Franklin Cassel. 
. . . The situation in many churches is described as "mutiny in the nave" 
by Inez Long. . . . Lee Whipple, Brotherhood director of social welfare, 
examines recent books about the "freedom revolution." ... A special 
news report surveys the extent of the churches' lobby in Washington. 

VOL. 114 NO 


Medical care for the 
aging: t)A/o vievt/s 







I enjoyed your editorial about 
"making a joyful noise unto the 
Lord" and was immediately re- 
minded of a church I visited. 

A few Sundays ago I was invited 
to speak to a missionary society in 
an African Methodist Episcopal 
church. The church was filled with 
men, women, and children, and 
some of each took part in the pro- 
gram. The very first song by the 
congregation rather startled me be- 
cause, although they started sing- 
ing like any congregation, by the 
time they came to the fourth verse 
the singing was very different. 
Every face was lifted and shining, 
the singing was earnest and sincere, 
and, when it was finished, there 
were fervent Aniens and "Please, 
Lords." It was the same all through 
the afternoon. A little boy recited 
the scripture. How pleased they 
all were. They listened to every 
word and praised God, and I felt 
that that scripture would be re- 
membered. It was the same all the 
way through the service. When the 
choir sang they were really making 
a joyful noise — they sang very 
prayerfully. I shall never forget it. 

Harriet Dolby 
Elgin, III. 


Are we sure we are safe in en- 
dorsing conflict and involvement 
without great care and caution that 
the Christian principles of non- 
violence and nonretaliation have 
been deeply instilled and that our 
spirits have been tempered with 
love for the souls of all men? We 
must not want to harm or hurt any 
one. I do not mean we should 
quench the spirit or stifle worthy 
humanitarian activity. But I am 
saying that Christ showed us that, 

first, we must become that new 
creation, that new person in him. 
Then what happens is acceptable 
to both God and man. Then we are 
safe to act at one with God and in 
his will, because the proper pre- 
caution has been taken. 

F. Blake Million 
Ashland, Ohio 


I am concerned about the short- 
age of medically trained people in 
our church. Recently, I noticed an 
urgent appeal for nurses and doc- 
tors to staff our mission fields and 
Brethren Service projects. With 
our emphasis on service and con- 
cern for our brethren, it seems we 
have failed to challenge our youth 
to respond to this need. A recent 
report of graduates from one of our 
church colleges shows only 12 peo- 
ple out of 187 reporting who were 
entering any kind of medical work. 
How can we continue our work 
with this small percentage? 

I worked with the late Paul Carl- 
son, slain missionary doctor, and 
his wife in the early days of their 
medical training. They were typ- 
ical of many young people in the 
Evangelical Covenant Church who 
studied medicine or nursing. A 
large percentage entered the mis- 
sion field. I feel there is lack of 
encouragement in our own church 
for our youth to prepare themselves 
to help relieve suffering over the 

Who will staff our hospitals in 
Nigeria or help the many thousands 
in the Congo and other places in 
the world for whom 20th century 
medical knowledge is only a dream? 

Sara G. Wilson 
Hartville, Ohio 


As I study the letters which are 
sent to your column I am occasion- 
ally shocked by the opinions ex- 

I would like to recommend some 
very sound "reading material" in 
the Nov. 28 issue as follows: (1) 
the article by Rose Post, page 9; 
(2) the article by Merle Grouse, 
page 19; (3) the article by Fred 
Myers, page 20; (4) the article by 
Thelma Heatwole, page 24; (5) 
news and comment, pages 25 and 
26. There is, I fear, a need for 
more reading and logical thinking. 

Joshua H. Armacost, M.D. 
Mount Wilson, Maryland 


With reference to your editorial 
(Oct. 3 ) , I would like to say that 
I have always been for separation 
of church and state (government). 
I firmly believe the supposed 
mouthpiece of our religious beliefs 
should not express views on poli- 
tics, unless state (government) tries 
to interfere with freedom of reli- 
gious worship. To date, I don't 
believe this has happened. There- 
fore, I think for a religious publi- 
cation to deliberately try to tell 
our members how they should vote 
is overstepping its prerogative as 
a mouthpiece of a religious pub- 

I have stated mouthpiece be- 
cause I don't believe the editorials 
of Messeng,er are the views and 
beliefs of the majority of the mem- 
bers of our church. There seems 
to be a group of younger, more 
liberal (almost socialist) members 
of our church who have taken it 
upon themselves to promote many 
of these ideas. I just wonder how 
many of them have been influenced 
by the editorials that have been 
promoted by your publication. . . . 
I sincerely hope that our church 
publication will confine itself to 
religious issues and those proposed 
by the New Testament. 

Wallace B. Garst 
Roanoke, Va. 

MESSENGER, Vol 114, No 2 Jan 21, 1965, publication 
of the Church of the Brethren continuing "The Gospel 

Editor: Kenneth I. Morse 
Managing Editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh 
Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Weigle 
Director of News Service: Howard E. Royer 

MESSENGER, official publication of the Church of the Brethren, is 
owned and published every other week by the General Brotherhood 
Board — Church of the Brethren, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120, 
Norman J. Baugher, general secretary. Editor, Kenneth I. Morse; 
managing editor, Wilbur E. Brumbaugh; editorial assistant, Elizabeth 
Weigle. Filing date, Oct. 1, 1963. Entered as second-class matter Aug. 
20, 1918, under Act of Congress of Oct. 17, 1917. Second-class postage 
paid at Elgin, III. 

MESSENGER is copyright 1965 by the General Brotherhood Board, 
Church of the Brethren. 


Some helpful advice on 



JOHN AND ALICE had a lovely church wedding. But three 
years later they began to realize that something was wrong with 
their marriage. 

There were too many problems and misunderstandings, too 
many harsh words that hurt. They began to carry their quarrels 
and hurts to bed with them. Eventually they slept in different 
rooms. To avoid saying things that would cause a scene — and 
most hurt — John kept quiet. He no longer shared his experiences 
with Alice, and her nagging increased. Communication broke 
down completely. 

Alice was the one who suggested they seek help from their 
pastor or a professional counselor. There were times when John 

MESSENGER is a member of the Associated Churcin Press and CONTRIBUTORS include: HAROLD BOMBERGER, pastor, McPherson, 

subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press Kansas; FRED SWARTZ, pastor, Summerdean church, Roanoke, Va.; 

Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are RONALD MORGAN, pastor, Hutchinson, Kansas; H. H. HELMAN, for 

from the Revised Standard Version. many years an active pastor, now retired in New Carlisle, Ohio; INEZ 

.... ^„ ,„ , ^„ LONG, wife of the pastor of the Lancaster, Pa. church; ANDREW 

Subscription rates: $3.75 per year for individual subscriptions; $3.00 ,.«,„,.„„_n,» ■ • • , j. .rr- ...u.nn.e j- _. r ■ i 

,,, ,»,.„ i ,, HOLDERREED, missionary in India; LEE WHIPPLE, director of social 

per year tor church group plan; $2,50 per year for every home plan; ,, „ , - . _ _ , , . . >. 

.., , . ^. »,„ . i_ . J -I »-,E welfare. Brethren Service Commission; two Brethren physicians: DR. 

life subscription, $60; husband and wife, $75. , 

FRANKLIN CASSELL of Lititz, Pa., and DR. WAYNE ZOOK of Wenatchee, 

If you move, clip old address from MESSENGER and send with new Wash. PHOTO CREDITS; Cover, 2, 3 Ed Wallowitch; 11 A. Devaney; 

address. Allow at least fifteen days for address change. 16 Religious News Service 

thought this might be the thing to do. However, 
when one was wilhng to get help, the other was 
reluctant, and both felt that in due time, perhaps 
"tomorrow," they could begin to handle their 
problems themselves. 


When should you seek a marriage counselor? 
We might as well ask. When do you first go to a 
dentist? After all of your teeth are decayed and 
must be extracted? Do you go to a doctor only 
as a last resort? Do you wait to pray after all 
else fails? 

Problems are a part of life. We need not have 
guilt feelings because of them or think we are un- 
usually strange or weak. Nor dare we feel that 
God has rejected us because we have difficult or 
embarrassing problems. Adjustments are often 
difficult. There are few persons who, at one time 
or another, do not need guidance for the solution 
of some problem. Marriage, as intimate as it is, is 
extremely delicate, and there are times when even 
the most resourceful and spiritual person might 
need assistance to make it creative and harmonious. 

When John's car failed to start, he did not 
hesitate to call a mechanic. He went promptly to 
an attorney when he needed legal counsel. When 
one of the children became ill, Alice phoned the 
doctor at once. But, unfortunately, when diflBcul- 
ties arose in their marriage, they postponed as- 
sistance. Many people make the same mistake. 



When should John and Alice have first gone 
for help? They should have gone 

• when they began to realize they were retreat- 
ing from their problems instead of resolving 

• when they began to go to bed without "making 
up" ( by letting the sun go down on their wrath, 
to use Paul's phrase in Eph. 4:26); 

• when they realized they could no longer talk 
with each other without shouting, employing 
unkind words, or freezing into unkind silences; 

• or when their attitudes and action began to 
cause each other concern. 

These were the danger signals that indicated 
that their own methods for coping with their diflB- 
culties were not successful. Going to a counselor 
should have been a natural act on their part or 
on the part of any couple needing help. 

Causes for concern in marriages may vary, 
but they include: immaturity on the part of one 
or both; alcoholism; differences over religion; in- 
ability to adjust sexually; inability to manage fi- 
nances or agree over them; infidelity; mother or 
father fixation on the part of one or both; differ- 
ences over the number, care, and discipline of 
children; extreme submissiveness or domination; 
impotency to give and/or receive love; uncon- 
trolled temper; the tendency for one to use the 
other for personal gratification or advancement; 
and incapacity to forgive. 


How does a counselor help? In a sense the 
title marriage counselor is a misnomer. He is not 
an advice giver, admonisher, moralizer, or police- 
man. He is a miracle worker. Actually, he does 
not solve problems or save a mamage. 

When Alice finally went to her pastor (women 
usually go first), she wanted him to "help 
straighten John out." He explained he could not 
do this but would try to help both of them, inas- 
much as it is rare that one is fully to blame. He 
accepted Alice and John as individuals. He 
listened to each of them and kept in confidence 
what they told him. Acceptance did not neces- 
sarily mean approval, which at first annoyed John 
considerably. He wanted the pastor to approve his 
attitudes and conduct and reprove Alice for her 
failures. Both, however, were helped by the pas- 

2 MESSENGER 1-21-65 

tor's acceptance, listening, and objectivity. They 
had not accepted, hstened to, or been objective to 
each other for years. 

He also helped them reexamine their sense of 
values, to probe for underlying causes instead of 
being preoccupied vWth symptoms; to understand 
why and how they were hurting each other; to 
discern the ambivalent nature of love — that hatred 
is often a part of it. He helped them face up to 
their individual involvement in the problem; to 
reestablish confidence and trust; to cease using sex 
as a reward or a weapon; to reconstruct love and 
respect for one another; to forgive each other; and 
to lay hold on the resources of God. 

The pastor did not solve Alice and John's 
problems for them. Confident that they had 
within themselves the resources to do so, he helped 
them save their marriage. 


Who can be a counselor? While it is axio- 
matic that people should refrain from sharing 
problems with just anybody and too freely, some- 
times invaluable help can be received from a 
mature friend or relative. Some situations do not 
need a professional. Many communities have re- 
sources in mature Christian teachers, social work- 
ers, physicians, and attorneys. In many areas 
pastors are the first source to which distressed 
people go. Some of them have had special train- 
ing for marriage counseling and their help is 

There are times when a pastor must refer 
couples with extremely complex or critical prob- 
lems to a specialist in a family guidance counsel- 
ing center or to some other professional, such as 
a psychologist or psychiatrist. Wise ministers 
know their limitations. Pastors, doctors, and 
lawyers usually know where additional resources 
are available. 


1. Do not wait too long to go for help. John 
and Alice almost did. When they finally came to 
a counselor they were so demoralized, calloused, 
and lacking in confidence that they had despaired 
of preserving their marriage. 

2. Go together. Frequently one partner refuses 
to cooperate. This is an impossible handicap. If 

the marriage cannot be saved, the counselor, how- 
ever, can help the one who comes to him to meet 
the crisis and face the future. 

3. Go sincerely. Fully cooperate with the 
counselor in exploring all facets of the problem 
and solution regardless of how painful it is. 

4. Do not try to win the counselor to your 
side. He is interested only in helping both 
partners and the total home situation. 

5. Do not become discouraged if an extended 
number of interviews are necessary. Marital prob- 
lems may have been cultivated for years; their 
elimination is seldom an immediate achievement. 

6. No matter how distressing these experiences 
are, stay close to your pastor and your church. 
More than ever you need the resources of the 
Christian faith, the awareness of God's love, the 
redemptive power of the gospel, the encourage- 
ment of the Holy Spirit, the renewal of worship, 
the inspiration of the Bible, the fellowship of 
Christians who care and pray, the compassion of 
Jesus Christ, and the assurance that sins can be 

Even though you are inclined to give up, con- 
tinue to grow in your own prayer and spiritual 
life, and through the church express your Chris- 
tian witness and stewardship. The church is a 
greater resource for help than a troubled person 
in his preoccupation with agonizing problems 
may have realized. This is what John and Alice 
discovered. Without their close ties to the church 
it is hard to believe that their marriage could have 
survived. Q 

Marriage is extremely delicate, 

and ttiere are times when even 

the most resourceful persons might 

need assistance to make it harmonious 


He wanted to be an agricultural missionary in Nigeria. 
Instead he stayed in Virginia, where he found another 
missionary frontier. This is the story of E. B. Craun 



Cross the new bridge, take the first road to the 
left, and just follow the creek bed. You can't 
miss it!" 

These were the rather simple directions one 
would expect in the peaceful open areas of the 
Shenandoah Valley. And, sure enough, near the 
end of a gravel road that ran alongside of a 
shallow, lazy river stood a modest, but sedate 
farmhouse; nearby were a barn and milking house. 

This is the home of Ernest Brown Craun, who 
considers himself, now in "retirement" at the age 
of sixty-five, just "an ordinary farmer." Seeing him 
dressed in overalls and work shoes, taking care of 
the chores of his 274-acre farm, one would little 
suspect that this man's Christian influence has 
touched the lives of literally thousands of persons. 

Indeed, this quiet, unassuming modesty has in 
large part been the strength of E. B. Craun's 
success as one who helped mold the personalities 
and values of at least eight hundred young men 
and their families. No, he is not primarily a pastor 
or a social worker. Mr. Craun retired last year 
from his profession as a high school agriculture 
instructor. In this capacity he was not only one 
of the founders of the now nationwide Future 
Farmers of America, but also the adviser of many 
of the best poultry and livestock judging teams 
in the history of that organization. 

During his thirty-eight years as a vocational 

agriculture instructor in Augusta County, Virginia, 
in which he taught nearly one thousand students, 
Ernest Craun guided fifty-two boys to the degree 
of State Farmer and six to the American Farmer 
degree, the highest award given by the F.F.A. 
He himself was awarded the Honorary American 
Farmer degree at the F.F.A. national convention 
in 1956. 

But the story of this dedicated Brethren 
educator, churchman, and public servant is really 
told in the contribution his former students are 
making in the communities in which they now live 
and work. Although many have put to use their 
knowledge of agriculture learned under Mr. 
Craun's instruction and now operate successful 
farms, a surprising number of his topflight stu- 
dents are in professions of a different complexion. 
Some are leaders in business and industry. There 
are bankers and ministers among his former stu- 
dents, as well as doctors, educators, and social 

One of Ernest Craun's most recent students, 
Boyd Switzer of Bridgewater, Virginia, was chosen 
in 1960 as the outstanding broiler producer among 
the F.F.A. members of thirteen Southern states. 
Craun considers the moment he learned of Boyd's 
award to be the highlight of his career. Yet, Boyd 
is now a senior at Bridgewater College preparing 
not for the vocation of a poultry farmer but for 

4 MESSENGER 1-21-65 


that of biochemist. Boyd, as do most of the other 
former students, says Mr. Craun's influence helped 
him to choose his vocation. 

How do you figure it? Boyd explains, "Mr. 
Craun had an overflowing spirit. He wasn't selfish 
about anything; he always promoted things out- 
side of the F.F.A. that would benefit you. He 
had drive, always wanting you to do your best. 
He took a personal interest in every one of his 
students and worked especially hard to help his 
students excel." 

As instructor and adviser to boys such as Boyd, 
Mr. Craun spent long hours outside of the class- 
room on the farms of every one of his students. 
There he prodded them, praised them, and per- 
sonally helped them to develop their potential to 
be not only farmers but community leaders. 

Hard, persistent, yet selfless drive has always 
been a characteristic of E. B. Craun. He came 
from a typically modest rural Brethren family, 
members of the Summit congregation in Second 
Virginia. In 1918 he entered Bridgewater College, 
where he was considered, in his words, "the most 
typical farm boy on the campus." At about the 
same time he was called to the ministry by the 
Summit church. 

Assuming the mantle of the free ministry, he 
served the Pleasant Valley, Lebanon, and Summit 
congregations while in college. In 1920 he attend- 
ed Annual Conference in Sedalia, Missouri, where 
he was confronted with a challenge which seemed 
to tie together perfectly his interest in farming 
and his call to the ministry. It was during the 
Sedalia Conference that the new Brethren mis- 
sionary frontier in Africa was outlined. There was 
a call for volunteers. Ernest Craun began to see 
a dream form. He recalls that he stood not alone 

at the platform as many, too many in fact for the 
limited resources, responded. 

Ernest returned with his dream to the college 
campus, where he went on to graduate in 1922 
with a bachelor of arts degree. His first year 
following college was spent as principal of Em- 
manuel Junior High School at Mt. Solon, Virginia. 
Then, in 1923, still harboring the goal of being 
an agriculture missionary to Nigeria, he entered 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute to earn a Master's 

Those, however, were the beginning days of 
the depression, and missionary money was scarce. 
The opportunity for service in Africa did not come 
to Ernest; so he applied for the job of agriculture 
instructor at Weyers Cave High School near his 
home. Little did he realize then that he was 
launching a career that would equal or even sur- 
pass the Christian witness and service he might 
have given as an overseas missionary. 

Ernest Craun taught at Weyers Cave from 
1925-1939. It was in 1927 that he played a key 
role in the founding of the Future Farmers of 
America movement. The idea for a year-round 
organization and program for vocational agricul- 
ture students was conceived by Dr. Walter New- 
man, one of Ernest Craun's instructors at VPI. 
When the plan was ready for experimentation Dr. 
Newman approached the Weyers Cave instructor 
about putting it into practice at his school. Mr. 
Craun proceeded to establish the pilot chapter of 
the organization which now includes hundreds of 
chapters in every state of the Union and Puerto 

Mr. Craun changed schools in 1939 to become 
agriculture instructor at North River High School. 
While he was adviser to the F.F.A. chapter there, 
six students received the American Farmer Award, 
including his own son, E. B. Craun II, who gained 
the honor in 1956, the same year his dad was 
presented the national honorary degree. A total 
of thirty-seven state and national plaques were 
won by the North River chapter between 1939 
and 1962, while he was teaching there. 

In the fall of 1962, at the age of sixty-four, E. 
B. Craun closed out his career as a vo-ag teacher 
the way he began it. He organized a new chapter 
at one of Augusta County's three newly consoli- 

Ernest Craun receives the 
Honorary American Farmer 
degree, the highest honor 
bestowed by the National 
F.F.A. convention 

1-21-65 MESSENGER 5 

"People live closer to God in 
farming than in any other 
way I know. " 

dated schools. On May 9, 1963, at the first annual 
father-son banquet of the new chapter he was 
presented with a handsome plaque recognizing 
his "distinguished service and devotion" of thirty- 
eight years as an agriculture instructor in Augusta 
County. He counts this as his most prized and 
appreciated trophy. 

In addition to his busy vocational service to 
the youth of Augusta County, he has served with 
distinction in civic and church life. He has been 
a delegate to Standing Committee of Annual Con- 
ference, has served as moderator of the Second 
Virginia district meeting, chairman of the district 

board, and chairman of the Augusta County Week- 
day Religious Education Committee. He has 
served his local church as moderator and church 
school teacher. In civic life he has been a director 
of the Augusta Farm Bureau and a pioneer in 
many community improvement projects and 

Now retired, E. B. Craun lives with his wife, 
the former Edna Mae Flesher, on their 274-acre 
farm near Harrisonburg, Virginia. They have two 
children, both married, E. B. II, who is assistant 
county agricultural agent for Rockbridge County, 
Virginia; and Doris Ann, now Mrs. John Slussher. 
Although in retirement, Mr. Craun keeps busy at 
his "hobbies": supervising the activity around his 
dairy farm, pursuing a personal interest in the 
religions of the world, and serving as president of 
the Brethren Mutual Fire Insurance Association, 
a local corporation for the benefit of Brethren 

Naturally, in his long and close association 
with rural life, Mr, Craun has formed some opin- 
ions, and he likes to talk about them. He hopes 
the Brethren will never lose their rich rural heri- 
tage. "People live closer to God in farming than 
in any other way I know," he says from a deep 
conviction. He acclaims his deepest satisfaction 
as "helping to establish farm families." One of 
his proudest moments came when he went to vote 
in the last national election. There serving as 
election judges were four successful farmers he 
had taught and counseled. 

He feels that rural life makes a contribution 
to the family that urban society cannot match, and 
for that reason in recent years he has become a 
strong advocate of required college courses in 
rural sociology that would evaluate the contribu- 
tion rural life can make to the growing family. 

What advice has he for "city slickers"? Quite 
simple: work toward owning a small farm outside 
the city where the children can have some F.F.A. 
and 4-H projects. Or, if that is impossible, the 
next best choice is to find someone like Ernest 
Craun who is willing to let city families spend 
their weekends "down on the farm." D 

In 1927 Ernest Craun established 
the pilot chapter of the F.F.A. 
which now includes hundreds 
of chapters in every state 
and Puerto Rico 

6 MESSENGER 1-21-65 

hoiv shall 
we finance 

medical care for the aging? 


Daily in my work I see older people. I have had 
the opportunity to learn to know a large number 
of them. I have become acutely aware of the 
problems which they face. The majority have 
saved carefully for their retirement years. 

However, costs of living have risen sharply 
in recent years. Modem medical science has ex- 
tended the life span so that the majority of people 
are living more and more years beyond retire- 
ment. Many of the older people are finding it 
most difficult to make their savings reach. I would 
say the majority now live in dread of a major ill- 
ness or injury which would require a prolonged 
hospital or nursing home stay. 

At the present high cost of these services, life 
savings are quickly exhausted. Many individuals 
or couples are living on social security, which is 



Much has been said and written in the past few 
years about the financing of medical care for the 
aged. Politicians have found a potential in votes 
in promising benefits irrespective of need or family 
responsibility to a certain segment or age group 
of the population. 

The King-Anderson Bill as presented in the 
past would in many ways be a giveaway of tax 
money and is not based on need. Under its 
provisions all people now retired and receiving 
social security payments would be eligible to re- 
ceive substantial hospital benefits. None of these 
people would have paid one cent into a fund 
actuarially figured for this benefit; so for them it 
is an outright gift or charity. 

Where will the money come from? It will be 
met, for the present anyway, by increasing the 


1-21-65 MESSENGER 7 

adequate for their basic needs but is of little or 
no help in major hospital or nursing home bills. 

So this fear hangs over the heads of all but 
the wealthy. This fear is so great in some individ- 
uals that it actually produces illness and in others 
it delays recovery in real illness or injury. What 
is worse, I have found that many will delay in 
seeking medical or surgical care or will refuse the 
advice of the physician because of the lack of 
funds or the fear of exhausting financial reserves. 
Most people do not want to be reduced to the 
place where they must ask for charity. They say 
that they would rather suffer than be required to 
ask for charity. 

This, then, is the problem. What is the an- 
swer? Basically, there are two methods which 
are proposed for solution. The first is to provide 
charity to all who need. This is currently being 
done tlirough implementation by the states of the 
Kerr-Mills Act. The second is to legislate social 
insurance which would require workers and em- 
ployers, through the social security system, to set 
aside funds for financing major hospitalization and 
nursing home costs for all over sixty-five who 
have paid social security. This plan to finance the 
major medical cost for the aged under the social 
security system is known as the King-Anderson 
bill and is strongly urged by President Johnson's 

Careful evaluation of these two approaches to 
the problem has led me to the strong feeling that 
the first, the Kerr-Mills approach, is proving far 
from adequate. It makes no provision for helping 
individuals to prepare for their own major medical 
care during retirement. It simply offers charity 
care to those over sixty-five who chose not to save 
for themselves and to those who found it impos- 
sible to save adequately for their retirement years. 
This charity is financed by the current general 
ta.xpayer: fifty percent of the funds coming from 
national taxes and fifty percent from state taxes, 
since the national government matches state funds 
to implement Kerr-Mills. 

^Jince it is available only to those who have 
reached a specified degree of poverty, a "means 
test" is required and it is in this area that the 
greatest difficulty arises, for not only are the 
patient's finances investigated, but the children's 
as well. Many parents do not wish their children 

to know the true state of their financial situation, 
and many children do not feel they can support 
their parents to the extent the welfare authorities 
think they should. 

Because states do not have adequate funds 
for tliis program, assistance is available only to 
the strictly poor. The great majority of people do 
not want to be reduced to poverty or to be re- 
quired to ask for charity in order to get adequate 
medical care. Many taxpayers do not feel it is 
fair that they should have to provide free care to 
those in their later years who had made no pro- 
vision of their own. 

I am all for charity, but in this situation I be- 
lieve it would be infinitely more Christian and 
kindly for all workers to share in setting aside 
funds which would pay with dignity major hos- 
pital and nursing home expenses for our senior 
citizens. This could be done through the enact- 
ment of additional social insurance legislation as 
is contemplated in the King-Anderson Bill. 

^^ur country has had experience with social 
insurance. For more than twenty-five years social 
security has been in effect with great benefit to 
our people. During working years employers and 
employees have set aside funds so that on retire- 
ment a regular monthly check assures the basic 
needs of the retired or his dependent survivors. 
Unlike commercial insurance, the premium and 
benefits are legislated to meet the cost of living 
so that the insured may be confident that his basic 
needs will be met for the rest of his life. Com- 
mercial insurance benefits are established by con- 
tract. With the rise in cost of living, one's benefits 
from voluntary commercial insurance frequently 
are inadequate. 

It is possible with social insurance not only 
to increase the amount of the monthly check but 
to add other kinds of benefits as may be needed. 
This is exactly what is being proposed by the 
King-Anderson Bill. For example: the payment 
of some major medical expenses for social security 
recipients over sixty-five years of age. 

Just as social security does not provide for all 
our needs, leaving considerable for personal 
initiative in savings, voluntary insurance, etc., so 
King-Anderson does not propose to pay for all 
medical needs, leaving abundant place for per- 
sonal initiative in saving and planning and using 

8 MESSENGER 1-21-65 

of voluntary insurance to finance medical needs 
not covered, such as the physician's and surgeon's 
bills, special nurses, the $10 per day for the first 
nine days, etc. 

Social security has proved a wonderful thing 
for our country. Without it there would be 
millions more on our public-assistance rolls. With 
it millions of our older people have security for 
life regarding their basic needs, thus eliminating 
most financial fears and worries. Now the great 
fear which still remains is that of expensive medi- 
cal or nursing care, which a prolonged illness 
might bring. 

The King-Anderson proposal would largely 
eliminate this fear by the same approach as the 
other fears have been eliminated, through social 
security. This would mean, of course, that we 
children whose social security payments would be 
increased would be bearing the burden of the in- 
creased benefits to our parent and grandparent 
who are social security beneficiaries. This, in my 

mind, is the genius of social insurance. We can 
provide adequately for the needs of our elders in 
a thoroughly Christian and dignified fashion, 
realizing that when we retire we, in turn, will be 
entitled to the increased benefits which will un- 
doubtedly be necessary to meet the needs of- our 

The objection that this is socialized medicine 
or will lead to socialized medicine is raised by 
some, especially the American Medical Association. 
Such argument is not valid, for this is, indeed, 
not socialized medicine. Doctors are not even paid 
under this plan. Hospitals and nursing homes 
would be paid from government funds, just as 
they are now paid from insurance companies. A 
successful, effective program of this type, utilizing 
private physicians, community general hospitals, 
and private nursing homes, would be the best 
guarantee against the government taking over to 
socialize doctors, hospitals, and nursing homes. 


Many older people may postpone or refuse need- 
ed surgery for fear of major medical bills which 
neither they nor their children can afford 

1-21-65 MESSENGER 9 


from page 7 

social security tax payments of younger people. 
Even for these people, however, there is a fallacy 
in believing they are paying in full, as with an 
insurance plan, for their future benefits, with re- 
serves being built up, as usually is implied by the 
proponents of this plan. The plan would not be 
on an actuarially sound basis. When hospital 
services are included as a service benefit, it is im- 
possible adequately to calculate or control costs 
and they would change frequently. 

There is a real danger of placing the entire 
social security system and its original goals in 
serious financial jeopardy. The social security 
payments by workers are going to have to be sub- 
stantially increased in the future, and/or the 
funds supplemented with general tax monies, or 
the reserves will be completely depleted. Most 
authorities believe that social security payments 
should not go over ten percent as absolute 
maximum, and this figure will soon be reached 
if uncontrollable cost service benefits are added. 

Many of our older people who would suddenly 
receive free hospitalization benefits are financially 
independent, some even wealthy, and many are 
covered with adequate private health insurance. 
All of these would receive just as much in bene- 
fits as a truly needy person. I believe it is more 
reasonable and Christian to help more adequately 
all who need help than to give partially to all 
irrespective of need. The retired people who are 
financially independent should not receive this 
benefit from this fund and place heavy financial 
burdens on the supporters v^dthout having actu- 
arially paid for this benefit. 

There is a way of giving adequate help to 
those who need care. Funds have been made 
available for this by the Kerr-Mills federal 
legislation. It is money given to the individual 

Christians differ in their views on how to 
provide adequate medical care for the 
aging without humiliation, unfair taxation, 
or dangerous legislation 

states to match and use for people of all ages who 
need help. The present administration has been 
cool to this plan ever since it was enacted and 
has done very little to encourage its use. It has 
received little impetus in implementation in many 
states but it is gaining. About forty states are 
now using it to some degree, but it needs to be 
expanded and utilized. Pressure should be exerted 
by the public to get their states to implement this 
act, have realistic standards, and utilize it more. 
It offers potentially much more adequate pro- 
longed complete care, including physicians' serv- 
ices for those who actually need help. Since it is 
paid by general tax money, the cost is shared by 
the entire tax-paying structure, not just by the 
people paying social security tax. 

I he proposed King-Anderson legislation, as 
many of its most avid backers admit, is a neces- 
sary first step in order later to extend control to 
and socialize ultimately all of the medical practice 
field. I believe most people in this country desire 
to keep their relationship with their physicians out 
of the direct control of the federal government. 

Much has been said about the "means test" 
required to receive help from Kerr-Mills monies. 
We all have to undergo means tests frequently 
in our lives. Every time a person borrows money 
from a bank or other source or makes a major 
purchase he must demonstrate eligibility to buy 
or borrow by proving he has the means and 
potential to carry through on the obligation. Most 
activities, jobs, and enterprises in life that are of 
any value or concern demand people meeting 
certain criteria, which is essentially the same 
principle. The degree and type of means test used 
by the individual states is dependent on their 
administrative structure in utilizing these monies 
and can be liberalized with the support of the 
people desiring this. 

Most companies, unions, and other large in- 
surance group plans now carry the retired people 
on their hospitalization plan after retirement at 
a reasonable fee. This, along with the develop- 
ment of adequate private insurance at reasonable 
fees, and more liberal standards for help for those 
in need with Kerr-Mills monies, should do away 
with the need for such a program as the King- 
Anderson legislation. D 

10 MESSENGER 1-21-65 

a modern 

One of my parish- 
ioners shared a joy- 
ous experience 
with me. He 
said: "My income tax return has been investi- 
gated again this year, and guess what for: 
my church giving. That makes you feel pretty 
good — to be investigated on that account." 

His wife added, "You can imagine what 
they must have thought. Here was a man in 
a hospital bed with a heart attack, uncertain 
of his future abiUty to work. Yet he decided 
that at the beginning of the church year he 
and his wife would again increase substantially 
their financial commitment to the church. If 
you were a revenue agent, wouldn't you 
wonder if there wasn't something wrong here? 
It surely makes you feel good to be investi- 
gated on your church giving." 

The conversation led me to use as my 
offertory sentence in the bulletin the following 
Sunday a modem beatitude that has been 
experienced by a number of our members: 
"Blessed ( Happy! ) is the family whose income 
tax return is investigated because of a sus- 
piciously large proportion being given to the 
church. The uncommitted will never know 
their joy in showing receipts to the revenue 
men, or in knowing their money is well spent." 

Lord, send more revenue men to our mem- 
bers to investigate their church giving. But 
first. Lord, give them something to investigate 
that is so far out of the normal proportion as 
to make them suspicious. Then we shall be 
blessed indeed. Amen, and praise the Lord. 
Ronald K. Morgan 



Reflections on 
winning souls 

Many of our members rightfully express concern 
that we should win more people to Christ. While 
at first thought the answer may seem simple, many 
factors enter the picture. 

An obvious beginning step is to organize the 
local church for visitation. One congregation 
makes service on its Board of Visitation (or 
equivalent) just as important as membership on 
the overall church board. The first step is to 
arouse people's interest in the church and to stim- 
ulate their attendance. To learn to use the proper 
visitation approaches is a big task, both at home 
and in overseas churches. 

Once people come to church, they should find 
a warm, redeeming fellowship. If they feel 
lonely, unnoticed, rejected, and not really in- 
volved they tend to drop out. Then the "inactive" 
lists grow larger and larger. Creating a genuine 
Christian fellowship {koinonia) is a basic soul- 
winning process. 

Involvement in the church's mission 

Once people become Christians it is necessary 
for them to become involved in fulfilling the 
purposes of the church. People have varying 
abilities in teaching, visiting the unchurched, 
serving on committees, doing Christian social serv- 
ice, training people in stewardship, promoting 
world evangelism, comforting the unfortunate, 
alleviating conditions of inequality, building the 
church fellowship, working toward world peace, 
helping alcoholics, and many others. 

Random planning will result in only a few 
people really being involved in the church's 
mission. Keen planning insights, rules of tenure. 

proper organization, and other skills are needed 
to keep people involved in the mission of the 

It is reported there are churches where a select 
few hold on to church jobs decade after decade, 
and newcomers soon feel frozen out of the inner 
circle. This seems to be one of the most efi^ective 
poisons to effective soul wanning. 

A lethal enemy to effective soul winning is a 
lackadaisical Christian experience by members — 
"lukewarmness" is a good synonym. Effective soul 
winning seems to be in direct ratio to the degree 
of spiritual fervor of the members. 

To develop a milieu in the church favorable 
to the deepening of spiritual fervor is no small 
task requiring God's unlimited power. But when 
this is done, individual Christians will feel greater 
need to share their experience of Christ with 
others, and the world will listen more attentively. 

A great portion of those now in the church are 
there because they were born into Christian homes 
and grew up in the nurture of the church. Un- 
fortunately there are those who, although born 
into and nurtured by the church, are still lost to it. 
The process of nurture in home and church proved 
inadequate. This indicates that a major task is to 
make more valid the nurturing processes. 

Mobile society makes task difficult 

Twenty percent of our nation's people move 
each year, thus compounding the problem of soul 
winning. Often the new community has no con- 
gregation of the denomination in which the person 
has come to feel at home. People feel strangeness 
in approaching new churches. Residents feel timid 
about inviting the new residents into the church. 
In the process many are 'lost" to the church. 

Many recent books deal with new insights that 
ought to be tried. 

The winning of souls has deep implications for 
the world picture. Only a small fraction of the 
world is Christian — much of this is nominal. 
Thousands are newly literate each week. Vast 
groups here and abroad, in the cities as well as 
in rural villages, seldom come under the influence 
of the church. 

We all share the concern 'to win souls to Christ. 
Let us pray for God's grace in renewed efforts 
to carry out this continuing mission. 
A. Stauffer Curry 
Moderator of Anmml Conference 

12 MESSENGER 1-21-65 


you ask 

Is it proper for the Apostles' 
Creed to be used in 
Brethren worship? 

From its beginning, the Church 
of the Brethren has recognized 
no creed but the New Testament, 
which is our rule of faith and 
practice. However, the fact that 
the New Testament is inter- 
preted in so many ways by peo- 
ple, all of whom claim to be 
guided by the Holy Spirit, still 
leaves a serious problem. While 
each Christian certainly is ex- 
pected to come to the Scriptures 
with an open mind and a prayer 
for a clear understanding of 
God's revelation, it is also help- 
ful and needful to know how 
other Christians in other times 
have expressed their faith. 

Historical statements of faith 
or creeds, therefore, can have 
great value for Christians today. 
The new Book of Worship for 
the Church of the Brethren states 
that the New Testament salu- 
tation, "Jesus is Lord" (1 Cor. 
12:3), was the earliest and 
simplest affirmation of faith. 
Another specific statement of 
faith found in the New Testa- 
ment is "Jesus Christ is Lord to 
the glory of God, the Father" 
(Phil. 2:11). By the middle of 
the second century after Christ, 
some instruction was given prior 
to baptism. This instruction was 
based on Matt. 28:19, and an 
early form of such affirmation 
is the so-called Apostles' Greed 
as we know it today. 

Brethren have from time to 

time attempted to set forth their 
own articles of faith. One such 
statement is to be found in the 
new Book of Worship, taken 
from the Church Manual of 
H. B. Brumbaugh, published in 

The danger the Brethren have 
seen in creeds is that they tend 
to be static and formal and may 
shut out any new revelation from 
God through his Spirit. Michael 
Wolfhart, an early minister as- 
sociated with the Brethren, ex- 
pressed this concern in a state- 
ment to Benjamin Franklin in the 
early part of the eighteenth 
century, "We are not sure that 
we have arrived ... at the per- 
fection of spiritual or theological 
knowledge, and we fear that if 
we should once print our con- 
fession of faith, we should feel 
ourselves as if bound and con- 
fined by it, and perhaps be un- 
willing to receive further im- 
provement, and our successors 
still more so, as conceiving what 
their elders and founders had 
done to be something sacred, 
never to be departed from." 
Creeds may also discourage the 
obligation of each Christian to 
formulate his own faith as God 
has given him understanding and 
insight. In reciting them he, 
therefore, may be tempted to 
articulate a statement of belief 
which has little or no meaning 
for him. 

On the other hand, Brethren 
too often have been reluctant to 
state their faith positively in any 
kind of language. This failure to 

express our beliefs has many 
times led to real confusion and 
uncertainty about what we really 
do beheve. 

There is no reason why state- 
ments of faith or creeds cannot 
be used in Brethren services of 
worship with great profit. Not 
only the Apostles' Creed but 
other declarations of belief 
both classical and contemporary 
should be explored and used. 
A good selection of these affirma- 
tions is to be found in the new 
Book of Worship. 

What is meant by 
"apostolic succession"? 

This is a doctrine of certain 
churches according to which a 
person is consecrated to the 
Christian ministry, and therefore 
to ecclesiastical office, by those 
who have themselves received it 
from others, tracing their author- 
ity back by successive ascent to 
the first century apostles them- 

This uninterrupted succession 
from the apostles to the present 
day of bishops and priests is 
accomplished by the laying 
on of hands in ordination. The 
Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and 
Anglican or Episcopal churches 
maintain that this succession is 
essential for valid ministries and 
generally allow no one not thus 
ordained to minister in their 

A Reformation or free church 
view of the ministry would main- 
tain that every Christian has 
through his own baptism re- 
ceived the authority, and indeed 
the commission, by Jesus Christ 
to be witnesses unto him and 
therefore stands in a kind of 
glorious "apostolic succession" of 
both clergy and laity. 

: If you have a question you would like to have answered 
on this page, send it to Questions You Ask, Messenger, 
Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 
Replies to questions are written by Dr. Paul M. Robinson 


Church unity requires 
more than 

SPEAKING for myself, I see the position of 
the Church of the Brethren in the ecumenical 
movement as being paradoxical. We have an 
appreciative regard for the purposes and 
ideals of ecumenicity. But we still retain our 
provincialism. We want to hold on to our own 
cozy religio-culture pattern while we talk 
about "joining in." 

Personally, I feel we had better decide 
either to get in more fully or to get out, either 
to get in ourselves or to pull out our repre- 

I believe the difference between us and 
other Christians is a serious hindrance to 
church extension. It is also one of the reasons 
why we refuse seriously to consider church 
union. That means that we regard that differ- 
ence as being more important than the unity 
of Christ's followers — the unity he wanted 
so much that he prayed for it. 

We have, as a denomination, a significant 
self-accepted status. But when we try to work 
at church extension we find that others do not 
appreciate our self-accepted status. It does 
not seem to be a status they want to share. 

Some of our members seem to wear 
proudly the halo of the minority. Within open- 
mindedness they have a definite mind-set. 
They lay claim to a significant heritage and, 
at the same time, profess an ecumenical atti- 
tude. Quite paradoxical! 

When we do enter seriously into the ecu- 
menical movement, when we begin to think 
of possible unity, then we retreat and re- 
examine our denominationalism. Forthwith, 
we want to become better Brethren as our step 
toward ecumenicity. We polish our institu- 
tional structure; we mend our holy denomi- 
national fences. We cannot see mission in 
unity because we cannot escape the illusion 
of self-sufficiency. Our denominational rigid- 
ity asserts itself, and we help take the heart 
out of Christian mission. 

If we conceive our responsibility to be 
limited to "ecumenical cooperation," we sure- 

ly have an image of a united church quite 
different from that of its Head and Lord, who 
prayed that we might be one. Obedience to 
that prayer could be more significant in our 
day, when the wave of the future seems to be 
toward unity, than some of our "cherished 

Perhaps no other minor church group in 
America faces so uncertain a future as does 
our Brotherhood, uncertain in terms of growth 
and mission. We have frustrations within, and 
we are too ineffective beyond our borders. We 
oppose a culture that is ungodly, and we can- 
not reach it to change it or even to condemn it. 

Our membership is changing; our children 
are defecting when they leave the local church. 
We are no longer oriented to our past, and our 
future is in jeopardy. We tend to be dogmatic, 
and we know that to do so is to court oblivion. 
At no time has it been more significant that 
we do not overrate ourselves and that we look 
squarely to church union. 

It could conceivably be a greater sin to 
remain unlike the majority of Christians than 
to "keep becoming like others." I think I have 
observed that the same spiritual edification 
from the observance of the Lord's Supper, for 
instance, comes to those who do not observe 
the "full communion" as comes to those of us 
who do. Yet this represents one of our great- 
est hurdles in considering union. 

It seems to the writer that the realistic ap- 
proach to the problem of unity with another 
church and/or churches has been inhibited by 
an unwillingness to be self-critical and by a 
fear to act on what we know. To listen to 
veiled pronouncements and to evasive com- 
mitments is not the fearless way. 

What is or what should be the next ecu- 
menical step? To continue to limit our Fra- 
ternal Relations Committee? To include more 
negative speakers on our Conference pro- 
gram? Or shall we free our committee to en- 
ter seriously into conversations with possible 
merger groups? (Did we give up too easily in 
our conversations with the EUB folks?) Shall 
we let it be known that we are open to merger? 
We will not take steps to unity until we see 
the significance of unity. I feel we had better 
get in — or get out. n 

H. H. Helman 

14 MESSENGER 1-21-65 


Congregations set sights for giving 


what it will take to get our churches 
now giving thirty cents per member 
to the Brotherhood Fund up to the 
minimum Annual Conference goal of 
$8.50 per member," commented a 
church leader. 

And in a neighboring district, a 
layman said, "Sure, my congregation 
gives $38 per member to the Brother- 
hood Fund, and we can do better. 
When we think of the sacrifice of our 
Lord Jesus Christ upon the cross, a 
five percent per year increase from us 
is small indeed." 

So goes the train of comments cer- 
tain to increase in coming weeks as 
congregations decide on their response 
to the five-year goals for Brotherhood 
Fund giving. The goals, as adopted 
in June by Annual Conference, en- 
courage every congregation to shoot 
for a giving level in 1969-70 of at 
least $13 per member annually for the 
Brotherhood Fund. For the one out 
of eight congregations already beyond 
that level, and for others soon to go 
beyond, a five percent per year in- 
crease was suggested. And for con- 

gregations in "extenuating circum- 
stances" a minimum goal of $8.50 per 
capita was included in the thrust. 

"This is sight lifting," observed 
Owen G. Stultz, executive secretary 
of the First and Second West Virginia 
and Western Maryland districts. "It is 
good that our churches face squarely 
the share each should assume in our 
Brotherhood ministry. Too often our 
self-allocations have been made solely 
on the basis of 'what did we do last 
year?' " 

He cautioned, however, that for 
churches at rock bottom in their giv- 
ing patterns, greater flexibility is 
needed than suggested by Annual 

"In Mardela District our home mis- 
sion church, with very little to spare 
in terms of money, chose a goal above 
$8.50," reported Robert C. Bowman, 
pastor at Easton, Md. "Other church- 
es snatched at the $13 plus five per- 
cent increase and then looked disap- 
pointed because it didn't challenge 
them enough," he added. 

A California pastor, R. Truman 
Northup of Modesto, pointed out that 

the $13 per-member goal was less than 
one half of one percent of the average 
take-home pay in his area. "How 
reasonable can you get?" he asked. 

"Where do we have the right to 
have this much patience with our- 
selves when the world is lost around 
us?" Pastor Northup continued. "Ten 
years after the Grand Rapids Confer- 
ence (where the $13 per capita 
originated) we project short-term steps 
on how to reach that long-term goal. 
I can only pray that God is as patient 
with us as we are with one another." 

The projection of a long-range 
Brotherhood Fund goal is a new di- 
mension of self -allocation. The per- 
capita Brotherhood Fund goal for 
1969-70 is to be established by con- 
gregations by March 31. Self-alloca- 
tion for 1965-66, in terms of a 
specified sum for each outreach 
cause, is to follow in April or May. 

"Behind the program, as I see it," 
said the department of interpretation's 
Leland Wilson, "is a drive for a more 
telling witness, a recognition that con- 
gregational stewardship is for mission, 
a yearning to relate more boldly the 
word and the deed in the world." 

An insurance agent who heads Mid- 
dle Maryland's district board, Emory 
Draper of Hagerstown, commented, 
"There is no doubt in my mind that 
we can afford these goals if we be- 
lieve, first of all, that the goals are 
necessary. Only our unconcern will 
cause us to fail." 

1-21-65 MESSENGER 15 


How much church 

involvement in politics? 

When united, the church's voice is one of the most in- 
fluential in Washington, recent developments have 
shown. What does it mean for the church to exercise 
such power? 

The inauguration of the President of 
the United States is the biggest po- 
litical event of the year. Conspicuous 
in this ceremony are the participation 
of clergy, the pronouncement of 
prayers, and the Presidential oath of 
office taken on the Bible. The cere- 
mony has religious as well as political 

This blending of the two stands out 
even more at a time when the mixing 
of politics and religion bobs up as an 
issue in many forms and places. The 
extent of participation of religious 
bodies in the November elections was 
unprecedented, a number of observers 
feel. One analyst, putting it most 
bluntly, said that in this election "a 
part of the church embraced the social 
concerns championed by one party 
while another segment of the church 
saw its own fundamentalism become 
the religion of the second party." 

However valid or invalid such judg- 
ment may be, it is clear that the voices 
of churchmen in behalf of social re- 
form are being heard increasingly. 
And heard concurrently are other 
voices opposed to the church's inter- 
vention in matters related to political 

Without the aggressive, strategically 
applied support of religious leaders of 
all faiths, the Civil Rights Bill would 
never have become law. On this, 
likely more than on any other piece of 
legislation, the church held the key 
that opened the door which may lead 
to new patterns and concepts. Many 
persons foresee — and some fear — 
that the church holds the same pivotal 
key on other controversial measures. 

Many denominations have testified 
on the Becker Amendment, which 
proposed a revision of the Constitution 

authorizing prayer and Bible reading 
in the pubhc schools. Several church 
bodies, among them the Church of the 
Brethren in an Annual Conference 
action in 1957, have urged revision of 
laws governing immigration quotas. 
The National Council of Churches has 
issued a statement in favor of a social 
security financed medicare bill. As 
long as seven years ago one of the 
NCC's study conferences urged the 
admission of Mainland China into the 
United Nations. 

The Church of the Brethren has 
been no bystander on the political 
scene. The occasional testimonies 
rendered before Congressional com- 
mittees, the urging of Annual Confer- 
ence in 1961 to establish a Washington 
office, even over some hesitation by 
the General Brotherhood Board, the 
White House peace walk of June 1962, 
engaged in by some 500 Brethren, 

the Washington March for Jobs and 
Equality in August 1963, joined in by 
200 Brethren, the Brethren political 
seminars, attended by more than 5,000 
youth and adults over the past decade, 
and the growing endeavors of congre- 
gations to speak out and act on legis- 
lative concerns locally and at the state 
level all evidence a widening aware- 
ness of Christian responsibility in the 
body politic. 

The issue at stake is twofold. In 
such activities as these, and particular- 
ly in pressing for enactment of such 
legislation as civil rights, is the church 
engaged in a political lobby? Do these 
efforts by the church violate either the 
laws of the United States or the mis- 
sion of the church? 

The trend is decidedly toward reli- 
gious organizations having representa- 
tion in the nation's capital. More than 
a dozen churches maintain full-time 
representatives there, working for their 
own denominations and cooperating 
with the NCC's Washington office, 
under the direction of Vernon L. 
Ferwerda and James A. Hamilton. It 
is here, that the Church of the Breth- 
ren is represented by John H. Eberly 


Proponents of a school prayer amendment unfold 200-foot-long petition at the Capitol 

16 MESSENGER 1-21-65 

serving in a half-time assignment. 

Each of the denominations repre- 
sented in Washington publish infor- 
mation sheets intended as guides for 
action in the communities where con- 
stituents live. Study groups are en- 
couraged to come together to acquaint 
themselves with legislators and vvdth 
legislative programs. Christians are 
urged to vote, but first to become in- 
formed and articulate on issues. 

What weight do the churches carry 
in government? John Eberly said re- 
cently that in matters upon which the 
churches agree, they form the most 
influential group in Washington at the 
present time. 

Are they lobbyists? Officially, no. 
Only five of the more than one thou- 
sand lobbyists who are registered un- 
der law label themselves as a religious 
lobby. One of them is the dean of all 
religious lobbyists in Washington, Ray- 
mond Wilson of the Friends Com- 
mittee on National Legislation. His 
organization, which does not claim 
tax exemption, looks upon religious 
lobbying as legitimate, necessary, and 
highly desirable. 

South Carolina's Senator Strom 
Thurmond challenged the National 
Council of Churches during the civil 
rights debate, saying that their activ- 
ities violated their tax-exempt status. 
Similar charges have been directed to 
churches whose periodicals or leaders 
publicly endorsed candidates in the 
November election. Nothing came of 
Senator Thurmond's charge beyond 
the fact that the NCC satisfied itself 
that its staffs were not giving a "sub- 
stantial part of their activities," the 
limit set by law, over to these pur- 

Were the specific and primary pur- 
pose of the Washington offices of 
churches to influence legislation, then 
they would constitute a lobby in the 
language of the law. The church rep- 
resentatives claim to promote informed 
Christian citizenship rather than the 
enactment of specific legislation for 
the expressed benefit of their church 

As to whether the churches' social 
action efforts are outside the scope 
of the church's mission, Ralph E. 
Smeltzer, director of peace and social 
education for the Church of the Breth- 
ren, declared: "Our Christian faith 
teaches that God is concerned about 

Among testimony Brethren have rendered 
and the disarmament agency. With him 

all aspects of life. Since political de- 
cisions aff^ect life so extensively and 
deeply, we believe that God is con- 
cerned about and active in the po- 
litical realm. Our task is to recognize 
what God has done and is doing and 
to respond by joining in his ministry 
of love, justice, freedom, and peace 
for all men as revealed through Jesus 

What will be the next target of the 
churches' united support, or opposi- 
tion, remains to be seen, as well as 
whether there will be such united sup- 
port. The churches have been deeply 
concerned about this country's pockets 
of poverty. Sargent Shriver of the 
government's antipoverty program, 
known as the Economic Opportimity 
Act, indicated that the program at the 
outset was indebted to the churches 
for considerable research. Likely 
many religious organizations will enter 
into cooperative projects with the 
Office of Economic Opportunity in 
which there will be an interchange of 
the resources of church and state. 

Those who favor such a relationship 
will see it on the basis that the elim- 
ination of poverty falls within the 
moral concern and responsibility of 
the church. Those who will oppose it 

Ralph E. Smeltzer's support of arms control 
Hubert H. Humphrey, now Vice President 

will see the poverty program as a sec- 
ular and political activity in which the 
church has no business. 

It can be claimed that those who 
object to religious social action are 
primarily interested in eliminating 
something they personally oppose. 
And many are.. But there are some 
conscientious dissenters who want 
only that the lines between church 
and state be clearly distinct. 

With the current mood of both the 
church and the government to attempt 
to resolve certain social problems, 
among them civil rights, health, pov- 
erty, education, and peace, the lines 
separating church and state seem less 
definitive. A study of the issues at 
stake is now being pursued by the 
General Brotherhood Board, through 
the Brethren Service Commission, for 
possible consideration by Annual Con- 

While there is yet no agreement on 
the government's role or the .church's 
role in the solution of social problems, 
and less yet on the manner and extent 
of collaboration between the two, both 
seem most certainly to be moving 
closer together in their recognition of 
major areas of need and the responsi- 
bility of each in solving these needs. 

1-21-65 MESSENGER 17 


Director named 

The new director of the Brethren 
Service Center, New Windsor, Md., 
beginning July 1 will be the Rev. Paul 
W. Kinsel of Trotwood, Ohio. 

He also will be 
^ director of ex- 

■ change programs 

3^ ^ for the Church of 

the Brethren as 
*:• ~ well as coordina- 

H, ^k tor of all pro- 

grams and func- 
tions at New Windsor. Mr. Kinsel 
has been pastor since 1950 at Trot- 
wood. A former teacher, he earlier 
was pastor at West Alexandria, Ohio, 
and Frederick, Md. 

One from four 

Four "dying churches" in the tiny 
Pennsylvania town of Schellsburg 
have found new life in a unique union 
that could set a precedent for rural 
communities elsewhere. 

Involved are congregations affiliated 
with the United Presbyterian Church 
in the USA, the Lutheran Church in 
America, the Methodist Church, and 
the United Church of Christ. The new 
congregation is affiliated with the 
United Church of Christ. 

Like thousands of similar small 
towns across America, the Bedford 
County village, whose population 
dwindled to 288, was unable to sup- 
port four Protestant churches. 

The union, completed this fall, 
dates back to April 1961, when state 
and local leaders of the four denom- 
inations and Jesse D. Reber, general 
secretary of the Pennsylvania Council 
of Churches and member of the 
Church of the Brethren, met to plan 
a complete union of the four bodies. 
In the ensuing months the plan had a 
stormy time, beginning as a "trial 
merger" and ending up with a vote 
on union that found 101 in favor, 25 
opposed, and 2 abstainiiig. 

Both attendance and financial sup- 
port at the united church's services 
have considerably exceeded previous 
combined totals for the four individual 
congregations. A communion service 
is observed, drawing on contributions 
from all four traditions. 

Pledge intact 

The words "under God" will continue 
as part of the Pledge of Allegiance 
to the flag of the United States, the 
U.S. Supreme Court has ordered. 

The high court refused to hear an 
appeal which originated in New York 
State from parents who complained 


that having to repeat the phrase vio- 
lated their religious precepts, in that 
they do not acknowledge a deity per 
se or encourage their children to do so. 
This left standing the pledge as it 
has been known since 1954, when 
Congress approved addition of the 
words which officially acknowledge 
God. Some observers viewed the ac- 
tion as probably indicating the tenor 
or feeling which the Court has toward 
other cases pending or said to be in 
the making of a similar vein, including 
the opening prayer in the Senate and 
House, oaths by public officials ac- 
knowledging God, and chapels and 
chaplains in Congress, the armed 
forces, and in the service academies. 

A congregation listens and acts 

Taking seriously the mandate of 
the 1963 Annual Conference on racial 
reconciliation, the Lancaster Church 
of the Brethren, Pennsylvania, com- 
mitted itself to a staunch course 
of action. Among the dozen steps 
taken in a little more than a year 
were such actions as: 

• the preparation of an intensive 
five-week study of race for youth and 
adult church school classes, departing 
from the regular curriculum. 

• a contribution of $300 to a pio- 
neering scholarship program for col- 


lege-bound Negro students at nearby 
Franklin and Marshall College. 

• aid in finding integrated housing 
for a young family. 

• a churchwide drive for member- 
ship in the National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored People. 

• the sending of letters, at the re- 
quest of the NAACP, to local govern- 
ing bodies from the congregational 
meeting, in support of a municipal 
swimming pool. 

• a visit of its youth with the 
A.M.E. church youth, at the latter's 

Al Lancaster, the church turns outward 


invitation, among other contacts. 

Spurring these endeavors has been 
a hardworking, action-centered com- 
mittee on race, headed last year by 
G. Wayne Click and now by Mrs. 
David W. Kulp. Stress has been given 
especially to members individually 
finding ways to express Christian con- 
victions on race. "It is in precisely 
this area that the results have been 
most far-reaching and unforeseen," 
Mrs. Kulp explained. 

In each effort the committee on 
race has sought out the local Negro 
community — through its churches, 
through representation at NAACP 
meetings, and through interracial con- 
versation groups — to hear local prob- 
lems interpreted from the Negro 

Toward the Annual Conference plea 
for a response "in works as eloquent 
as our words, in practices as profound 
as our programs, in actions as heroic 
as our gospel," the Lancaster Brethren 
have made an earnest beginning. 

Babes at the altar 

The traditional practice of baptiz- 
ing babies, questioned by a growing 
number of pastors in Cermany, was 
upheld by the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church of Berlin-Brandenburg. 

In a demonstration of unity despite 
the Berlin Wall, which forced separate 
regional meetings in both East and 
West Berlin, the synods adopted reso- 
lutions emphasizing that the church 
will continue to adhere to infant bap- 
tism, while not excluding the baptism 
of youth and adults. 

The approved resolution went on to 
renounce disciplinary measures against 
pastors who refuse to baptize their 
own children while babies. However, 
it threatened clergymen with dismis- 
sal from service if they declined to 
baptize babies of other church mem- 

In East Berlin the synod urged new 
talks with the Soviet Zone government 
to safeguard rights of conscientious 
objectors. It said that while it appre- 
ciated the recent establishment of 
construction units where CO's could 
perform noncombatant service, such 
units were still part of the armed 

Shortages lead to violence 

BOMBAY — In a priority list of items in the public attention 
here, the following would appear in this order. 

Food. The agony of the past six months has been the absence 
of it — particularly in the form of grain. From north to south a 
wave or "shortage" has brought shock, then ugly violence, followed 
by frenzied emergency measures, then torrents of recriminations 
and eloquent denials. We are now seeing the astonishing spectacle 
of the "Rice Bowl" of India lashed with violence and hunger for 
want of rice. 

Whatever is denied, it cannot be refuted that the government 
and the merchants have brought the country to the edge of disaster. 
The merchants have profited — prices have gone from 25 to 50% 
higher. The government has helped to achieve a situation where 
many farmers have found less trouble and more profit in growing 
noncereal cash crops. The "plan makers" have put the country in 
jeopard)' by trying to industrialize without a strong agricultural 
base. The new irrigation schemes have remained ineffective, for the 
conservative farmer has not been taught or induced to use the water. 

Massive shipments of grain from the United States, at the rate 
of more than 600,000 tons a month, barely suffice to cover 
the acute shortages. 

Corruption. All year long the press has paraded case after case 
of public officials who seem to have found ways of filling the family 
bank account, whether in terms of money permits, or privileges 
that garnered the profits. The ruling party has been singularly re- 
luctant to look into these charges until forced by an outraged public. 
The result has been a general loss of confidence in the government. 

The Bomb. That their enemies, the Chinese, have set off the 
A-bomb, has been reported to the public here. However, the re- 
action has been most restrained. There have been promises that 
India will never develop the bomb. At the national meeting of the 
Congress Party recently, there were demands for the production 
of the bomb in self-defense. The prime minister, Mr. Shastri, has 
rightly called the nation to concentrate on food production and in- 
dustrialization. Although it would be a clear breach of contract, 
the new atomic power plant nearing completion at Tarapur (near 
our Palghar-Dahanu mission stations ) could be used for the making 
of rather cheap bomb materials. It is to be sincerely hoped that 
Mr. Shastri and reason remain in control. 

Roman Catholics. The thirty-eighth Eucharistic Congress, held 
Nov. 28 to Dec. 6, was one of the big events for the year in Western 
India. This meeting brought more than 220,000 visitors, including 
20,000 foreign visitors, to Bombay. The Pope's stay in Bombay 
was brief, according to his own wishes, so that attention would 
not be diverted from the main program of the Congress. The 
housing of the visitors posed a tremendous problem. There was 
opposition both to the Congress and to the visit of Pope Paul, 
raised by the radical right wingers. Roman Catholics make up 
more than half of the ten million Christians of India. Having come 
through 450 years of expansion and rooting, they are now one of 
the most progressive and wide-awake denominations we have. — 
Andrew Holdeebeed 


Second class, yes 

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints (Monnon) does not intend 
to change its stand against admitting 
Negroes to the lay priesthood, said 
David O. McKay, first president, 
prophet, seer, revelator, and trustee- 
in-trust. In the MoiTnon Church, all 
adult male members in good standing 
are considered lay priests. 

Questioned at a press conference 
on the possibility of the Mormon atti- 
tude being changed, the ninety-one- 
year-old church head replied, "Not 
while you and I are here." 

Dr. McKay's comments apparently 
invalidated a statement made in June 
1963 by one of his top aids,. Hugh D. 
Brown, first counselor, who said that 
the "whole problem of the Negro is 
being considered by leaders of the 
church in light of racial relationships 
everywhere." He added that "believ- 
ing as we do in the divine revelation 
through the president of the church, 
we all await his decision." 

Dr. McKay's position apparently 
settles the question of Negro lay 
priests for the time being. 

While the Mormons have admitted 
Negroes to simple membership from 
the earliest days of their history, their 
policy of barring them from the priest- 
hood has limited this membership to 
a second-class status. 

At states' Eielm 

Thirteen states this year have gov- 
eiTiors who are Methodist and eight 
who are Catholic, a survey of religious 
affiliations revealed. 

Also among the chief state execu- 
tives are seven Baptists, six Episco- 
palians, six Presbyterians, five United 
Church of Christ or Congregational 
Christian members, two Lutherans, 
and a Unitarian. 

Tax volunteer 

I-N Louisville, Ky., a Presbyterian 
church had its real-estate exemption 
removed on two parsonages. 

Although religious buildings are ex- 
cluded from paying property taxes 
under the state constitution, the 
Meadowview Presbyterian church 
asked the court to rescind its exemp- 
tion. The court complied. 

Youth relate Psalms and science 

Songs and planets. Psalms and science . . . 
what a strange combination. Can such con- 
trasting elements be brought together? 

This precisely is the hope for Youth Week 
196.5 — that Christian youth will recognize both 
the call to be "poets" and the call to be "sci- 
entists." "To one degree or another, we have 
all been touched by the psalmist, who asks 
us to take God seriously, and by the scientist, 
who asks us to take nature seriously," suggests 
the guide for the Jan. 31 — Feb. 7 observance. 

Sponsored annually by the United Christian 
Youth Movement, the commemoration this year 
seeks to relate science and faith with the re- 
minder to men in an age of power that poetry 
— songs of promise like the Psalms — can be- 
come, in the words of Robert Frost, "the 
means of saving power from itself." 

A corollary theme, "Faith in a Changing 
Creadon," will be pursued by high school youth 
in the denominational speech contest. 

In its request, the church said that 
the exemption meant that "all other 
individuals on the property tax roll 
are, in effect, subsidizing a religion." 
This, it contended, was illegal under 
the state constitution. 

Growing edges 

Olympia, Wash. A retired couple 
from the Lacey Community Church of 
the Brethren here pioneered a "trailer 
travelers" concept of a volunteer lay 
ministry. Mr. and Mrs. O. N. Thomas 
spent a month manning a friendship 
center to aid needy apple pickers and 
their families at Oroville in Okanogan 
County. The project was sponsored 
by the Oroville and state councils of 
churches. A retired examiner in the 
state auditor's department, Thomas 
commended the migrant ministry as 
an ideal diversion, as well as service, 
for retired people. 

Chicago, III. The Church of the 
Brethren, and particularly two of 
its members, Ralph E. and Mary 
Smeltzer, Elgin, 111., were among 
friends cited by the Japanese Amer- 
ican Citizens League here for a min- 
istry rendered to them twenty years 
ago. During World War II, the 
Smeltzers, through the Brethren Serv- 
ice Commission, helped direct the re- 
settlement of Americans of Japanese 
ancestry in the Chicago area upon 
evacuation from West Coast relocation 
centers. The tribute was given at an 
anniversary dinner attended by 250 

Mount Morris, 111. The Church of 
the Brethren here voted to begin an 
adventure in mission. This year the 
church will send a member or mem- 
bers to visit Brethren work in Ecua- 
dor. For this, some $650 will be made 
available through savings brought 
about by mimeographing covers for 
newsletters, bulletins, and the church 
directory, and by changing the pro- 
cedure for addressing the newsletter. 
In the future, other sources will be 
tapped in order to continue this per- 
son-to-person acquaintance with the 
church's work through work camps 
and tours. 

20 MESSENGER 1-21-65 

■ he year 1964 may go down in church history 
as the year of mutiny in the nave. Mutiny, an 
insurrection, a refusal to obey authority, is the 
greatest threat to tlie mission of any ship. Now 
the nave is experiencing it. 

The word nave refers to the central worship 
area of a church and comes from the Latin word 
meaning ship. The symbol here is a boat filled 
with passengers and crew on a sea pilgrimage 
with a destiny, however invisible, charted none- 
theless by the Master of wind and wave. 

In quieter days the nave was called a sanctuary, 
a place of safety. The captain and crew pulled 
together to keep passengers safe from shipwreck. 
Eyes on compass. Respect maintained for head- 
quarters. Watchful steering. Often storm-ridden, 
nearly submerged, the church proved seaworthy. 
Passengers stayed by the ship with only minor 
losses from those who dived off to ride the waves 
alone or from those who were washed off deck 
without anyone knowing they were lost. 

Today, however, mutiny threatens the ship. 
Nothing has fomented mutiny quite hke the civil 
rights agitation and subsequent congressional 
passage of a law respecting human rights. Just 
as Sputnik jarred Americans to reexamine their 
public schools, so the civil rights movement has 
stirred mutiny in the nave. "What has the church 
been doing since the Emancipation Proclamation 
a century ago?" people in the pews are asking. 
The inference is enough to rock the boat. 

Informed crewmen know that the church has 
not been silent on human rights. They also know 
that even while the church spoke about the 
brotherhood of man, it continued to practice dis- 
crimination. Church members prayed, sang, and 
spoke in response to God on Sunday, but they 
dropped their responsibility to his will during the 
week, including Sunday with its segregated pews. 

Of course, we Brethren were not so crass. We 
continued our historic boast that deed is creed. 
We did this in only one way: by separating our- 
selves from problems we could not handle. We 
shored up litde colonies of heaven and did not 
relate to the ugly world. 

We cannot do this anymore. Though some 
separatist apostles among us remain aloof, most 
of us will not because we cannot. No group today, 
however withdrawn, is self-sufBcient. Everyone 
has to sell a product or a service in order to re- 
main solvent. The market is the world. Our bread 
and butter will be earned in the city where we, 
too, are involved in inhuman practices. 

Ihe mutiny in the nave is fomenting anti- 
clericalism, anti-institutionalism and antiauthori- 
tarianism. The finger of blame is leveled most 
readily on the captain. Why was he preaching 
Pealism when the witness of Christian discipleship 
was not ringing clear as a bell but was as squashy 
as a dynamite dud that did not go off? Why were 
the rasping damnations of the Graham revivals 
charming sinners into easy, one-night-stand de- 
cisions while a righteous judge was stirring up 
a riot of consequences? Why was the professional 
clergy pouring over blueprints for high-steepled, 
suburban mausoleums while teen-agers were 
scrawling out their own messy blueprints over 
Marilyn-Monroe-Elizabeth-Taylor patterns? Why 
were church members rallying around sword rat- 
tlers and camping in hate clubs under the barmer 

of a militarized nation under God? 

While mutiny continues in the nave, some 
laymen are going off deck, into the world, for 
answers. They are scanning the skyline for news 
from God. They will find some news there, in 
the canvases and manuscripts of today. They v^dll 
find that, since the first abstraction painted by 
Kandinsky in 1917, modem art has screeched its 
message that the inner life of modem man is a 
vacuum. Modem man is faceless, impersonal. He 
is full of gaps and holes. His emptiness is a very 
real shape over which he has draped highly 
charged skin. Like the men whom Jesus called 
white-coated sepulchers, modem man is a plastic- 
garbed and falsely garbled manikin. 

They will find that mid-twentieth century 
literature has revealed a full, clinical exposure of 
man's sexual activities, every gory detail of his 
wars and violence, every unconscious drive that 
sucks him into primitive nightmares by night and 
twists him into private corners by day. 

If they look long enough at the scrawls on 
the walls of modem life they will ask, "Where can 
I find human values?" 

They will have two answers offered them: 
man's existence is such that his survival depends 
on impersonal, inhuman practices — or man's 
destiny depends on that Source which makes and 
keeps human life human. 

The captain in the nave will point out these 
two alternatives. Every passenger must choose. 
Most captains are relieved that, at long last, the 
Protestant church in Western civilization will be 
forced to see that it has not been barnacles that 
impeded the ship but that which has been con- 
sidered precious cargo. Some of this has become 
dead weight. Ballast has to be regained. 

The captain will point to the symbol over the 
bow of the ship. "If any man would come after 
me, let him deny himself and take up his cross 
and follow me." Those who respond to that de- 
mand \vill resolve the mutiny. These laymen will 
be, seven days a week, the church which the 
church is meant to be. 

The stowaways, the balmy-sky vacationers, the 
curious tourists, the deck-chair cynics, and the 
seasick landlubbers will become castaways. This 
is the calamity that follows mutiny in the nave. 
It cannot be helped. Perhaps it is needed to 
clear the decks so that the church, sized to the 
world God loved, can be a chosen vessel. D 

22 MESSENGER 1-21-65 


a devotional guide for the family 

ALL FIVE HEADS around the table were bowed as six-year-old Karen 
said a prayer for the evening meal. After several sentences, her eighteen- 
month-old sister, Doreen, leaned from her high chair, picked up a 
tumbler filled with water, and spilled it squarely in Karen's lap, causing 
her to jump up quickly. With the mood so abruptly broken, Karen 
continued with an exasperated emphasis, "Well, the next word in my 
prayer is, 'Amen'!" 

Family worship experiences can be harrowing owing to phone and 
doorbell interruptions, time limits, the restlessness of younger children, 
and the undisguised boredom of older ones. Is it worth it? Is anyone 
worshiping? What is worship anyway? During these next two weeks 
aim to understand better whom we worship and why and how. 

JANUARY 21-27 

Deut. 6:1-7. We are to worship God, the creator 
of all, continually, unreservedly, completely. Seek- 
ing his kingdom should always take preemineiice 
over acquiring "things." 

Ps. 19:1-6. "The view is tremendous," said John 
Glenn in space. Earthmen, who can "hear a new- 
born baby's cry, touch a leaf, or see the sky," like- 
wise say^ "I believe." 

Job 37:5-14. How wondrous are the workings ^ 
of God in winter! Hibernation, thick furs, and I 
feeding on stored foods show God's concern for 
animals. He loves us even more! 

Ps. 116:12-19. Anything we can do for God is \tkM 
inadequate! As mutual lovers, he wants us to ac- 
cept and return his love, unreservedly, spontane- 
ously, trustingly, and publicly. 

Ps. 122. We receive invitations from friends with ^ 
joy and anticipation. If we enjoy God's compan- • 
ionship, we will be glad for worship opportunities. 

Acts 17:22-28. Where you are is not important if ^ 
you want to worship God. He is present any- X 
where you are — and works a twenty-four-hour 

JAN. 28 -FEB. 3 

Isa. 55:1-7. By sincere searching, anyone can find 
God. No sin is beyond his ability to pardon; he 
will forgive to the "guttermost." 

Matt. 6:6-13. Just as we increase our efficiency 
when we pause for cofiFee breaks, so do we 
function better spiritually with occasional "prayer 
breaks." Daily prayers are the best remedy for 
daily cares. 

Ps. 100. "When thou hast thanked thy God for 
every blessing sent, what time will then remain 
for murmur and lament?" 

Col. 3:12-17. Whether you sing for worship or 
to chase clouds away, sing! "The woods would 
be very silent if no birds sang there except those 
that sang best" (Henry Van Dyke). 

1 Cor. 16:2; 2 Cor. 9:6-8. Regular, planned giving 
is part of the response God expects. To hold back 
is to become self-centered and stagnant; to give 
is to live. 

Matt. 25:34-40. John Wesley prayed, "Lord, let us 
not live to be useless." Our assurances of forgive- 
ness and our kind deeds must come today. To- 
morrow may be too late! 

Isa. 40:25-31. Tired? Discouraged? Need pep 
pills? Prescription: Spend time with God. Paul's 
testimonial was, "I have strength for anything 
through him who gives me power" (NEB). 

1 John 3:11-18. After we have experienced God's 
love, the greatest response we can give our heav- 
enly Father is to be kind to his other children. 


1-21-65 MESSENGER 23 

Day by Day. 

Ideas you can use 

• To inspire wonder and awe of God's creative 
ability, you can vary your worship centers using 
examples from nature, such as a blooming plant 
(perhaps left over from Christmas), small pets, 
such as goldfish or tiutles, or some seashells col- 
lected last summer. Discuss their minute detail, 
use of color, and regular life habits. 

If the weather cooperates, your family could 
take a ten-minute walk in the snow, pausing to 
marvel at the symmetry and perfection of indi- 
vidual flakes as well as noting the purity that snow 
symbolizes and the beauty it brings. 

• During the second week as you consider the 
ways we worship, call attention to pictures of 
people praying, a box of offering envelopes, a 
hymnal, or an open Bible. Younger children in 
your family can search through magazines for 
pictures that suggest some example of worship — 
or even some good reasons for worship. 

• Composing a litany of praise could be the con- 
tribution of a teen-ager or a cooperative family 

• In your more thoughtful moments consider the 
way your worship often follows a three-step pat- 

tern. You begin by recognizing and praising God. 
Next through confession you can experience the 
cleansing forgiveness of God. Finally, God chal- 
lenges you and you respond. Look at a recent 
church bulletin, and decide which segments of 
this pattern each part of the worship service 

• If the key verses, Deut. 6:4-5, are repeated 
often, they will be memorized by the whole family. 

Resources to use 

The song printed below, beginning "Day by 
day" can be used as a call to worship or as a table 
grace. You can enjoy learning it together. 

Other music suggestions include: "All Things 
Bright and Beautiful" (No. 93, The Brethren 
Hymnal), "God, Who Touchest Earth With Beau- 
ty" (No. 355), "Holy, Holy, Holy" (No. 1), and 
"Take My Life" (No. 349). 

God be 

God be 

God be 

God be 

God be 


in my 
in my 
in my 
in my 
in my 
in my 
in my 
at my 
at my 
in my 











Primer, 1558) 

Day by Day 

St. Richard of Chichester, c. 1 197-1253 


Arthur A. Somervell, b. 1863 


Day by day, Dear Lord, of Thee three things I 

g p r ^ I r p ^ 

To see Thee more clear - ly. Love Thee more dear - ly. 

h b I) J^ 

Fol - low Thee more near - ly, 

Day by day. 

24 MESSENGER 1-21-65 


Hope in a revolution 

THE NEW ABOLITIONISTS, Howard Zinn. Beacon Press, 
Boston, 1954. 246 pp., $4.95 

TO BE EQUAL, Whitney M. Young, Jr. McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, 1964. 254 pp., $5 

WHY WE CAN'T WAIT, Martin Luther King, Jr. Signet Books, 
1964. 159 pp. $.60 

To LIVE in the midst of a revolution — even a 
bloodless revolution — can be quite disturbing. 
Many persons do not seem to be aware that 
revolutionary changes are taking place in our 
social structure. Fortunately, nonviolent weapons 
have been most in evidence in the current "free- 
dom revolution" in which a number of Negro 
leaders are active. But persons still do not under- 
stand the nature and need of this movement and 
its processes. They will profit by reading three 
recent books that deserve wide distribution and 
careful study. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s little 
book, Why We Cant Wait, is an excellent help 
in understanding the history of Negro problems 
and the dynamics of the present Negro struggle. 

Howard Zinn, an adviser of the Student Non- 
violent Coordinating Committee, describes the 
work of that organization and of its members 
working for civil rights in the South. Zinn's book. 
The New Abolitionists, is filled with exciting per- 
sonal accounts of young revolutionaries on the 
front lines. 

Whitney M. Young's book. To Be Equal, not 
only aids in understanding the Negro, but it ex- 
plains what the whole nation can do as an alter- 
native to deepening the racial conflict. 

Social revolutions are never simple. They are 
complex, both in their cause and in their cure. 

The current racial revolution is one manifestation 
of a multiple and complex development. The 
Negro revolution, like the first American Revolu- 
tion, was born out of intolerable conditions. It is 
a grass-roots movement, arising because Negroes 
are aware of their own suffering related to many 
inequalities in our society. This revolt is causing 
us to examine the fundamental values of our en- 
tire economic and social systems. The movement 
may yet alert us in time to save us from the evils 
within that are decaying our society. 

Some see hope in this revolution; others see 
hopelessness and despair. What should be the 
attitude of Christians? The Church of the Breth- 
ren, assembled in Annual Conference in June 1963, 
said: "A revolution in relations between the races 
is upon us. We can neither stop it nor delay it. 
We can only hope to help guide it by active par- 
ticipation in it as concerned and courageous 
Christians. ... In this revolution let us not only 
support and uphold the courageous Negro and 
white leaders of nonviolence, but let us take our 
share of initiative, leadership, and risk in helping 
guide the revolution over the precipitous trail of 
nonviolence. . . . We can dodge neither the 
revolution nor the call of Christ." 

Brethren recognized that, if the Christian 
church had been true to her calling, a radical 
revolution would not be necessary. Annual Con- 
ference, therefore, called the Brotherhood to con- 
fession, repentance, and dedication. 

There is no place where the revolution is more 
apparent than in the deep South, and no one is 
any more conspicuous in guiding it than a small 

by Lee G. Whipple 

1-21-65 MESSENGER 25 

group of youth known as the 
Student Nonviolent Coordinating 

Like the earlier Brethren, they 
do not pliilosophize and theorize. 
They practice and demonstrate 
their faith. These young people, 
both black and white, come from 
all over the nation, leaving col- 
leges and jobs, and by choice and 
conviction face clubs of iron, 
police dogs, fire hoses, jailings, 
bombings, and kilhngs. 

About 150 dedicated youth 
are doing in the South what 
Americans have neglected to do 
for 300 years. They are ofiFering 
education, hope, and preparation 
for citizenship to thousands who 
have been robbed of these for 

Three fourths of the SNCC 
staff are between fifteen and 
twenty-two years of age. Two 
thirds of the staff in Mississippi 
are college graduates or have 
had some college education. 
They have renounced comfort 
and security in order to serve 
others and to fight for justice. 

Zinn says, "They are non- 
violent in that they suffer beat- 
ings with folded arms and will 
not strike back. . . . They have 
no closed vision of the ideal 
community. They are fed up 
with what has been; they are 
open to anything new. . . . 

"They are courageous. . . . 
They live and work together in 
a brotherhood of black and 
white, Southerner and Northern- 
er, Jew and Christian and agnos- 
tic, the likes of which this 
country has not yet seen. They 
are creating new definitions of 
success, of happiness, of democ- 
racy." Perhaps this new kind of 
youth is the most important sign 
of hope in the whole revolution. 

Jobs are important, for what 

does it profit a Negro to be able 
to sit at the lunch counter if he 
has nothing to buy with? 

Both Young and King agree 
that not only must our nation 
radically readjust its attitude to- 
ward the Negro but that it must 
incorporate in its planning some 
compensatory consideration and 
preferential treatment in light of 
the handicaps the Negro has 
inherited from the past. 

Mr. Young's proposed program 
includes a call for an immediate 
domestic Marshall Plan to help 
close the gap that separates the 
vast majority of Negro citizens 
from other Americans. Young 
says, "Unless this is done, the 
results of the current heroic 
efforts in the civil rights move- 
ment will be only an illusion, and 
the struggle will continue with 
perhaps tragic consequences." 
Throughout his book. Young lays 
carefully developed plans in the 
area of employment, education, 
health, and welfare. He identifies 
several characteristic attitudes 
that are real hindrances to pro- 
gress. But he has no program 
to solve the attitudinal problem. 

Dr. King says, "America must 
seek its own ways of atoning for 
the injustices she has inflicted on 
her Negro citizen. ... I suggest 
atonement as the moral and 
practical way to bring the Ne- 
gro's standard up to a realistic 
level. ... I am proposing, there- 
fore, that . . . America launch a 
broad-based and gigantic Bill of 
Rights for the Disadvantaged. 
... A Bill of Rights for the Dis- 
advantaged would immediately 
transform the conditions of Ne- 
gro life." 

The reader may find these 
three books disturbing, but with- 
out them the revolution would 
be even more disturbing. 

I see some hope in these 
three books and in the men and 
programs they represent. I see 
signs of hope in the revolution 
because of the spirit and dedica- 
tion of youth, because of the 
response of the three major 
religious faiths, and because of 
the philosophy and practice of 
love and nonviolence. 

PRETATION, William Robert Miller, Asso- 
ciation Press, 1964. 384 pages, $6.95 

This is a rather sophisticated 
book on nonviolence. Sometimes 
one wonders where the Christian 
interpretation comes in. The author 
indicates that "many of the actions 
by Gandhi, King, and other apostles 
of nonviolence more visibly reflect 
similarities to an industrial strike 
than to the traditional ways of reli- 
gious nonresistance." 

Most of the book takes the mid- 
dle ground, "that nonviolence can 
be reduced neither to a moral 
philosophy nor a pragmatic meth- 
od." The book takes the position 
that there is "ample historical evi- 
dence to show that tangible results 
can be obtained — not only spiritual 
but down-to-earth results." 

The book is divided into three 
distinct sections. The first might be 
considered definitions. They are 
rather detailed and sometimes the 
lines are drawn so fine that it is 
difficult to get the distinctions. 
However, this section does help to 
distinguish and clarify the different 
positions which are frequently con- 
fused and mixed in public thinking 
and conversation. 

The second section deals with 
the dynamics of nonviolence. The 
whole field of selection, organiza- 
tion, planning, and resources of 
strength are discussed in consider- 
able detail. This section gives a 

26 MESSENGER 1-21-65 

more clear understanding of the 
problems, background, and joys of 
participating in nonviolent projects. 

The third section are examples 
of nonviolence. They range from 
the strictly rehgious nonresistance 
to that of political expediency. 
This section "is the product of new 
research drawing upon hitherto un- 
tapped sources." Some of it simply 
makes available well-documented 
accounts that would otherwise be 
hard to find. Examples have been 
selected and treated for their in- 
structive rather than their inspira- 
tional value. 

The third section is the most 
easily readable and brings together 
a wide variety of cases. For the 
average reader it may be the most 
valuable section of the book. 

In summary, the book goes into 
a good deal of detail on nonviolence 
which would probably not be too 
enjoyable for the average reader. 
For those who want to delve deeply 
into the whole nonviolent move- 
ment this stretches one's compre- 
hension and appreciation and helps 
to lay firmer ground for under- 
standing. Ora Huston, Elgin, III. 

closs. Houghton MifFlin, 1964. 341 pages, 

This skillfully vvritten novel in 
the form of a diary (first person) 
is so complete in detail and so 
realistic it is difiBcuIt to believe it is 
only a story. The diary is the story 
of Frank Prescott, minister and 
headmaster of a Protestant boys' 
school which he ran under strict 
supervision. Interspersed with the 
diary are accounts by others who 
knew Frank personally. Depending 
on which one we read, Frank can 
be seen as a saint, a self-made god 
or a devil, but in the end, we see 
him as a dynamic human being who 
made mistakes. Along with his de- 

votion, his understanding and love, 
he never ceased to learn. The few 
passages that are seemingly inap- 
propriate will remind the reader 
that even the saints are not immune 
from life in the raw. 

This novel can help us see that 
our ideas of other persons are often 
determined by our own feelings. It 
is not easy to begin the reading of 
this book, but as one continues he 
is caught up in the story. It does 
not preach or point out lessons; 
rather, it witnesses to what it sees, 
and the reader must pick it up from 
there. One statement by a friend 
of Frank as a student reads: "... 
if I could get along without God, I 
could not get along without God 
in Frank" (page 87). This is a 
thought-provoldng statement. Ed- 
ward E. Lyons, Opa Locka, Fla. 

by David L. Edwards. Westminster, 1963. 
287 pages, $1.85 

English Bishop John A. T. Rob- 
inson's Honest to God has sold 
more rapidly than any book on seri- 
ous theology in the history of the 
world. This book sequel contains 
letters, reviews, and chapter essays 
which react to the arguments con- 
tained in the bishop's much dis- 
cussed book. Of the many answers 
and reviews, this book is the best 
owing to the varied and composite 
nature of its authors. However, it 
should not be read before one has 
read Honest to God. The authors in 
general are much more critical of 
Robinson's theism or lack of it than 
other sections, such as his chapter 
on worship and prayer. Much of 
my own criticisms have been pre- 
sented, some of my suspicions have 
been more clearly articulated for 
me, and my points of agreement 
have been elucidated. The book 
also contains Robinson's newspaper 
explanation, Why I Wrote It, as 

MORE than 7.500 

entries . . . defined 

in 3,976 pages 

Defines and explains: every per- 
son in the Bible or Apocrypha; 
every plant, animal, mineral, 
town, region, hill and stream; 
every object used in daily life 
and major biblical doctrines. 
Contains over 1,000 black-and- 
white and 32 pages of full-color 
illustrations. 24 pages of West- 
minster maps. 4-voI. set $45 

Order from your bookstore 



FOR SALE. Six view lots adjoining new 
church property. 70x100 average size 
with all improvements on private street 
across from new Church of the Brethren 
in growing San Diego. Contact: Claude 
F. Dadisman, pastor, 4114 Swift Ave., San 
Diego, Calif. 

BRETHREN TRAVEL. Reservations are row 
being accepted for Bible Study Tour of 
the Holy Lands, Jure 14 -July 7, 1965. 
Bible study and worship services led by 
Rev. Murray L. Wagner, pastor. Mechanic 
Grove Church of the Brethren, Quarryville, 
Pa. Reservations also being accepted for 
Rourd the World tour, visiting Brethren 
missions in India. For information on both 
tours write: J. Kenneth Kreider, 306 
Cherry St., Elizabethtown, Pa. 17022. 

well as a longer chapter clarifying 
his position. Even his wife gets 
into the foray with an article en- 
titled. Honest to Children. Dale W. 
Brown, Lombard, lU. 

1-21-65 MESSENGER 27 


by William Robert Miller 

MISSA BANTU, Chorus of the Congolese 
Sisters of Katanga. Philips 211 mono, 
$4.98, and 611 electronically reprocessed 
stereo, $5.98 

Coming after the astonishing 
Missa Liiba (Phihps 206 and 606), 
which wedded Congolese idiom to 
the Latin mass, the Missa Bantu is 
a very tame affair. Much of it is 
straight Gregorian chant, and such 
African influences as are present in 
the music are almost too subtle to 
count. The voices of these Catholic 
African nuns have warmth and 
finesse — but the total effect is far 
more Europeanized than it should 
be. On the plus side is a strikingly 
attractive album with drawings of 
African origin; on the minus side 
are very poor acoustics in which an 
occasional cough sounds clearer 
than the unfortunate organ accom- 
paniment. Yet Philips is surely to 
be commended for its effort once 
again to broaden the scope of 
sacred music in a serious way. 

beth Schwarzkopf, Christa Ludwig, Nicolai 
Gedda, Nicolai Ghiaurov; the Philharmon- 
ia Orchestra and Chorus, Carlo Maria 
Giulini, cond. Angel B 3649 mono, $9.96, 
and stereo, $1 1.96 

(2) Lucine Amara, Maureen Forrester, 
Richard Tucker, George London; Philadel- 
phia Orchestra and Westminster Choir, 
Eugene Ormandy, cond. Columbia M2L 
307 mono, $9.96 and M2S 707 stereo, 

Verdi's Requiem has been de- 
scribed by one of Verdi's enthusi- 
asts as a "blazing masterpiece." A 
good case can be made for this 
view if certain assumptions are 
granted — primarily the acceptance 
of showy theatricalism as a fitting 
vehicle for spiritual utterance. 
Originally conceived to mark the 
death of Rossini in 1868, this 
Requiem was shelved for five years 
until — after Verdi wrote Aida to 
celebrate the opening of the Suez 
Canal — the death of the novelist 
Alessandre Manzoni provided a 
new occasion for finishing the 

Not until late in his career did 
Verdi learn to restrain his stagy, 
rococo flamboyance — as in the 
opera Otello and in those neglected 
masterpieces, the Quattro Pezzi 
Sacri of 1898, which Giulini per- 
forms superbly on Angel 36125. 

Yet, taken on its own terms, there 
are ways of performing the Requi- 

J Devotional Booklet 

To Heal the Broken 

the place of devotic 


Teach the growing gener 
meditation in daily life. 

By so doing a rich legacy will be passed on and the 
experience will be a rewarding one for the entire family. 
From Ash Wednesday through Easter you are invited to 
join with the Brotherhood in meditation on the theme, 
••TO HEAL THE BROKEN." Murray L. Wagner has written 
devotions tor each day during this period and the 56-page 
bool^let is ready for mailing. Many churches are providing 
the booklets to the congregation. Individuals may receive 
a copy by ordering direct. 

The price is 25< per copy or $2.50 per dozen in quantities. 
Please send remittance with orders under $1.00. 


Elgin, Illinois 60120 

em — "riding with" its cascades of 
fervor and somehow trying to make 
them believable or playing them for 
effect, using them as an operatic 
showcase. The Giulini performance 
is an earnest one in which excellent 
soloists blend into a forceful, 
nuanced choral-orchestral setting. 
Together they produce moments of 
pure beauty that almost make 
Verdi's excesses forgivable. Giuhni 
has a finesse that Toscanini lacked 
and that Ormandy lacks too. To 
my taste, though Ormandy pro- 
duces a better balance of choral 
and instrumental sound, the net 
effect is a kind of all-purpose bom- 
bast, not drama. 

by Menasha Skulnik. Caedmon TC 1173, 
mono only, $5.95 

Fiddler on the Roof, the current 
hit Broadway musical, is only the 
latest of several dramatizations 
drawn from the literary legacy of 
the Ukrainian Jew whose pen name 
means "Peace Be With You." Here 
are 5 of his 300 short stories in 
English translation which help to 
explain the enduring popularity of 
this colorful, largehearted, and in- 
sightful Mark Twain of Yiddish 
literature who died in New York 
in 1916 at the age of fifty-seven. 
Though best remembered for their 
humor and gentle irony, each story 
is a gem of commentary on the so- 
cial and moral foibles of mankind. 

Chorus with native drums and percussion, 
Leonard de Paur, cond. Mercury 50382 
mono, $4.98, and 90832 stero, $5.98 

The church's current emphasis 
is well served in a dozen selections 
from five new nations — four from 
Ghana, five from Nigeria, and the 
rest from the Congo, Kenya, and 
Israel. Something, to be sure, has 
been lost in the arrangements for 

28 MESSENGER 1-21-65 

trained American voices, but a good 
deal of authenticity and variety 
remains and is enhanced by excel- 
lent sound qualities. 

PHONIC FRAGMENTS, London Symphony 
Orchestra, Pierre Monteux, cond. Philips 
300-058 mono, $4.98, and 900-058 stereo, 

Iberia, the festive tone-poem of 
Spain, is the longest of Debussy's 
three Images for Orchestra, and 
the best known. The other two, 
"Gigues" and "Spring Roundelays," 
though less instantaneous in appeal, 
are also worth having, especially in 
the sensitive rendition of veteran 
Pierre Monteux. What is new here, 
though, is the fascinating and deli- 
cate suite of four orchestral pieces 
from The Martyrdom of St. Sebas- 
tian — sensuous yet reverent, even 
prayerful music on a Christian 
theme by an avowed atheist who 
could not escape a sense of the 
mystery on which rehgion is predi- 
cated. An older recording of the 
complete work with spoken and 
choral parts (Columbia M2S 609) 
— all in French — claims a small 
but devoted audience. There used 
to be a one-disc version without the 
spoken part; this I prefer. The 
work's most haunting feature is its 
choral part. Many listeners, how- 
ever, may find substance for con- 
templation in the orchestral sec- 
tions alone and can count on 
Monteux for a graceful and glow- 
ing performance. 

regularly reviews records for 
United Church Herald, of which 
he was formerly managing editor. 
Some years ago, Mr. Miller served 
as classical record reviewer of 
Hi-Fi World. He is the author of 
a forthcoming hook. The World of 
Popular Music and Jazz (Con- 
cordia, spring 1965). Mr. MiUer's 
earlier hook. Nonviolence: A Chris- 
tian Interpretation, was a recent 
selection of the Brethren minister's 
book club. He is now associate 
editor of the religious book de- 
partment of Holt, Rinehart and 

sJ^o\xt a Avill? 

Here is a booklet which will help you to consider why joint 
ownership is not enough; why your wife needs a will also; 
how to select guardians for your minor children; and whether 
or not you need a lawyer to draw your will. 

Written by Sydney Prerau, former director of the J. K. Lasser 
Tax Institute, this sixteen-page booklet, "What You Should 
Know Before You See Your Attorney About Making Your 
Will," offers practical help on many important issues. 

If you would like to find answers to such other questions as: 
Who can make a will? Who should be the executor? Is my 
estate taxable? How do I remember my church? write for 
your free copy of this booklet today. You will incur no 
obligation. Write to: Harl L. Russell, Director of Special 
Gifts, General Brotherhood Board, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 
Illinois 60120 

1-21-65 MESSENGER 29 



JVIake A Star 















^■^1 IT UP AND 



On a dark night when the sky is clear and the moon is hiding 
away somewhere, wouldn^t you like to stretch out your arms ami 
gather' a. hcindful of stars? There are millions to choose from. 
Perhaps the one^ you want is so far away that it takes years for its 
liaht to reach you. But you can still pick your star. If you 
stayed awake and watched it for hours you could follow its course 
across the sky. It might even guide you home in case you were lost. 

Many years a^o wise men followed a star that brought them to 
BBthl^hem ■ — and a Savior. God will also guide' you. Follow your star. 


A heart attack claimed the life of Merril S. 
Heinz, pastor of the Myerstown, Pa. church, 
on WednescJay, Dec. 16. He had formerly 
served as part-time field man for the Florida 
district and' was pastor at St. Petersburg, Fla. 
as well as at Richmond, Va. and Windber, Pa. 
... A physician closely associated with 
Bethany Seminary in the early days. Dr. 
George H. Van Dyke, died on Dec. 18 at the 
age of 101. He had been a teacher at a 
branch of Indiana University and also the 
University of Illinois. At the time Bethany 
was started on Hastings Street in Chicago his 
wife taught music there and he served as 
physician. Later, when the Seminary moved 
to.Van Buren Street, the doctor built his home 
and office across the street in the building 
which was later Van Dyke Hall. A memorial 
fund has been established for the benefit of 
Bethany Hospital and its nursing education 
fund. Contributions may be sent to Mrs. 
Dan Fierheller, Polo, 111. 

J. C. Wine has been appointed a consulting 
psychologist for Philhaven Mental Hospital 
in Lebanon, Pa. in addition to his regular 
teaching duties at Millersville, Pa. State Col- 
lege. . . . Giving pastoral leadership to the 
Fort Pierce, Fla. fellowship is Ralph G. Rarick, 
formerly of Elkhart, Indiana. The fellowship 
is looking forward to a building program 
sometime in the future, but presently is shar- 
ing the facilities of a Seventh-Day Adventist 
Church at 1220 Atlantic Avenue in Fort 
Pierce. . . . Alan L. Whitacre has been elected 
president of the East Petersburg, Pa. Council 
of Churches. 


Albright, Catherine, Hollidaysburg, Pa., on 

May 17, 1964, aged 82 
Bankerd, Kenner, Uniontown, Md., on Nov. 5, 

1964, aged 92 
Barnett, William, Pittsburgh, Pa., on Sept. 29, 

1964, aged 89 
Birman, Clarence, Hastings, Mich., on Oct. 22, 

1964, aged 62 
Bowman, Alice, Cordova, Md., on Oct. 23, 

1964, aged 55 
Bradnick, Ida, Fulton County, Pa., on Dec. 

10, 1964, aged 72 
Butterbaugh, Roy, Kosciusko County, Ind., on 

June 18, 1964, aged 82 
Crouse, Irvin W., Myerstown, Pa., on Nov. 

28, 1964, aged 77 
Dove, Bessie, Fredericksburg, Pa., on Nov. 4, 

1964, aged 79 
Edris, Samuel G., Fredericksburg, Pa., on Nov. 

8, 1964, aged 75 
Eshleman, Daniel G., Elizabethtown, Pa., on 

Dec. 2, 1964, aged 62 
Erbaugh, Alger, Dayton, Ohio, on Aug. 20, 

1964, aged 86 
Evans, Eldon, Argos, Ind., on Sept. 14, 1964, 

aged 64 
Evans, Viola, Argos, Ind., on June 4, 1964, 

aged 68 
Faico, Ronald, Akron, Pa., on Nov. 13, 1964, 

aged 22 

Gottshall, James, Jr., Elizabethtown, Pa., in 

December, 1964, infant 
Harman, Elmer, Kansas City, Kansas, on Nov. 

10, 1964, aged 75 
Heeter, Glen, North Manchester, Ind., on 

March 19, 1964, aged 83 
Heistand, Olive, La Verne, Calif, on Sept. 2, 

1964, aged 68 
Howard, Lloyd, Des Moines, Iowa, on Nov. 

28, 1964, aged 74 
Hull, Katie, New Lebanon, Ohio, on Sept. 15, 

1964, aged 71 
Humphreys, OIlie, Fort Defiance, Va., on Aug. 

26, 1964, aged 58 
James, Gladys, Roanoke, Virginia, on Nov. 

1 5, 1 964, aged 54 
Jantz, Stanley, Newton, Kansas, on Dec. 10, 

1964, aged 15 
Johnson, Pauline, Ashland, Ohio, on Dec. 3, 

1964, aged 42 
Judy, Elizabeth, Chester, W. Va., on Nov. 20, 

1 964, aged 83 


Every Sunday evening, following the 10 p.m. 
news, Manchester College presents a musical 
program over Ft. Wayne, Ind. Station WOWO. 
. . . The church and marriage has been the 
theme of four Catholic Hour telecasts in Janu- 
ary, the final one of which is scheduled for 
January 24 at 1:30 — 2:00 p.m. EST. ... On 
the same day the final telecast of a four-part 
series exploring the search for unity by Prot- 
estants will include a lay panel meeting with 
Dr. Keith R. Bridston, former executive secre- 
tary of the World Council's Commission on 
Faith and Order. 


One reason the Cook's Creek congregation 
in Virginia voted to make the Garber's church 
a separate congregation was to encourage it 
to take responsibility for opportunities in 
evangelism. The city of Harrisonburg is ex- 

panding, with new housing developing in the 
Garber's community. ... A site has been 
chosen, a lot purchased, and preliminary plans 
are being drawn for the new Council Bluffs- 
Omaha church. . . . New horizons in witness 
and outreach are in store for the Martinsburg, 
Pa. church which increased its budget by 
$23,000 as a result of a stewardship education 
program last year. 


A town of 3,000 persons and a modern fifty- 
bed hospital needs another physician. If in- 
terested, write to Floyd Bantz, 901 Bloomfield 
St., Roaring Spring, Pa. . . . There is an 
opening for an accountant to maintain records 
and books of several related entities located 
in southeastern Colorado. Contact Brethren 
Placement Service, Elgin, Illinois. ... If 
families or church groups would like to 
sponsor an exchange student from abroad 
next year, they should send their requests, 
prior to Mar. 1, to Brethren Service Exchange 
office. New Windsor, Md. 


Three former pastors will share 
in a twenty-fifth anniversary 
service planned for all day on 
Jan. 24 at the Second Church 
of the Brethren in York, Pa. . 
A valentine retreat will be the 
attraction bringing young adults , 
from the Central Region to 
Camp Mack, Milford, Indiana, 
Feb. 12-14. . . . Materials re- 
lated to the World Day of 
Prayer on Mar. 5 are available ' 
upon request from the General 
OfRces, 1451 Dundee Ave., El- -jAf 
gin, Illinois. . . . The president y^ 
of the National Council of 
Churches has issued a call to , 
the Sixth World Order Study 
Conference, announced for Oct. 
20-23 in St. Louis. 

Jan. 17-23 Church and Economic Life Week 

Jan. 18-25 Week of Prayer for Christian Unity 

Jan. 20-22 Brethren Homes and Hospital Conference, Chicago, III. 

Jan. 31 —Feb. 5 Brethren Youth Seminar, Washington, D.C., and New York City 

Jan. 31 — Feb. 7 National Youth Week 

Feb. 7 Boy Scout Sunday 

Feb. 14 Race Relations Sunday 

Feb. 21-28 Brotherhood Week 

Feb. 28 Brotherhood Interpretation Sunday 

Feb. 28 — Mar. 5 Brethren Adult Seminar 

Mar. 3 Ash Wednesday, beginning of Lent 

Mar. 5 World Day of Prayer 

Mar. 7 Girl Scout Sunday 


Missionaries and mercenaries 

A photographer was assigned to covering the 
conflict in the Congo. Last September he met 
another white man in a hotel whom he thought 
to be a missionary. However, when he heard 
his companion describe his bloody work of 
killing Congolese, the photographer protested. 
"I didn't know missionaries did things like 
that," he said. 

The other man swore at him and replied, "I 
said I was a mercenary, not a missionary!" 

The two words sound alike. They are both 
applied to white persons at work in the Congo. 
They can easily be confused. It is not surpris- 
ing that some of the Congolese have also 
become confused, mistaking missionaries for 
mercenaries. But the words describe two ways 
of life that are totally different. 

Our news sources have kept us well in- 
formed about the heroic sacrifices on the part 
of missionaries. Between Thanksgiving and 
Christmas we learned of the fate of more than 
a hundred white persons who were killed by 
rebel forces in the Congo. Among them were 
many priests and nuns and several Protestant 

One of the missionaries was Dr. Paul Carl- 
son, a dedicated layman, 36 years old, who 
gave up his private practice in California to 
serve in the Congo, first as part of an inter- 
denominational relief agency and later with 
the mission of the Evangelical Covenant 
Church of which he was a member. He refused 
to leave his post when the rebels took over. 
Held as a hostage under sentence of death, his 
fate became a matter of international concern. 
But when rescue was near Dr. Carlson was 
shot, along with other hostages who were 
cruelly massacred. 

Dr. Paul Carlson personified the sacrificial 
spirit of service so often seen in Christian 
missionaries. He was willing to risk his life 
in order to fulfill his mission of mercy. Yet, like 
many others who havq dedicated their lives to 
healing, he was falsely accused by some of 
those he sought t6 help. They called him a 
"mercenary" spy. 

in the Congo 

Who are these mercenaries? Our news 
sources have said little about them. They too 
are white men at work in the Congo. But there 
the resemblance stops. Mercenaries are hired 
soldiers, employed solely for the purpose of 
making war on the enemies of those who hire 
them. In the Congo the mercenaries are mostly 
white men from South Africa and Rhodesia, 
but some are European and a few are anti- 
Castro Cubans. Unlike the soldiers of a 
national army they take no prisoners, and can- 
not, or will not stop to care for any who are 
wounded. They simply shoot them. Many of 
them will admit that they are engaged in the 
dirty business of mass murder. 

Americans have been well informed about 
the atrocities committed against missionaries 
and other white men in the Congo. They have 
heard very little about the thousands of Congo- 
lese, on each side of the conflict there, who 
were also the victims of atrocities. We do right 
to honor the bravery and the sacrificial witness 
of Christian missionaries. But we need also to 
keep in mind that thousands of Africans have 
suffered and died, sometimes at the hands of 
professional white soldiers. They are also pre- 
cious in the sight of God. 

Inie expect that unsettled conditions in the 
Congo will continue to create conflict and that 
violent measures will bring additional suffering 
and pain. But we can rejoice in the confidence 
expressed by one missionary who said that 
even if he and others cannot go back, Chris- 
tianity will survive in the Congo. The church is 
there. God is at work there. 

We hope that missionaries, as well as physi- 
cians and service workers can continue to 
minister to the anguish and suffering in the 
Congo. But the country would be better off — 
and Christian work could advance more rapidly 
— if the mercenaries would leave their busi- 
ness of murder and go home. — K.M. 

32 MESSENGER 1-21-65 


FOR HUMAN BEINGS ONLY Sarah Patton Boyle. Here is a deeply-felt call 

for people to live with each other as human beings, not as members of one race 
or another. By the author of "The Desegregated Heart." 


THE PULPIT SPEAKS ON RACE Alfred T. Davies, editor. Twenty of the best 

sermons on race to date, delivered by outstanding men, Negro and white alike, 
from every area of the country. 


THE TRUMPET SOUNDS A Memoir of Negro Leadership Anna A, Hedgeman. 

Coming from one of the most important Negro women in this country, here is 
a provocative commentary not only on the white community of America but on 
the Negro leadership itself. The only woman on the executive committee of the 
March on Washington, and one who has held many posts in government, this 
forthright, engaging, and articulate personality has much to say to both Negroes 
and whites. ^^^^ 

THE PEACEABLE REVOLUTION Betty Schechter. How are the stories in this 

book of Thoreau, Gandhi and the American Negroes related? They tell about 
nonviolent resistance, the Peaceable Revolution, a method of fighting oppression 
and injustice that matches courage and goodwill against overwhelming odds — 
and wins. Ages 12 and up. *o -re 

THE TROUBLE WITH BEING A MAMA Eva Rutland. With deep understanding 

and a delightful sense of humor, Mrs. Rutland- tells of the frustrations, anxieties, 
and joys of being the mother of four children. Hers is a story much like that of 
any other mother with a family caught in the throes of growing up. Yet hers is 
an unusual story in that it brings out the special concerns of a Negro family in 
America today. $2 95 




Medical care for the aging, how shaii n be financed? two 

Brethren physicians offer differing viewpoints about a question currently 
confronting legislators, page 7 

W/ien to seeic a marriage counselor. Practical pointers as 

to when and where to turn for help, as seen by an experienced pastor- 
counselor, by Harold Bomberger. page 1 

Friend of future farmers is the story of E. B. Craun, Virginia 
teacher and agriculturist, and the national organization he helped to found. 
by Fred Swartz. page 4 

Signs of hope in the freedom revolution are noted in a 

review of three current books by and about leaders In the civil rights 
movement. Reviewed by Lee Whipple, page 25 

Mutiny in the nave might lead to a breach between pulpit and 
pew — or It may betoken a welcome revival of lay responsibility, by Inez 
Long, page 21 

The churches' "lobby" in Washington. Does it, should it, 

go beyond a witness to government? A special news report, page 16 

OTHER FEATURES: a modern beatitude; daily devotional readings; Speak 
Up, a page for plain talk; instructions on how to make a star; answers to 
questions about the Apostles' Creed; a report from India; reviews of records; 
and an editorial on recent events in the Congo. 


Estella B. Horning describes the long, hard road that Mercedes Tasignano 
followed in her fifteen years of preparation to be an Ecuadorian school- 
teacher . . . "Life Begins at 65," asserts Ira Frantz in discussing creative 
ways of using and enjoying retirement years. . . . Sara Patton Boyle feels 
that since 1950 her specific calling has been to explain white and Negro 
Americans to each other, especially in her native South. She discusses the 
case for public demonstrations. . . . News stories feature the Frederick, 
Maryland church's outreach in evangelism, the question of pastors' salaries, 
an assessment of Vatican II, and the controversy over the United Church 
of Canada's new curriculum. 

VOL. 114 

fhy demonstrations ? 
Life begins at 65 




Mercedes Tasiguano 



I would like to comment on two 
letters — one, by Bro. Preston T. 
Arnold on "Shortcomings of the 
UN" and the other by Bro. Lloyd 
H. Smith on "Start With the Indi- 

First, I am proud to be a mem- 
ber of a religious sect which is, or 
should be, "pacifist," and which is 
"engrossed in social welfare of the 

No man can disprove the great 
fact and truth that Jesus Christ was 
the first Christian pacifist commu- 

Both sacred and secular history 
state that the first generation of 
Christians had "all things in com- 
mon, save their wives." They did 
by "love, goodwill and good 
works," what Marxist communists 
are doing by law, in the field of 
"social welfare." . . . 

If conventional capitalistic Chris- 
tians preached such a first genera- 
tion Christianity I doubt that our 
brand of Christianity would be re- 
jected and kicked out of most com- 
munist lands, and many of the wars 
referred to by Brother Arnold 
would never have occurred. 

Charles C. Rohrer 
Elkhart, Ind. 


I find so many people, supposed- 
ly Christians, who act and think 
like communists. They want to 
destroy all communists, just as the 
communists want to destroy us. 
And there is much literature dis- 
tributed and radio sermons broad- 
cast purporting to be anti-commu- 
nist which I have found upon 
investigation to be making state- 
ments which are not true. Like 
the communists they use distorted 
truths and lies to make their point. 

We Christians need to be careful 
that we do not act like communists, 
or even support those who act and 
speak like them. In facing the 
problem of communism let us not 
seek a military victory over them 
(their way) but follow the sugges- 
tion of Jesus, "Bless them that 
curse you and pray for them ..." 
I believe the Christian way is 
superior to the communist way. 
Floyd M. Irvin 
Eustis, Fla. 


In Charles Zunkel's article, "Fit 
to Be Tied,'^ Nov. 21, he says 
divorce leaves its scars; however, 
it may be the only sensible solu- 
tion. ... I have heard of a number 
of marriages where there was bit- 
terness, conflict, and deep unhappi- 
ness; then one of them or, in 
some cases, both people accepted 
Christ's help and a miracle took 
place. Nothing is impossible with 
Christ. It is this modern-day think- 
ing that di\orce is the only "sen- 
sible solution" that is causing the 
conditions we have. 

Kathryn Duncanson 
Modesto, Calif. 


In regard to Ruth Griggs' good 
article, "How Does God Care for 
Us?" (Nov. 14), I wish to say 
throvigh a lifetime of experiences, 
I believe he can intervene and take 
care of us directly, if we but be- 
lieve and ask. Since a small girl, 
I have thought this way, but now 
I realize it was because my devout 
parents were constantly putting 
their nine children in his care. 

Mrs. John Price 
Upland, Calif. 


I hope the new Messenger will 

continue the present editor's fine 

practice of brief well-written edi- 

I read several hours each day 

and often become disgusted with 
the long drawn-out writings in 
papers, magazines, and books. 

You can often get the real heart 
of an article from the first state- 
ments and the closing. You may 
also get the message of a book 
by reading the first and last chap- 
ters and by scanning some of the 
in-between. . . . 

So to every writer: Please keep 
your message short and to the 
point! I want to read it all. 

G. O. Stutsman 
La Verne, Calif. 


Bro. Vernon Metzler, writing in 
the Messenger of Nov. 14, 1964, 
does not seem to realize that the 
Old Testament stories are parables 
and not all to be taken literally. 
Other writers have been inspired, 
too, whose writings do not appear 
in the Old or New Testament. 
True, we would not all express our- 
selves as does the author of the 
stories of Samson and Delilah and 
of David and Goliath, but we un- 
derstand the spiritual application 
because we have been taught. 

Ken Wunner 
Lebanon, Pa. 


To Brother Walter Bowman for his 
article, The Land of Let's Pretend 
(Nov. 21), a contrite "amen." It is 
true that we fail to heed the admoni- 
tion of James: "Confess your sins 
to one another, and pray for one 
another, that you may be healed" 
(James 5:16). . . . 

We are such busy doers in the 
church that we have forgotten our 
primary calling to be, to be sons and 
daughters of God. John R. Mott, a 
generation ago, said, "The trouble 
with the Christian faith today is that 
we are producing Christian activities 
faster than we are producing Chris- 
tian faith." The true church is the 
community of the faith-ful. 

Christian Bashore 
Bradford, Ohio 

MESSENGER, Vol. 114, No. 3. Feb. 4, 1965, publication 
of the Church of the Brethren continuing "The Gospel 

Editor: Kenneth I. Morse 
Managing Editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh 
Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Weigle 
Director of News Service: Howard E. Royer 

MESSENGER, official publication of the Church of the Brethren, is 
owned and published every other week by the General Brotherhood 
Board — Church of the Brethren, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120, 
Norman J. Baugher, general secretary. Editor, Kenneth I. Morse; 
managing editor, Wilbur E. Brumbaugh; editorial assistant, Elizabeth 
Weigle. Filing date, Oct. 1, 1963. Entered as second-class matter Aug. 
20, 1918, under Act of Congress of Oct. 17, 1917. Second-class postage 
paid at Elgin, III. 

MESSENGER is copyright 1965 by the General Brotherhood Board, 
Church of the Brethren. 


^/ut of the blackness of the night 
a star arose. 

Its radiance beckoned those 
whose eyes were lifted high, 
who chose to seek and follow 
light from the sky. 

Here is the way 

out of the world's despair! 

I must look up in faith to where 

God set his beacon shining. . . . 

And I will understand, 

beyond all words, 

that Love went willingly to death, 

that only love, 

compassion carried to a cross, 

is strong enough to stay 

the powers of evil, 

fuse the fragments of peace, 

and heal the body 

of humanity this day. 

"ANSWER," by Emily Sargent Councilman 


MESSENGER is a member of the Associated Church Press and 
subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 
Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are 
■from the Revised Standard Version. 

Subscription rates: $3,75 per year for individual subscriptions; $3.00 
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If you move, clip old address from MESSENGER and send with new 
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COVER: Some alert readers with good memories may recall having 
seen pictures of a smiling Ecuadorian girl on the cover of their 
children's story paper. That was many years ago when Brethren 
missionaries started a school near Quito, Ecuador. Now the girl has 
grown up to be quite a young lady, a teacher herself. So it is 
appropriate to see her smile again and to read her fascinating history. 
PHOTO CREDITS: 1 "At Golgotha," by Raymond Breinin, courtesy of 
The Butler Institute of American Art; 9 Edward Wallowitch; 12 "The 
Hand of God," by Rodin; 16 Kennedy Studio, Frederick, Md.; 17 
La Verne Friesen Studio, Buhler, Kansas; 19, 21 Religious News Service 


Lack of sympathy, long hours of 
physical labor, racial prejudice, 
and loneliness marked Mercedes 
Tasiguano's road to graduation 

^^MONG the graduates of one of the finest 
professional schools for women in Quito, in 
the midst of fashionably dressed young women 
from wealthy old colonial families, stood a 
young Quechua woman in embroidered 
blouse, typical wraparound skirt and woven 
belt, and with hair arranged in bound braids. 
Erect, poised, and with great dignity this 
young woman from the valley of Calderon 
received her teaching degree, which was 
given with honors. 

No casual triumph, the graduation of 
Mercedes Tasiguano from the normal school, 
Manuela Canizares, represented fifteen years 
of struggle and disappointment. Homesick- 
ness, loneliness, an unsympathetic father, 
long hours of physical labor, and the psycho- 
logical and cultural handicaps of a deeply 
ingrained racial prejudice had marked her 
road to graduation. 

Racial prejudice is seldom completely 
imposed from one side. Mercedes' first en- 
counter was with the prejudices of her own 
culture and her own family. 

Fifteen years ago, when the Church of 
the Brethren mission in Ecuador decided to 

by Estella B, Horning 

■alienee gained from her own struggle for an 
education enables Miss Tasiguano to nurture 
self-expression in her students 

2 MESSENGER 2-4-65 



Wearing Indian dress to school heightened difficulties but brought community respect and Quito newspaper editorial praise 


start a primary school, very few of the Indian 
girls in the community of Llano Grande went to 
school. A girl needed to be strong and learn 
many things to prepare her for womanhood, for 
she was to till the soil, care for the animals, carry 
water and firewood to supply her home, and care 
for her babies. Reading and writing were un- 
necessary luxuries for women and might even be 
a handicap to contracting a good marriage. If 
most men could get along quite well without these 
skills, why should a girl waste good years in 

When missionaries visited Mercedes' home 
and announced the opening of school, she begged 
to be allowed to attend. Her parents were still 
cautious. Many people said the foreigners were 
devils . They had a different religion. The 
missionaries seemed to be friendly people, but 
considering all that they had heard it seemed wise 
to wait and see how the school developed. 

Mercedes' parents had some progressive ideas. 
In their home her father insisted that they speak 
only Spanish, not Quechua — except, of course, 
when grandmother was there. They were fond of 
their daughter, the eldest of their three children. 
So it was that Mercedes entered the mission 
school in the second year of its existence. 

She not only learned to read and write, but 
she also heard for the first time of a loving Father 

and his son Jesus. She learned of a new way of 
life to be found in following him and joyfully 
communicated what she learned to her parents. 
Mercedes ^^'as the first person to accept the gospel 
in Llano Grande, and her parents and two brothers 
soon followed her into the church. 

In the six years of primary school Mercedes 
was a good student, average in abilities, but far 
above average in drive, self-confidence, determina- 
tion, and dedication. Encouraged by missionaries 
and teachers she passed her entrance examinations 
and made plans to start high school in the fall of 
1956. These were to be days of many decisions, 
but the most crucial was her choice to remain 
Indian or to become a white! 

In Ecuador, "passing" from Indian to white is a 
common, acceptable, and relatively easy process. 
Many "whites" with old Spanish family names 
have a complexion as dark as most Indians, and 
numerous Indians have distinctly white facial 
characteristics. In many cases, colonial families 
were the result of the union of a Spanish 
conqueror and an Indian woman. In order to 
"pass," one must only change his manner of dress 
and his place of residence, perfect his Spanish, 
and make a start in a new community or in the 
city. This is a path accepted by the whites for 
Indians who want to "progress." Indians are 
respected if they take such a step. 

However, this action means breaking with the 
past and one's family and friends. It is admitting 

4 MESSENGER 2-4-65 

to the myth that the Indian is inferior in intelU- 
gence, that his native language is ugly and its use 
degrading, that his customs and cultural patterns 
are the fniit of ignorance and superstition, and 
that the Indian can offer nothing of value to his 

Mercedes chose a harder path. She determined 
to prove to a small portion of the world that the 
Indian in Ecuador has something of beauty, of 
strength, of intelligence and dignity and honor 
to offer to his country. Throughout her years of 
study she proudly wore the native Indian dress 
of her community in its most attractive form, 
proclaiming to all her Indian roots. 

Uyumbicho, a secondary school dedicated to 
excellent preparation of rural teachers, with a 
well-known Ecuadorian educator as its director, 
was the school of her choice. Attending there 
meant leaving home and family and living among 
strangers in a different climate. The chilly, wet 
weather, compared to the sunny, warm days in 
Calderon, depressed her and life was lonely at 

It was necessary for Mercedes to repeat two 
of her six years of secondary school at Uyumbicho. 
The first because of a failing grade in one course. 

and the second because the director of Manuela 
Canizares, an excellent normal school in Quito, 
refused to accept her unless she repeated the year. 

Finally, she was admitted to normal school on 
a three-month trial. During this period the 
director denied her the routine student interviews 
and seemingly ignored her greetings when they 
passed on campus. It was as if her very presence 
was an affront to the honor of his school. How- 
ever, after he received the grades and reports 
from her teachers for the first quarter's work, his 
attitude changed completely. Mercedes had won 
the full backing of her teachers and the school 

Student teaching assignments presented new 
problems because practical assignments were in 
the city schools. Their supervisor explained that 
each student teacher would be provided lesson 
plans by the regular teachers and would then be 
expected to present the material to the class. This 
proved to be true for her classmates, but Mercedes 
was given only the list of subjects she was to 
teach and was left to spend her nights in research 
and preparation on the subjects to be presented 
the next day. 

No matter how much effort she put into 

luan Benatcazar talks with Mercedes after 
service of recognition in which she thanked the 
Calderon congregation for its spiritual 
undergirding during her years of study 


■ lowers attract women the world over, Mercedes 
cultivates the geraniums in the front 
yard of her Ecuadorian home 

preparation and presentation, she was given a 
grade of 50 or 60%, while her classmates always 
rated 80 or 90%. When her supervisor inquired as 
to the reason why Mercedes rated so much poorer 
than the others, the critic teacher explained that 
she was only testing the girl's determination and 
fortitude to be sure that she really wanted to be 
a teacher. 

After her first two years of high school, her 
father said that she could not continue, and he 
refused her any further help. Mercedes deter- 
mined that she would continue. She left home. 
She found part-time work as a maid in Quito and 
was able to earn room, board, and a very small 
salary. Therefore, in addition to her hours in 
school and hours of study at night, she had the 
responsibility of a family's washing and ironing 
at night and the preparation and serving of 
breakfast before leaving for classes in the morning. 
Many nights she slept only three or four hours. 
It was several weeks after her graduation before 
Mercedes was able to sleep soundly through the 
night without nightmares that she must get up and 
finish some waiting task. 

In Ecuador, although there are still communities 
without educational facilities, there are more 
teachers prepared than there are teachers' salaries 
available. Mercedes asked for a position in any 
rural area of Ecuador where they needed a 
teacher, but the ministry of education informed 
her that there just was not any money to hire her. 
She is teaching this year in a small Christian 
community in the eastern jungles where a 
mission pays her salary. She is responsible for 
second tlirough sixth grades and is grateful now 
that she was forced to dig out her own materials 
for practice teaching, although she felt discrimi- 
nated against at the time. 

Mercedes' struggles — personal, professional, 
cultural, and racial — are not over. We pray that 
she will continue to meet them with faith and 
quiet courage, and without bitterness or resent- 
ment. To her, and to others who tread a similar 
difficult path, we commend the words of a Jew 
on the night before he was crucified, "Peace I 
leave with you; my peace I give to you; not as 
the world gives do I give to you. Let not your 
hearts be troubled, neither let them be afraid" 
(John 14:27). D 

6 MESSENGER 2-4-65 



Every day more of us are retiring with one fourth of our lives ahead of us. 
How happy we will be at age sixty-five depends on how well we prepare for it 

LET THE YOUNG and the middle-aged take 
note of this title as well as the aging. To no 
area of life is the slogan, Be Prepared, more 
applicable than to the time of our retirement 
years. There is no excuse for letting retire- 
ment take one by surprise. A man may try and 
not succeed in the effort to make provision 
for his financial needs after retiring, but at 
least he should try. Of even greater importance 
than financial independence is mental prep- 
aration for this period of life, the attitude one 
takes toward these later years, whether one 
looks upon them as a period of useiessness 
and misery between active life and death, or 
as a bonus opportunity to live. 

Two factors have combined to create for 
us a good fortune on a scale never enjoyed by 
any previous generation. In the first place, 
medical science has increased our life ex- 
pectancy by thirty years or more in the last 
century. It will be more and more common 
hereafter for people to live and be in reason- 
ably good health to the age of ninety or one- 
hundred years and beyond. In the second 
place, technology has so increased man's pro- 
ductive capacity that he is not only permitted 
but encouraged and, in many cases, required 
to retire at an early age. This means that 
millions of persons from here on will retire at 

sixty-five with one fourth or one third of their 
lives still ahead of them. 

Sixty-five is an age to look forward to — no 
more punching the time clock, your money 
made, your place in life established, your chil- 
dren raised, grandchildren to enjoy. This peri- 
od of life can indeed be the richest and most 
enjoyable period of a man's life. But if it is 
to be this, it must also be purposeful. 

There are two ways to anticipate retire- 
ment. One is the way of the man Jesus told 
about: "Take your ease, eat, drink, be merry." 
This man did not live to enjoy the "much 
goods" he had laid up. Many a farmer has 
moved to town to loaf and has died soon 
thereafter, while his wife, who had to keep on 
at about her usual pace, has outlived him by 
many years. If life is to be enjoyable, if indeed 
it is to be lived at all, it must have meaning. 
Golf, fishing, and other sports have their place, 
a very important place. But they are not quite 

The other way of anticipating retirement, 
therefore, is to look forward to it as an oppor- 
tunity to do something, or many things, that one 
could not do during the busy years of earning 
a living and rearing a family — to study (a man 
of eighty has only slightly less ability to learn 
than a boy of twelve), to acquire some new 

2-4h55 messenger 7 

skill, to travel, or to render some needed serv- 
ice to society. 

Science has added years to our lives. It is 
left to each individual to add life to these 
years. He can most surely do this by refusing 
to be put on a shelf, by keeping alert, active, 
and useful. Every person with a skill w/ill find 
that when industry no longer needs his partic- 
ular skill, there is still some person, some 
family, or some institution that does need it. 
Let him find a place where it is needed and 
use it there, with or without remuneration. 

f^ MECHANIC I know finds great satisfaction 
in keeping the physical plant of his church in 
perfect working condition. A retired teacher 
spent several years conducting classes in re- 
medial reading for culturally deprived children. 
A farmer takes his know-how to an agricultural 
mission in a hungry country. A retired college 
professor is finding joy and usefulness in serv- 
ing as an interim pastor of churches. Retired 
teachers tutor students who are having diffi- 
culty in school. Brethren Volunteer Service 
and the Peace Corps offer a countless variety 
of opportunities for mature persons with skills. 

Even without any special skills you can 
offer many services to your local community 
— Red Cross work, helping in the hospital, 
baby-sitting for a busy, hardworking mother, 
calling on shut-ins, soliciting for the community 
chest, being a good neighbor. The person who 
is willing and genuinely concerned can find 
opportunity. If you have something to give — 
cheer, friendliness, wisdom, a warm interest in 
others' happiness — your services will be in 

In rendering such services you will benefit 
yourself even more than others. It has often 
been said that happiness is not achieved by 
making it a goal. This will be true in your re- 
tirement years. You will not find it by changing 
from a hardworking man to a playboy but 
rather in the joy of making yourself useful. 

One need not be old at sixty-five — or 
eighty-five. Getting old is a matter of mental 
attitudes. Bitterness and resentment make a 
person old. Complaining makes one old. 
Thankfulness keeps one young. We can keep 

young in our thinking and in our outlook on 
life. We are as old as we think we are — and 
as other people think we are. What other 
people think is important, for it is usually a 
pretty reliable index of what we are. 

We must require of the years, therefore, 
that they make their imprint on us in ways that 
add grace and charm to our personalities. It 
can be done. You can name persons in the 
circle of your acquaintance who have grown 
old gracefully. Imitate them. Guard against 
obnoxious characteristics, telling the same 
thing over and over, reciting your ills and mis- 
fortunes, always trying to interest people in 
yourself, and saying unkind things about 

Instead, take a lively interest in others. Ex- 
press pleasure in their good fortune, sympathy 
in their troubles. Speak kindly of the absent or 
speak of them not at all. Be interested in the 
young and be optimistic in your outlook. Main- 
tain a confident faith that today is better than 
yesterday and that the best is yet to be. Have 
pride and self-respect in regard to your own 
person and your appearance. Be sincere. 
Without fawning, be friendly and appreciative 
of other people. 

For your own satisfaction maintain personal 
contacts with friends new and old. Take part 
in church and community activities. To keep 
your health remember that a healthy frame of 
mind is of first importance. Eat nourishing 
food, get plenty of rest, exercise sensibly, and 
cooperate with your physician without, any 
more than necessary, becoming dependent on 

By making some effort along these lines 
you can grow old gracefully, add life to your 
retirement years, and make the years after 
sixty-five the most enjoyable and rewarding of 
your life. Your Christian experience and your 
faith in the future will enable you to say, even 
when you know the end is near, "The best is 
still to come." 

One final word of caution. He who waits 
until tomorrow or until the attainment of one 
more goal to be happy will never be happy. 
We must start now to count our blessings and 
rejoice in what we have today. 

"This is the day which the Lord has made; 
let us rejoice and be glad in it." 

8 MESSENGER 2-4-65 




I »« 





ICA ^>^9 







jS IvV/')' 



L! i 



An explanation of the most misinterpreted 
feature of the civil rights struggle 


Since 1950 my specific calling has been to try 
to explain white and Negro Americans to each 
other. It is a far harder job than — say — ex- 
plaining poetry to people who never read it. For 
poetry is a neutral topic. And poetry is a topic 
about which most people who know little know 
that they know little. 

The topic of race, on the other hand, stirs 
deep emotions in most of us. And although for 
fourteen years I have devoted my entire time to 
study, thought, and involvement in regard to 

by Sarah Patton Boyle 

Demonstrations are necessary to make decent people aware of the injun 

this issue, I rarely meet anyone who does not 
assume that his own information and judgment 
on the subject are much sounder than mine. So 
I am well aware of the difficulties I face when I 
set out to explain one of the most misinterpreted 
features of the civil rights struggle. 

Many people who would sincerely like to see 
successful integration question the rightness of 
pubhc demonstrations. They usually have two 
chief reservations. One stems from a beUef that 
demonstrations invite violence, even when the 
participants themselves remain peaceful. The 
other reservation concerns the ethics of civil 

To condemn demonstrators on the ground 
that, even though they themselves remain peace- 
ful, they invite violence from others is like 
condemning ownership of valuables on the ground 
that it offers inducement for theft. Peaceful 
demonstrations are the constitutional right of 
every American who has a grievance. The belief 
that they are wrong because others may make 
them an occasion for misbehavior is so out of step 
with the rest of our ethical thinking that it 
probably is rooted in doubt that the demonstra- 
tions themselves are worthily motivated. It is 
often said with a note of resounding contempt, 
that they are simply "staged for publicity!" 

Of course, the chief aim of demonstrations is 
publicity. But what could be more Christian, 
or more American, than the assumption that if 
only the inequalities and injustices of segregation 
are brought to the attention of others, the 
conscience of good people will ensure that the 
situation can be remedied? 

The very assumption, however, that demon- 
strations create violence reveals the typical white 
American's ignorance of one of the great evils of 
segregation. Peaceful demonstrations seldom, if 
ever, motivate violence in whites who are not 
customarily brutal to Negroes. Demonstrations 
merely induce hostile, emotionally sick persons to 
perform openly, and under the eyes of reporters 
and television cameras, the kind of behavior 
toward Negroes that they otherwise practice only 
in secret behind the segregation wall. 

The record shows that it was not until Negroes 
began to "make a public nuisance of themselves" 
that anything which happened to a Negro, other 
than a public lynching, was ever reported in the 
Southern press. Tlie Northern press was only 

10 MESSENGER 2-4-65 

slightly better. Literally not one decent white 
Southerner in a thousand is aware that the curtain 
of segregation allows Negroes to be the daily 
victims of the snarling hatred of any sadist who 
wishes to gratify his revolting desires. Segregation 
gives him perfect assurance that he can torment 
Negroes in almost any way he wishes without his 
acts ever coming to light, much less to justice. 

Most decent people must see for themselves 
this hatred and these acts to believe that they 
exist. If you are filled with horror at TV pictures 
of contorted white faces and objects hurled by 
white hands to maim and kill, remember that 
these are the same faces and hands that every 
Southern Negro fears to meet on lonely streets 
and lonely roads and that when he does meet 
them, if he is just an average, humble Negro, no 
one except his own family and friends will ever 

So peaceful demonstrations are not wrongly 
motivated, nor do they induce peaceful persons 
to be violent. They do induce a pubhc perform- 
ance of acts which usually are reserved for the 
strictly private pleasures of criminally inclined 
and emotionally disturbed whites who know that 
segregation ensures their immunity. 

But we can go further and state that peaceful 
demonstrations actually prevent violence. Many 
informed persons believe that these demonstra- 
tions alone stand between us and bloody revolu- 
tion. To grasp this we must suspend our segre- 
gated habit of thinking only of the effect on 
whites of civil rights demonstrations. Far more 
important is their effect on Negroes. 

Few Negroes suspect the depth of our ignor- 
ance concerning the inequities, hardships, and 
dangers which segregation imposes. They imagine 
that we give complete moral consent to a long 
list of injustices and cruelties of which in fact we 
know nothing. The inevitable result is that 
Negroes are furiously angry, while we, unaware 
of any cause for anger, cannot believe that their 
anger exists. Actually, the wrath of most — I say 
most — Negroes in many areas is now at such 
volcanic heat that it is only through the watchful, 
concentrated efforts of the peaceful-action organ- 
izations, such as the NAACP, CORE, the Student 
Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Southern 
Christian Leadership Conference, and a few 
others, that an explosion has not already occurred. 
Negro Americans are thinking and feeling as 

inequalities that exist 

Jeffersonian Americans once did, but their tactics 
have been nobler. 

We who boast of our Boston Tea Party and 
celebrate our freedom with swords and guns 
should bow very low before our Negro citizens 
for their unbelievably — by comparison — con- 
trolled and orderly pressure to gain at last rights 
and privileges which originally were bought, 
supposedly for every American, with the blood of 
our adversaries. If Negroes have not burst into 
the violence of which we ourselves were guilty 
in our fight for freedom, it is only because of wise 
and noble leaders who skillfully provide nonviolent 
outlets for rising tension, anger, and frustration 
each time a danger point is reached. 

When our nation's greatest expert on non- 
violent action, Martin Luther King, moves swiftly 
into an area where trouble has begun, it is com- 
monly assumed that he is there "to stir up trouble." 
Actually, he may be there to prevent it. The 
tortured town, which often fears that King's 
presence will "make blood run in the streets," 
little suspects that had he not rushed to the 
scene, blood probably would indeed have run. 

This fact is brought forcefully home to any 
observer who has the confidence of both the local 
Negro leaders in such a town and of the improved 
nonviolence task force. The difference between 
the two sets of leaders is often the simple differ- 
ence between war and peace. Many of the local 
leaders are driven to such madness by an un- 
publicized series of open insults and private 
physical attacks upon them that they believe only 
in the power of hatred and wrath. But the non- 
violence experts confront them with an unyielding 
faith, support by knowledge and personal ex- 
perience, that no power is so great as the power 
of goodness, love, and self-sacrifice. 

Under their leadership every angry Negro has 
a chance to go into action for his own freedom 
and the freedom of his children and his friends. 
But it is the kind of action which drains off anger 
and brings up from a man's depths the best and 
noblest in the human heart. Seff-sacrifice is pitted 
against cruelty; the power to endure suffering, 
against the power to inflict pain; the power to 
sing and preach and pray, against the power to 
curse and bludgeon and wound. 

A Christian miracle is often bom in the towns 
where demonstrations hold sway, but only those 
who are there to stand at the stable door see its 

birth. Each maddened individual who marches, 
sits in, stands in, wades in, kneels in, and is im- 
prisoned for freedom feels that he has struck a 
telling blow at the enormous evil which for years 
has tortured him. And so he is delivered from a 
yearning to strike with his fist, his knife, or his 

Let us now take a brief look at the second 
reason why many who desire successful integra- 
tion question the rightness of demonstrations — 
at least of those demonstrations that involve 
deliberate civil disobedience and result in arrest. 
The concern of these persons is summed up in 
the familiar question, "Can lawbreaking ever be 

The sincerity of those who ask it is not to be 
doubted. But this is a strange question for an 
American, whose country was founded on our 
refusal to obey the unjust laws of what was then 
our government. It is an even stranger question 
for a Christian, when the early Christians them- 
selves were outlawed, and, therefore, the Chris- 
tian Church itseff was founded on the deliberate 
breaking of unjust laws. 

Christianity does teach respect for civil 
authority and law. But the demonstrators pub- 
licly witness to this respect by accepting the 
punishment which the law prescribes. This is the 
chief point in going to jail. Persons who lack 
respect for the law break laws and then run from 
the punishment. By breaking unjust laws and 


Suppose you received a letter 
from your heavenly Father. It 
might read som,ething like this 

±o you 

Wou ARE my child. I brought you into being 
and placed you in a world I made for your 
pleasure. It was a world in which you would 
have meat to eat and the fruit of the trees for 
your enjoyment. In this world there were 
mysteries to be solved and secrets to be dis- 
covered. It was a world in which there were rules 
which I had decreed for your good. Abundant 
life was to be yours if you obeyed my voice, 
hearkened to my will, and kept my rules. 

But one day you decided my rules were too 
strict. You believed there was greater freedom 
and enjoyment to be gotten from life by doing 
as you pleased. As a result your body became 
sick, your mind was confused, hearts were broken, 
disappointment and terrible frustration dogged 
your steps as you piled one mistake upon another 
in an effort to make your own way and to cover up 
one false step with one equally as false. Brother 
turned against brother, and some were killed. 
At length you got yourself into such a mess that 
I knew you would never be able to get out of it. 
A lesser god would have thrown you to your 
fate and left you in your misery. But you were 
my child. You were the masterpiece of my creative 
genius. My highest purposes had you in mind. 
So I placed you in a family. From the man of the 
earth I called out a man of faith to be the father 
of a great nation through whom all the other 
families of the earth could be brought into a right 

relationship to me. Unfortunately, in that family 
you forgot you had been called to service and 
not to special privilege. You wrapped the skirts 
of righteousness around you so that you might not 
be defiled by contact with others. I chastised you 
first in one way and then in another. I gave you 
warnings through prophets and holy men in an 
effort to make you realize that being my people 
did not make you immune to judgment. But you 
did not listen. 

At long last I realized that if you were to be 
saved to abundant and eternal life I must take 
the most radical step. So I left my heavenly 
throne and came to earth for you. I walked with 
you; I talked with you; I showed you how to live. 
One day outside the city of Jerusalem, upon an 
old rugged cross, I gave you an unforgettable 
demonstration of what happens when you disobey 
and do not listen. 

There is nothing more now that I can do. 
You know that when you are disobedient you 
suffer terrible consequences and other persons are 
made to suffer. But, what is more, you know that 
I suffer the most — you break my heart. When 
you are honest with yourself you know that my 
way is the only way. 

I have encouraged you to join a unique fellow- 
ship with all who love and serve me. I have 
asked that you keep out of mischief by being busy 
at the work of my kingdom: proclaiming my 

12 MESSENGER 2-4-65 

by DeWitt L. Miller 

word to all men, enlisting them 
in the service of my cause, and 
working steadfastly at the task 
of getting my will done on earth 
as it is in heaven. This is in 
order that you might have true 
peace of mind and contentment 
of spirit in experiencing the joy 
of my salvation. I want you to 
have the assurance that any 
difficulty you have now is not to 
be compared with the glorious 
realization of my kingdom which 
belongs to a day to which there 
is no sunset. 

This letter comes to you in 
order that I can tell you that I 
love you. If in service and 
obedience you ascend unto the 
highest heaven, there my love 
will bless you; if you travel to 
the uttermost parts of the earth, 
the sea, or the skies, there my 
love will reach out to you; if in 
disobedience you sink to the 
lowest depths of hell, even there 
my love will be suffering with 
you. Nothing will ever be 
able to separate you from my 
love, for it will follow you 
wherever you go and be with 
you wherever you are. 

O my child, why do you re- 
fuse my love? Why do you give 
yourself to that which can only 
make you and others miserable? 
Why do you waste the gifts I 
have given you on that which 
can bring no satisfying return? 
Do you not know that it is my 
breath that gives hfe to your 
body? Do you not know that 
it is my Spirit which inspires 
your deepest longings, your 
highest hopes, your holiest 
dreams? I have made you for 
myself, and your heart will never 
know the peace that passes 
understanding until you love 
me even as I love you. D 

Faith Looks Up 

OUR lunch today was "instant smorgasbord," a disguised term 
for some lowly leftovers. 

All three of our children had helped to get it ready. One had 
correctly set the table following the diagram on the back page 
of the red cookbook. One had filled the water glasses. 

Five-year-old Lori was getting the bread when she found the 
last one of yesterday's homemade roils. She immediately had 
two other eager takers of the treat that she hoped would be a 
"finders-keepers" part of her lunch. 

For several minutes I had a ringside seat as the inevitable 
disagreement took place. Each one loudly demanded his right, 
selfish though it was, to the treasure, and each gave his equally 
selfish reasons why it ought to be his. 

As soon as it became obvious that this was not the answer, 
the voices gradually became calmer. Then Lori, drawing from 
her well-taught Sunday school knowledge of the New Testament 
stories, said this, "If I just had Jesus here for one minute, I know 
he could stretch this, and we would all have enough." 

A childlike faith leaves no room for doubt. It leads us to 
believe completely in God and his power. Yet we adults so often 
allow our faith to become not childlike, but childish. Many of us 
keep God in reserve for that one-minute need or for the 
emergencies in life. 

If we so limit God, how can we give full expression to our 
faith? We must permit, more than that we must welcome, God 
to be an integral part of our entire life. Then we more fully 
understand Jesus' words when he said, "Truly, I say to you, 
whoever does not receive the kingdom of God like a child shall 
not enter it" (Mark 10:15). 

Elaine Sollenberger contributes a weekly 
column. One Woman's Thoughts, to a local 
newspaper. Kept busy as homemaker (wife 
to husband Ray and mother to Beth, 8, 
Lori, 5, and Leon, 4), she still finds time to 
direct the adult choir and teach the junior 
high class at the Cherry Lane church near 
Everett, Pennsylvania. Elaine is a graduate 
of Juniata College. 


you ask 

Is it proper for infants and un- 
conscious persons who are ill to 
be anointed for healing in accord 
with the practice of the Church of 
the Brethren? 

Brethren have always placed 
strong emphasis upon the impor- 
tance of faith in the service of 
anointing for healing. This faith 
is expressed when the service is 
called for by the patient. ("Is any 
among you sick? Let him call for 
the elders of the church, and let 
them pray over him, anointing him 
with oil in the name of the 
Lord.' — Jas. 5:14) Faith is further 
evidenced by the patient in a serv- 
ice of preparation and self-exam- 
ination in which the person who 
is ill gives testimony to his con- 
fidence in God's loving care and 
his willingness to submit always to 
God's will and purpose. ("And the 
prayer of faith will save the sick 
man." — Jas. 5:15) 

When a person is rendered un- 
conscious, either by illness or acci- 
dent, it is impossible for him, of 
course, to respond rationally in 
faith to God's promise. Strictly 
speaking, this fact might raise a 
serious question about the validity 
of the anointing service under these 
circumstances. This would be es- 
pecially true if the patient had 
never had occasion to express his 
faith in such a service. Intercessory 
prayer for the sick would certainly 

be in place and would effectively 
lay claim to God's healing power. 

Should the ill person be a con- 
fessing Christian whose faith in 
God, expressed in the rite of the 
anointing service, was well known, 
the situation might be quite differ- 
ent. Even though his physical con- 
dition would make it impossible 
for him to call for the service 
himself, such a service requested 
by his family would be quite in 
keeping with what he himself 
would wish. His faith, often de- 
clared, would have already pre- 
pared him for God's action. His 
daily commitment of his life to 
God would already place him in 
God's care and keeping. The 
anointing of such a person would 
not only open the door for God's 
blessing upon him but would also 
provide comfort for his loved ones. 

Infants, of course, are not able 
to make any faith response for 
themselves. For this reason, many 
pastors prefer to offer prayers for 
sick children without the rite of 
anointing. However, since Chris- 
tian parents assume the responsibil- 
ity for the spiritual welfare of their 
children and declare this through 
the vows they take when their chil- 

dren are presented unto the Lord 
in solemn dedication, it would be 
proper to assume that parents 
might act for their child in request- 
ing the anointing service. Their 
own faith could well be a signif- 
icant factor in God's healing action 
in the child. 

The rite of anointing for healing 
might, therefore, be administered 
to both infants and persons who 
are unconscious under certain cir- 
cumstances. Each situation should 
be carefully evaluated by the of- 
ficiating elder or pastor. 

What is meant by the word 
"selah" in the Psalms? 

No one knows exactly the mean- 
ing of this word. It was undoubt- 
edly a direction for the conductor 
of worship which had no relation- 
ship to the text of the psalm. It 
might have meant a pause in the 
liturgy, the end of a strophe, direc- 
tions for playing with full power 
(such as the musical sign, fortis- 
simo) or even an orchestral inter- 
lude, since various musical instru- 
ments, brass, string, and percussion 
were used in Hebrew worship. 
The word selah appears seventy- 
one times in thirty-nine Psalms. It 
has purposely been omitted in the 
Revised Standard Version of the 
Bible. When it appears in the text 
from which the Bible lesson is be- 
ing read, it should be ignored since 
it is a stage direction and not a 
part of the psalm. 

jk If you have a question you would like to have answered 
on this page, send it to Questions You Ask, Messenger, 
Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 
Replies to questions are written by Dr. Paul M. Robinson 

CONTRIBUTORS: Known already as author of "The Desegregated 

Heart," Sarah Patton Boyle has written a new book entitled "For Human 

Beings Only." A member of the Episcopal Church, 

Mrs. Boyle serves on the Advisory Committee of the 

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. . . . Estella Horning, 

wife of Dr. John Horning and a missionary in 

Ecuador, works with women's groups and in adult 

literacy and public health programs there. . . . Ruth 

Griggs, a frequent contributor, now lives near Toronto, 

Canada. Her husband, Julian, is national secretary of 

the Fellowship of Reconciliation in Canada. . . . Ruth Eitzen (Mrs. 


Allen) has prepared children's features for a number of periodicals. 
She lives near Barto, Pa. . . . Emily Sargent Councilman also contributes 
to many magazines. Her home is in North Carolina. . . . Three Millers 
appear as contributors to this issue: DeWitt L. Miller, pastor at Hagers- 
town, Md., was moderator of last year's Annual Conference. . . . 
Richard N. Miller, appearing in a new role as TV critic, is executive 
secretary of the districts of Illinois and Wisconsin. . . . Donald E. Miller 
. is associate professor of Christian education and ethics at Bethany. . . . 
Ira H. Frantz, educator and writer, turned to pastoral service in his 
retirement. He now serves the Pyrmont church near Delphi, Ind. 


On the care and feeding of pastors 

Brethren who feel there is some- 
thing amiss in the pastoral ministry, 
are right on at least one count: salary. 
Four out of five Church of the Breth- 
ren ministers are underpaid, if the 
Annual Conference salary scale is seen 
as the gauge. 

Moreover, in a comprehensive Na- 
tional Council of Churches' sampling 
of fifteen denominations, the Church 
of the Brethren, in terms of the medi- 

Minimum Pastoral Salary 
1960 Annual Conference 

Years of 





















































The 1960 Annual Conference scale was based 
on the 1959 economy. Not included: par- 
sonage, travel expense, other business al- 

an cash salary oflFered, ranked four- 
teenth. Offering the top median sal- 
ary was the United Presbyterian 
Church in the U.S.A., $5,669; the 
lowest, the Church of God (Anderson, 
Ind.), $3,750. For the entire group 
of denominations the annual median 
salary was $5,158; for the Church 
of the Brethren, $4,275. That is, for 
Brethren, one half of the pastors re- 
ceived less than the $4,275 and one 
half received more. 

Augmenting the base salaries of 
pastors, accordng to the NCC survey, 
were such annual allowances as hous- 
ing (median value $1,300), utilities 
(median value $459), and fees (medi- 
an value $89). As to automobile op- 
eration expenses, only one out of 
twelve pastors was fully reimbursed 
for church-related travel. 

As a result of inadequate provision 
for auto expenses and other business 
costs, the survey found only four per- 
cent of American Protestant ministers 
receive the full value of their cash 
salaries. The remainder dip into their 
pockets to subsidize their own 

Further NCC comparisons indi- 
cated that the minister's annual in- 
come falls $1,000 to $1,900 below 
the average paid his lay compatriot 
in nonchurch work — below salesmen 

and public school teachers, below pro- 
fessors in church-related colleges, and 
only a little above clerical and factory 
workers. Only eighteen percent of 
the pastors surveyed received regular 
annual increments. Many a pastor 
gets a raise only by changing jobs. 

When Annual Conference in 1960 
established a salary standardization 
scale, the hope was for an upgrading 
of salaries across the Brotherhood. 
With 433 of the 549 full-time pastors 
still under the scale, it appears the 
Annual Conference recommendation 
is either disregarded or is considered 
beyond attainment by a majority of 
churches. In at least one district, 
however, the scale has been taken 
seriously, for in three years no incom- 
ing pastor has been employed below 
the scale. 

One aspect of the 1960 Conference 
action was a review every five years 
of the salary scale, with the Confer- 
ence itself acting on any major re- 
visions. To engage in this review a 
group of laymen will meet Feb. 11. 
The review committee is headed by 
Clifi^ord B. Huffman, Lancaster, Pa. 
Other members are: Ira Peters, Ro- 
anoke, Va.; Samuel F. Rothrock, La 
Verne, Calif.; Robert Wise, McPher- 
son, Kansas, and J. Galen Whitehead, 
New Paris, Ind. 

2-4-65 MESSENGER 15 


6 4 


Frederick's focal point: 
the winning of souls 

The Line is familiar: "The Church of the Brethren is not 
evangehstic. Our close fellowship, our certain emphases, 
our background seem to keep other people out." 

Upon taking pastoral charge of the Frederick Church of 
the Brethren, Md., in 1962, Merhn E. Garber decided to 
test such assumptions. He avowed that evangelism was to be 
the number one priority, with full emphasis to the "distinctive 
and peculiar" doctrines of Brethren — baptism, feet-washing, 
anointing, peace, and prayer veil among them. 

"It seemed to me and some of the congregation," he 
explained, "that a critical reading of the New Testament 
placed the highest priority on soul winning. Yet it was fund 
raising, building construction, social service that was being 
made primary. 

"We earnestly prayed about the matter and left it with 
the Lord that if evangehsm was really his will he would 
bless the work; if not, he would indicate where our major 
emphasis should be." 

Beginning "just by doing two things mainly, visiting and 
witnessing," the congregation within twenty-five months re- 
ceived 258 persons, bringing Frederick's membership to 827. 
A considerable number of these, however, were reclamations. 

For the second of the two years, the congregation set as 
its goal "100 more in '64." The number who came forth in 
public confession was 110. The current goal is "125 in 
'65" — 125 beyond any reclamations. 

Will the growth continue? "We thought at first we would 
run out of prospects but the more we take in the more 
prospects we receive. Members phone in and tell us of 
community newcomers. Organizations in the church reach 
out and invite the unchurched to join their groups. And the 
most fruitful prospect list of all comes through the cradle 

"The newcomers are assimilated in many ways: through 
sponsors, church school classes, introductions before the 
congregation, small social and service groups, even by joining 
in evangelism themselves." 

The best attended services, said the minister, have been 
the love feast and communion, where members all wash feet 
and all women wear the prayer veil. "We are not instituting 
the bread and cup communion here because that would 
defeat our hypothesis that the Church of the Brethren can 
be evangelistic and at the same time distinctive in its doc- 
trines." About one sermon in four is addressed to Brethren 

In spite of its record already, Pastor Garber asserted that 

Evangelism at Frederick. At top. Pastor Garber greets engineer 

Harry Stine as he presents his daughter, Teresa Ann, for dedica- 
tion and himself for baptism. At center, the pastor reviews 
prospect cards vi'ith evangelism chairman Carl Kintz. At left, state 
trooper Norman McBride, Jr., and his family enroll little Pamela 
Michelle as the 98th baby in the cradle roll. Superintendent 
Genevieve McCracken assists. 

Frederick just now is "about at the 
point where it is ready to do evange- 
listic work." By this, he explained, 
the church is coming actually to be- 
lieve "that evangelism is the first work 
of the church." 

"For instance, as pastor I am not 
required to attend class meetings, 
committee meetings, church board, or 
even council meetings. I am free to 
spend that time in visiting. The lay- 
men are running the church and doing 
a good job of it." 

Attendance at worship averages 
above 400, more at Sunday school. 
Last year's budget, which the board 
felt was set at a maximum, was sur- 
passed in giving by twenty-five per- 
cent. Some ninety persons have 
pledged to read the Bible through 
this year; others are reading who did 
not sign the pledge. 

Interestingly, while Pastor Garber 
has made evangelism the focal point, 
his own interests are exceedingly 
broad. He is a veteran service worker 
in Austria, a former sociology instruc- 
tor at the University of Illinois, and 
an authority on the Mayan civilization 
of Central America. 

While enthusiastic, he is fearful of 
too much being claimed for Freder- 
ick's program. "Frankly, we don't 
know in the long haul if this is just 
a flash in the pan or the real thing," 
he said. "For the moment, we are 
convinced that Brethren can win men 
to Christ if they are willing to pay 
the price." 

Thus far, for Frederick the price 
appears not too high. 

To Pakistani post 

Dr. D. W. Bittinger, president of 
McPherson College in Kansas and 
former editor of the Gospel Messen- 
ger, has resigned his position to serve 
as a Fulbright 
lecturer in Pak- 
istan beginning 
in September. 
He will termi- 
nate a fifteen- 
year term as 
In his new assignment Dr. Bittinger 
will help develop a department of 
sociology and anthropology for Pakis- 
tan's new Peshawar University. 

Controversy over curriculum 

Toronto — What problems do children face if they are taught 
in Sunday School that the world was made by direct acts of God 
in a seven-day period and then later learn in school that life 
developed on the earth over bilUons and billions of years? After 
many years of study and revision The United Church of Canada 
(a merger of Methodists, the Congregationalists, and Presbyterians) 
has published a new Sunday school curriculum for children which 
is more in harmony with today's knowledge than their previous 
religious educational materials have been. 

The new curriculum precipitated heavy controversy which hit 
the front pages of major newspapers across Canada. Militant 
opposition came from a minority group who accept the Bible as 
infalhble, completely and historically true from cover to cover. 
They denounced the material as "heretical, wicked, atheistic" and 
called for book-burning ceremonies. 

In general. United Church people have accepted the material. 
In fact, many have welcomed it for its intellectually honest, 
straightforward approach. Many Protestant scholars and several 
Roman Catholic scholars have defended the curriculum publicly. 

The storm centers around the use of the word myth. The 
opposition understands this word to mean a false tale. As it is 
used in the new material the word describes a story which expresses 
a spiritual truth but not a historical fact. Thus, the new material 
introduces the creation story as a "myth" of primitive people to 
explain the beginnings and to teach that God was the force behind 
it. The actual details of how long it took or exactly how man was 
created are unimportant to the main message of the story . . . that 
God was in the beginning, the Cause, the Creator. 

One United Church minister said, "It is not the purpose of the 
Bible to teach history and science, but to teach man's relation to 
God and his fellow creatures. If we want to know the scientific 
facts, we'd better go to the geologists, archaeologists, and anthro- 
pologists. For history, we should go to modern historians with all 
their accumulated evidence and tools for measuring the age of 
artifacts, etc. But for our faith, we should go to the Bible and there 
find the progressive revelation of God." 

Another United Church minister said, "In the twentieth century, 
schools, TV, books, money, and travel make today's children aware 
of different ideas and standards, ready to examine and question 
things ten times sooner and ten times more than their grandparents. 
If we approach them with authority saying that every word in 
the Bible is true, they will greet the church with the kind of con- 
tempt which many educated and sensitive people are already 
showing us. Our job is not to convince people that the Bible is 
true, but to help people find truth in the Bible." 

For example, in the story of Jonah, the point is not to make 
children believe that a man could live in a whale, but to get across 
the reason why the story was told. . . the truth contained in this 
story: that God pitied Nineveh . . . that God cares for all men. 

The new Canadian curriculum presents the Bible as the record 
of the Jews' search for God and insists that the Holy Spirit still 
guides men today as they seek, in the same way the Bible people 
did, for God's truth in their lives and times. — Ruth Griggs 


Vatican II: whence comes the spring? 

Enacted in the sessions of Vatican II is a turbulent 
drama, a traumatic upheaval that shatters Roman 
Catholicism's image as unchanging and unchangeable 

Renewal is on the upswing. The 
theme is heard in Rome, in inner city 
and in village parishes, in Elgin, in 
mission enterprises, in church coun- 
cils. In places far and near the church 
is stirring with new resolve to bring 
its witness in line with the realities 
of the 20th century. 

But most of all in Rome. 

There, in the "most tradition-en- 
crusted of churches," as Time maga- 
zine recently alluded to Roman Ca- 
tholicism, the church fathers have un- 
leashed a passion for aggiomamento, 
or coming to terms with the times. 
It began in January 1959, when a 
peasant who had become pope an- 
nounced it was time to "open the 
windows of the church to let in some 
fresh air." The pontiff, John XXIII, 
summoned the Roman Catholic bish- 
ops to a Vatican Ecumenical Council, 
the first in 92 years and the second 
in 400 years. To the prelates as- 
sembled in September 1962 for Vati- 
can II's first session, he declared that 
the substance of truth is unalterable 
but not its understanding and 

Later, upon reflection, the pontiff 
said the idea of Vatican II came not 
"as the slowly ripening fruit of long 
deliberation but as the sudden flower- 
ing of an unexpected spring." 

This same note was echoed by his 
successor. Pope Paul VI, at the second 
session of Vatican II a year later. "The 
council is to be a new spring," he 
remarked, "a reawakening of the 
mighty spiritual and moral energies 
which at present lie dormant." 

Now, in the lull between the third 

and fourth sessions of Vatican II, the 
coming of spring, in terms of a total 
reawakening, seems unpredicatable. 
At the moment, it appears that spring 
was dealt a major setback in the clos- 
ing three days of last year's ten-week 
session, ten weeks marked by open 
dissension between Catholicism's con- 
servative and progressive wings. 

In the final throes of the third ses- 
sion Pope Paul VI and a minority of 
bishops blocked a council affimation 
of the principle of religious liberty. 
Up to 1,400 of the 2,100 council fa- 
thers appealed, futilely, to reverse the 
ruling against voting for the draft that 
would have recognized every man's 
right to worship God freely according 
to the dictates of his own conscience. 
Through this intervention the pope 
abruptly took the matter of agenda 
building out of the council's hands. 
Moreover, the action, according to 
The National Observer's Lee E. Dirks, 
"fueled Protestant suspicions that the 
pope still possesses absolute power in 
the church." Said one Methodist ob- 
server, "We have seen the naked face 
on the floor of St. Peter's of what we 
have always feared from Rome." All 
this in spite of a new principle pro- 
mulgated by the council — the prin- 
ciple of collegiality, or collective 
authority among the bishops. 

IN ESSENCE, the bishops did not 
expect collegiality to undermine papal 
infallability and supremacy, noted 
Robert C. Doty in the New York 
Times. They remained ready to yield 
to a command or veto of the Holy 
See. But they also had assumed that 

the pope would not rule arbitrarily 
against the wishes of a clear majority 
of the bishops. 

The pope went even further. On 
his own he bestowed upon the Virgin 
Mary the title, "Mother of the 
Church." In three years the bishops 
had sidestepped such action, choosing 
deliberately to refrain from use of a 
title which tends to alienate other 
Christians with whom Cathohcs seek 

the mind of the council, whether he 
was malleable in the hands of the arch- 
conservatives who dominate the cen- 
tral administrative body, the Roman 
Curia, which is closest to fiim, wheth- 
er deep within he opposes aggiorna- 
mento or at least collegiality and 
favors a church not merely "hierarchi- 
cal" but "monarchical," as some inter- 
preted his closing speech . . . these 
were the questions that reared their 
ugly heads, bringing the third session 
to an end amid what a Newsweek 
writer termed "pomp and uncere- 
monious squabbling." 

This reversal, however, ought not 
to cloud the positive attainments of 
Vatican II. The council took a turn 
toward the non-Catholic Christian in 
hope of eventual unity. In De Ecu- 
menismo, one of the documents pro- 
mulgated at the third session, priests 
were given more than mere freedom 
to discuss theology and join in cooper- 
ative projects with Protestant minis- 
ters. The scheme went further, grant- 
ing Catholics permission under special 
circumstances to worship with Protes- 

18 MESSENGER 2-4-65 

Pope John: unexpected spring 

St. Peter's Basilica: the unutterable is uttered 

Pope Paul: monarchical? 

tants in non-Catholic services. 

In De Ecclesia, the document from 
which collegiality stems, the council 
redefined and partly restructured the 
church in preparation for renewal. 
If implemented, the decree will give 
new significance to the role of 
the bishops, archbishops, cardinals, 
priests. The top echelon will become 
heirs of the aposdes and serve to 
balance the unlimited papalism set 
forth by the unfinished Vatican I of 

In the words of Lee E. Dirks, "Vat- 
ican II has fired up enthusiasm among 
bishops mired in administration. It 
has instilled new zeal into theologians 
whose ideas were once held suspect 
and into laymen whose ideas were 
once held inconsequential." Of tre- 
mendous promise is the fact that the 
council has spoken of the "priesthood 
of the laity" in terms akin to the 
Protestants' "priesthood of all be- 

Looking ahead, regardless of what 
comes in the final session of Vatican 
II later this year, sweeping changes 
already have been thrust into Roman 
Catholicism, changes suflBcient to 
soften the image of the church as a 
monolith, unchanging and unchange- 
able. New liturgy, at long last in 
the vernacular of the worshiper, and 
even talk of reform of some outdated 
rules which affect clerical celibacy, 
the Index of Forbidden Books, and 
birth control point to a new openness 
and freedom within the oldest institu- 
tion in the Western world. 

Take, for example, discussions al- 
ready occurring on the matter of birth 

control, an issue still to be dealt with 
in definite terms. What a revolution 
indeed that a Cardinal Leger of Can- 
ada could openly question the Cath- 
olic view that procreation is the "pri- 
mary" purpose of marriage and that 
a Patriarch Maximos of Syria could 
charge that the traditional teaching 
on birth control may be the result 
of "a bachelor psychosis" among the 
clergy. "These positions stated in the 
aula of St. Peter's would have been 
unthinkable, or at least unutterable, 
only a short time ago," commented 
Religious News Service's John Cogley. 
So it is that seemingly heretical 
views which only yesterday were held 
privately by Catholic theologians, 
priests, and even laity today are being 
aired openly. Public unanimity in 
Catholic thought has given way to 
dialogue. In this sense, at least, the 
spiritual spring talked of by Pope Paul 
and dreamed of by Pope John seems 
to be in the offing. 


not so simple as merely engaging in di- 
alogue. How shall Catholicism reverse 
itself, if that should be deemed neces- 
sary, when its doctrines heretofore 
have been held as immutable? 

John Cogley, himself a Catholic, 
cites the matter of birth control as 
an illustration: "If the church were 
to change its position, would it be 
tantamount to admitting that it had 
erred during all the time when it 
clung to the old position, despite the 
hardships caused in individual cases, 
the loss of faith suffered by many 
Catholics who could not accept the 

teaching, the hard advice offered in 
the confessional, the falling away 
from the sacraments by many who 
could not live up to the law pro- 
claimed, and the marital difficulties 
undergone by those who did?" 

To effect a change now on birth 
control could cause a crisis in faith 
not only among laymen but among 
priests who taught the doctrine, Cog- 
ley points out. "To ask them to make 
an about-face would be cruel. Still, 
there are theologians, and fathers of 
the council as well, who say that to 
continue with the same teaching 
would be even cruder." 

So goes one in a whole spectrum 
of debates still before Vatican II. The 
turbulent drama is at some points 
unique, that is, the ecclesiastical pow- 
er struggle. In other ways it but mir- 
rors the perplexity by which every 
segment of Christendom is con- 
fronted. That is, what is the Christian 
church? What does God intend it 
to be? What is its mission in this 

In the final analyses, these ques- 
tions may be unfathomable and defy 
rational explanation. Yet, the church 
cannot ignore them if it is intent on 
proclaiming its faith in the man Jesus 
Christ as the Son of God. Roman 
Catholicism is to be commended for 
its courage, though long overdue, in 
throwing its life and witness open for 
renewal. With them. Christians, 
whether headquartered in Rome or 
elsewhere, need to stand ready to pro- 
claim the event spoken of in Rev. 
21:5: "Behold, I make all things 
new." Perhaps, even, the church itself. 

2-4-65 MESSENGER 19 


Anglican updating 

Two HYMNS sung for more than a 
century have been dropped from the 
new world hymnal of the Anglican 
Church, to be published in May. 

"Nearer, My God, to Thee" and 
"From Greenland's Icy Mountains," 
both by the proliiic 19th century 
hymn writer, Lowell Mason, will be 
omitted from the new volume. The 
former was judged "too sentimental 
and doctrinally vague" and the latter 
"too imperialistic." 

In another Anglican development, 
a group of clergymen have openly 
opposed infant baptism in the Church 
of England. One critic described the 
practice as involving "the absurdity 
of parents promising faith and re- 
pentance of their children." At least 
two vicars have resigned their pas- 
torates over the dispute. 

Do it yourself 

The presses grind slowly in Indo- 
nesia. Though in 1963 the church 
there published nearly half a million 
books, that was small production in- 

deed for the four million Indonesian 
Protestants urgently wanting materi- 
als and for the hundred mUUon non- 
Christians whom the church would 
like to reach. 

The presses grind slowly, particu- 
larly when 118 manuscripts are 
okayed for publication, and the 
process, owing to paper shortages and 
a heavy demand upon printers, may 
take up to three years for each book. 

To remedy the situation, the Indo- 
nesian Council of Churches has en- 
tered the publishing business, soon to 
erect a $350,000 printing plant in 
Djakarta. Funds for the plant were 
borne by Lit-Lit, the National Council 
of Churches' literacy committee, and 
by missions councils in Germany and 
the Netherlands. An Indonesian 
churchman, Alfred Simandjuntak, will 
direct the operation, a project fore- 
seen by observers as "a tremendous 
boon" to literacy and evangelism 
throughout Indonesia. 

Leaky vessels all 

Week after week in prayer meeting 
one brother always came with the 
same burden. Invariably his prayer 
would be, "Lord, fill me with thy 
Spirit. Fill me now." 

One evening the man's wife sup- 
ported his plea. "Yes, Lord," she 
added, "fill him now; he leaks!" 


"Fill him now; he leaks" 

Thus goes one of a host of piquant 
parables recounted by Murray L. 
Wagner, pastor of the Mechanic 
Grove church in Penjisylvania, in a 
special meditation guide for Brethren 
during Lent, beginning March 3. The 
series highlights the current Brother- 
hood theme, "To Heal the Broken." 

"It is easy for us to find a scapegoat 
for our brokenness — the Russians, the 
wrong crowd, the right wing, the 
Catholics, the Jews, the atheists, the 
liquor interests, or just 'they.' " But 
Writer Wagner commends further re- 
flection. "Go into your closet, and 
when you have shut the door, set your 
attention steadfastly upon the image 
in your mirror and say, 'There he is! 
The one who needs healing first 
among my acquaintances.' " 

This confession, this entire guide 
may be the clue for many a reader 
to find healing in Lent. 

Study series on the prophets set for televiewing 

"The menagerie of mankind" 

This Sunday one of the biggest hits 
in religious broadcasting, so far as 
National Council of Churches' spon- 
sorship goes, returns to television in 
a twelve-week Bible study course. 

He is Dr. Hagen Staack, Allentown, 
Pa., head of Muhlenberg College's 
department of rehgion. Appearing on 
NBC's Frontiers of Faith, he will be- 
gin Feb. 7 with a general introduction 
to the prophets, and follow with 
studies on Elijah, Feb. 14; Amos, Feb. 
21^ Hosea, Feb. 28; The First Isaiah, 
March 7; Jeremiah, March 14; Ezeki- 
el, March 21; The Second Isaiah, 
March 28; Job, April 4; Jonah, April 
11; Daniel, April 18, and John, April 

Though an Old Testament enthusi- 
ast through and through, Staack ab- 
hors the glorification of biblical 

figures. He has been quoted as say- 
ing, "Look at the use God makes 
of humans. Moses was hotheaded, 
but God loved him and used him. 
Stupid Samson was found useful; so 
was cruel Joshua. Throughout the 
scriptures, real people are used by 
God — all kinds of people, a whole 
huge menagerie of mankind." 

Staack's former TV studies of Gene- 
sis and Old Testament personalities 
drew unusually heavy audience ac- 
claim. It is surprising, for his ap- 
proach is that of the classroom and 
his words ring with the accent of 
his native German. 

Imbued with a sense of timelessness 
about the Old Testament, Staack will 
seek to bring insights on the prophets 
as startling as were the men and their 
message in their own day. 

20 MESSENGER 2-4-65 


continued from page 1 1 

insisting on the punishment, we both publicize 
the injustice of those laws and witness to our 
respect for the intention of law. Deliberately 
going to jail in order to implement what you 
believe to be right in no way resembles going to 
jail because you were caught doing wrong. 

A word now about demonstrations as a 
practical technique for the accompHshment of 
civil rights. Many white well-wishers exclaim 
that demonstrations only hurt the cause by 
stiffening the opposition. "Negroes will never win 
that way," they often warn. But this belief is 
flatly belied by the overwhelming witness of the 

In the very few months since demonstrations 
became widespread, more gains have been made 
in civil rights than in the entire preceding one 
hundred years. The Civil Rights Act itself was 
the direct result of the demonstrations in Birming- 
ham, with the terrible inhumanity toward Negroes 
which these demonstrations brought to light. 

The warning, "You'll never win that way!" 
rang out again and again to the NAACP, which 
won, I think, ninety-some percent of the cases it 
brought to the Supreme Court, including the great 
school decision which aflBrmed once and for all 
that segregation is in itself discrimination. I 
myself am old enough to recall this same warning 
being issued to suffragettes. 

Negro Americans are right, and their strength 
is in their rightness, not in their patience or their 
tact. They need only bring their case before the 
American people with suflBcient drama to break 
through our complacent behef that all is well 
with our part of the world. The blessed truth, in 

which Negro leaders have such firm faith, is that 
God has so written a sense of justice into the 
hearts of all normal men that, if we are forced to 
look upon injustice, we will move to remedy it, 
no matter how angry the victim of injustice 
makes us in his desperate effort to rouse us from 
our Utopian dreams. 

I hope what I have said will help some people 
to see that in general — though perhaps not 
always — Negro demonstrations are right, neces- 
sary, and effective. But I have made no defense 
as yet of so-called "outsiders" who come from 
other places to demonstrate. Even persons who 
can respect another for picketing in his hometown 
often feel that an outsider must be a "hired 
agitator," a sensation lover, or a chronic meddler. 

With the exception of a thin sprinkling of 
personnel, trained to teach and organize non- 
violent action, I know of no visiting demonstrators 
who have been even so much as reimbursed for 
travel expenses. True, local Negroes often open 
their homes (without charge) to outside sup- 
porters, and the sponsoring organization usually 
puts up the bail money when arrests occur. But 
beyond that, demonstrators commonly expend 
their money, time, reputation, and personal 

The accusation of "meddling in local affairs" 
might be justly leveled were the picketing done 
merely to obtain personal use of a certain local 
facility. But a local instance of discrimination is 
no more than a specific example of the general 
evil. But local and outside demonstrators struggle 
— with the same motivation and aims — for the 
realization of principles that are basic tenets of 
our American Constitution and our Judeo-Chris- 
tian faith. 

What of a businessman's freedom to choose 


his customers? This question, though often heard, 
can be sincerely asked only by one who is unaware 
that refusal to accommodate reputable Negro 
citizens purely on the basis of something beyond 
their control — race — is an act of real cruelty 
which always causes pain and often results in 
serious, permanent damage, physical as well as 
psychological. But unawareness is very wide- 

Most whites assume, for example, that where 
there are "white only" toilets, there are corre- 
sponding "colored only" toilets. Actually, twin 
facilities are costly and therefore rare. Few stores 
have them, and in many towns toilets for Negroes 
are found only in bus or train stations. In segre- 
gated big cities often huge areas contain no toilets 
for colored use. Lasting bladder damage to both 
adults and children has been known to result. 

Few whites, North or South, know of the 
threat to a Negro's personal safety and to public 
safety on the highway when he is refused lodging 
and must drive on mile after mile, exhausted, 
angry, full of despair. Would they take a different 
view of the motel's owner's right to refuse service 
to Negroes if a son or daughter of their own were 
among those who die or are injured each year 
because overweary Negroes must drive on 
through the night? 

Scores of other examples could be cited. But 
it must already be clear that a refusal of ordinary 
services to respectable colored citizens involves 
something more than simply a businessman's 
freedom of choice. It is not a case of the desire 
in one group of people to do a certain thing, 
balanced by an equally justifiable desire in 
another group that this thing not be done. Rather, 
it is the pitting of preferences in one group 
against basic and urgent needs in another group. 
Surely the right of an individual to do what he 
chooses stops short of the point where his choices 
are destructive to other men. 

Why do whites join Negro demonstrations? 
Usually for one of two reasons. First, a white 
who knows all the facts often feels impelled to 
fight alongside those who use such high means 
and suffer such cruel misinterpretation in a fight 
for principles and convictions which he himself 
shares. Secondly, he often joins Negro demonstra- 
tions because he knows that when whites partici- 
pate, and especially when they go to jail, it does 
more to reduce Negro tension, hostihty, and hope- 

lessness than any other single thing a white person 
can do. The presence of whites in marches and 
sit-ins removes the battle from the ugly context 
of a black-white racial war and lifts it into a 
glorious struggle of American citizens to make 
their nation what she claims to be, a glorious 
struggle of Christian people to implement the 
faith they affirm. 

Most of the white Christian demonstrators 
that I have known believe with passion bom of 
their faith that they should present their persons, 
souls and bodies, as a reasonable, holy and living 
sacrifice on the action front where their Chris- 
tian brothers work, bleed, and sometimes die, to 
make a reality of all that Christian Americans 
profess to believe. 

But I must not leave you with the impression 
that there are no rewards for whites who volun- 
teer. There is the reward of seeing all that we 
had timidly hoped of our faith come boldly true. 
There is the reward of seeing overfamiliar words 
made flesh in creative action. How often have we 
all heard the words, "Turn the other cheek," 
"Love your neighbor as yourself," and "Pray for 
those who despitefully use you"? When we hear 
such words, what living images come to mind to 
bring these limply weary words to life? Usually, 
I fear, none. 

White demonstrators in marches in St. 
Augustine saw Klansmen yank men from the 
marching line, throw them to the street and beat 
them, while local police (who often were mem- 
bers of the Klan) smilingly turned their backs. 
One night a young Negro clergyman was three 
times jerked from the line and beaten. Each time 
he rose without retaliation and marched on. 
When the marchers reached the Old Slave Market, 
where each night they sang, preached, and 
prayed, the voice of the young clergyman had a 
richness which it is seldom the privilege of us 
safe ones to hear: "Father," he said, "they really 
do not know what they do. Forgive them, because 
the blessed Lord was beaten — and died still 
loving us all!" 

So when I think of Christianity in action, of 
Christian sacrifice and Christian love, I shall 
perhaps always recall St. Augustine — the town 
that was named for a Negro saint. D 

Reprinted by permission from Church and Race, depart- 
ment of Christian social relations, National Council of 
Protestant Episcopal Church 

22 MESSENGER 2-4-65 

a devotional guide for t/ie family 

AFTER HER first-grade valentine party, Karen came home from school, 
a bundle of enthusiasm, carrying a large packet of valentines she had 
received. Squatted on the living-room floor, she showed the colorful 
cards to an admiring four-year-old brother. Randy, and to her mother, 
who rejoiced in witnessing their pleasure. Between valentines, her 
conversation was sparked with such first-grade romantic gossip as 
"Bobby got a letter from Linda," and "I think Merle loves Vicki." 
Finally, her mother asked cautiously, "And who loves you?" Her wistful 
reply was, "I don't know." Defensively and gallantly. Randy squared 
his shoulders and announced, "I love you, Karen." Unimpressed, Karen 
picked up her valentines and replaced them in the packet and non- 
chalantly replied, "Oh, I knew that already!" 

Within our families, love is often taken for granted. As a tender 
plant, love needs to be nurtured and fed if it is to grow. 


J John 4:7-10. The presence of fragrant gardenias, 
lilacs, or white lilies cannot be hid. So it is when 
God is the head of your house. Its atmosphere 
should be permeated with love. 

1 Cor. 12:27 — 13:3. Expensive gifts, romantic 
valentines, and lavish weddings are meaningless 
without love. But with love, a child-printed 
message and an affectionate hug are priceless! 

J Cor. 13:4-7. For fresh insights, read these verses 
in different translations, thinking of husband- 
wife relationships, parent-children ties, and 
brother-sister attitudes. 

1 Cor. 13:8-13. "Things" corrode, rust, and go out 
of style, but love is immortal. Happy families are 
not those with the biggest incomes but those who 
enjoy being together. 

Gal. 5:22-6:2. Consider all the fruits of the 
spirit. The first fruit is love; all the others are by- 

1 Peter 3:8-13. "With malice toward none; with 
charity for all; . . let us strive on ... to bind up 
the nation's wounds" (Abraham Lincoln). 

1 John 4:12-18. Hesitation, timidity, embarrass- 
ment, or fear should not be present in love. 
Removing masks, sharing secrets, and trusting 
one another are among love's joys. 






John 21:15-17. Genuine love manifests itself in 
obedience, action, and service. What valentine 
could offer anything better? 

Prov. 13:24; Heb. 12:5-11. A teen-age girl said, 
"I want my parents to set a curfew; then I kno\\' 
they really care about me!" The best citizens live 
disciplined lives. 

Eph. 4:30 — 5:2. Forgiving seventy times seven, 
giving without expecting in return, blessing 
instead of retorting angrily — these are all attain- 
able ideals of the Hfe of love. 

Eph. 5:25-33. In marriage, when two have be- 
come one, their mutual love should be as sacri- 
ficial as Christ's love for men and as strong as 

Prov. 31:10-13, 20, 28-31. "Maternal love: a 
miraculous substance which God multiples as he 
divides it" ( Victor Hugo ) . A mother's love thrives 
on appreciation. 

Ps. 103:13-14; Luke 11:11-13. The words, "God 
loves you as a father," are meaningful only if you 
have experienced a father's love. 

John 15:9-14. You may boast, "I'd give my right 
arm" for this, or "I'll give an eye" for that, but 
love's ultimate expression is to offer your life. 
Christ loved us this much! 


2-4^55 MESSENGER 23 

Day by Day< 

Illustrating the facets of love 

Make a bulletin board from cork or a side of a 
cardboard carton and place it on your worship 
center. Preschoolers could trace and cut out red 
and white hearts and pin or tape them in scattered 
fashion on the board. Older children could (1) 
print on some hearts words describing love (such 
as patience, kindness, sharing) and/ or (2) paste 
on others magazine pictures illustrating love ( such 
as children playing together, a mother holding 
a baby, or a couple holding hands). 

Since family love is so often taken for granted, 
let each person prepare a valentine for every 
member of the family. Suggest that each one 
mention on the valentine two reasons why he 
especially likes that person. As the cards are 
finished, place them in an oatmeal or shoebox 
"mailbox" on the worship center. Distribute and 
read them as part of your Feb. 14 devotions. 
(Note: As an "extra," Mother or an older sister 
could make a heartshaped cake for a special 
family dessert.) 

Highlights for discussion 

With older children, discussion periods can 
be most meaningful. Ideas may be shared about 
the many meanings of the word love, how types 
of love differ, and if all love is characterized by 
the traits listed in 1 Corinthians 13. Is it true 
that "we always hurt the ones we love"? If so, 
how and why? Is love and/ or Christianity a way 
of talking or a way of walking? Finally, these 
two weeks may provide opportunities to discuss 
what symbols and expressions of love should 
mean, such as a handshake, a kiss, a gift, a 
wedding ring. 

Songs to sing 

A table grace fitting the theme is "Father, We 
Thank Thee for the Night" ( No. 554, The Brethren 
Hymnal), using both verses. Verse 4 of "For the 
Beauty of the Earth" (No. 92) could be sung or 
used as a prayer. Other related hymns include; 
"Blest Is the Home When God Is There" (No. 
545), "There Is Beauty All Around," "Help Us 
to Help Each Other, Lord" (No. 374), and "O 
Master, Let Me Walk With Thee" (No. 367). 

A Meditation on Love 


when mates are habitually late or forgetful, 

when toddlers need toilet-training, 

when grandparents ramble in their reminiscing. 

of a wife's higher salary, 
of an older sister's wardrobe, 
of the cheerleader's popularity. 


"Have a piece of my birthday cake." 

"Sure, you may borrow my sUde camera for 

your class trip." 
"This contribution to the church building is 

possible because our family agreed to 

postpone remodeling our kitchen until 

next year." 

"Bobby hit me three times!" 
"She didn't invite me to her party, so I'm 

not inviting her to mine." 
"The pastor didn't ask me to take part in the 

program, so I won't attend." 


"I'm so happy you got an "A" on that test, 

even though I only made a "C." 
"Our neighbors aren't speaking to us, but I 
know we did right to have those two Negro 
fresh-air children in our home." 
"Although that dish you broke belonged to 
my great-grandmother and meant much to 
me, you are forgiven because you told me 
the truth." 


the encouragement of a grade-school teacher 

is remembered all through life, 
the loved one who died is absent but never 

prisoners of war, poorly clothed, underfed, 

beaten, and sick, may have every "thing" 

taken from them, but love remains — for 

families and for God. 

Grant us this love ivithin our family, O Lord. 


24 MESSENGER 2-4-65 


Teilhard de Chardin 
prophet of progress 

In an age of despair and anxiety Pierre Teilhard 
de Chardin's essays collected under the title, The 
Future of Man (Harper and Row, 1964, $5.00), 
stand out like a brilliant star in the deep night. 
A French Roman Catholic priest as well as a 
learned paleontologist, de Chardin is best known 
in scientific circles for his work related to the 
discovery of the "Peking Man," a bony frame of 
vital importance in the scientific reconstruction of 
the evolutionary beginnings of mankind. Today 
de Chardin's scientific reputation as an excavator 
of bones in Africa, Java, and China has been 
totally eclipsed by the impact of his prophecy of 
the future. In his own words, he is "a pilgrim of 
the future on the way back from a journey made 
entirely in the past." 

The Future of Man is a collection of writings 
composed over a period of several decades and, 
therefore, give a kind of kaleidoscopic effect. The 
surprising thing is to find continuity of thought 
nmning through the collection. Perhaps the center 
of his ideas may be presented under headings 
which de Chardin on another occasion included in 
his "creed." 

1. The evolution or birth of the universe is of 
a convergent (not a divergent) nature: toward a 
final unity. 

Physicists and astronomers have long noted 
that the universe is losing energy, that the stars 
are gradually cooling, and that in some millions or 
billions of years the cosmos wall die a cold death 
of inertness. To quote from Sir James Jeans, "We 
cling to a fragment of a grain of sand until such 
time as the chill of death shall return us to primal 
matter" (The Future of Man, p. 104). 

De Chardin points to an equally powerful tend- 
ency in the universe, toward the organization of 
simple elements into new and more complex forms. 
Chemical complexity has led to organic matter, 
and organic complexity, to brain tissue and the 
arrival of homo sapiens. With the increase of the 
human population more and more of the surface 
of the earth is being covered with tlrinking beings. 
Man is aware of himself and others, with the 
consequence that mankind is developing toward 
an increasing unity. The clue to the cosmos is 
convergence rather than divergence. 

2. This unity (gradually built by the work of 
the world) is of a spiritual nature. 

The development of consciousness moved man- 
kind beyond the evolution of his anatomy to the 
development of social relationships. Recorded 
history is largely an era of the technical and 
cultural knitting together of mankind, in which 
education has superseded biology as the means of 
development. Population expansion and increas- 
ingly complex social relationships are compressing 
mankind in upon himself, necessitating an increas- 
ing unity of human consciousness. All humanity 
is destined to take on the character of a single 
personality, which de Chardin refers to as "ultra- 
humanity." Rather than being suppressed, indi- 
vidual personality will be enhanced in the coming 
period of ultra-humanity. 

3. The center of this spiritual whole (spirit- 
ualized matter) has to be supremely conscious and 

The process of evolution is the mechanism by 
which mankind is becoming the living body of 
Christ. His charity and love will increasingly 

2-4-65 MESSENGER 25 

To help you and Vour family 
in daily Devotions 

Started thirty years ago, The Upper Room has from the 
beginning sought to encourage Bible reading and family 

Today, on its 30th Anniversary, some 10 million Christians 
around the world unite in lifting their hearts heavenward 
through the daily devotions contained in this, the world's 
most widely used daily devotional guide. 

In its ministry. The Upper Room has provided hundreds of 
thousands of families with guidance in daily worship, helping 
to establish family altars in many homes. 

Strictly non-denominational. The Upper Room is used by 
Christians of almost all evangelical faiths. Its meditations 
are written by men and women of many denominations, many 
vocations, in many lands. Its continuing appeal and power 
come from the witness of these devoted Christians. 

The cost of The Upper Room is small indeed — 10^ per copy, 
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characterize the whole life of man. 
The death of the cosmos will co- 
incide with the total convergence 
of human consciousness. Man's 
selfhood will be deepened until 
physical matter will have been 
totally transformed and sublimated, 
a point to which de Chardin refers 
as the Omega point. The final 
union with God will occur "like a 
flash of lightning amid the storm 
clouds of a slowly consecrated 
world" (The Future of Man, p. 
307). In the unity of mankind the 
very person of Christ will be given 
into the embrace of God. 

A flood of comment is coming 
in the wake of the open publication 
of these unconventional views 
which had been suppressed by the 
Roman Catholic Church during 
most of the writer's lifetime. One 
small anthology of comment has 
been edited by Neville Braybrooke 
under the title, TeUhard de 
Cliardin: Pilgrim of the Future 
(New York: Seabury Press, 1964). 
The book cannot possibly substi- 
tute for, or even introduce, the 
original sources, but those who 
have read de Chardin will welcome 
it. Included are two short articles 
by him, in themselves worth the 
price of the book. 

Why is the world sitting up to 
take notice of this scientist-proph- 
et-priest? The answer lies in the 
special power of his message. Here 
is a message that proposes to be 
as totally subject to empirical veri- 
fication as any scientific hypothesis. 
It rests upon the hard facts of a 
million years ago and looks beyond 
the relatively insignificant upheav- 
als of the twentieth century toward 
a million years hence. It sees the 
whole development of the universe 
as the embodiment of Jesus Christ. 
Few men have been so audacious, 
and few men can afford to ignore 
what he says. 

Yet, there is something in this 
message that does not ring true. 
Is not evil taken too lightly, as 
though it did not put the very 
being of man in question? Is not 

Donald E. Miller 

the crisis of the twentieth century 
so consuming just because it is a 
genuine crisis and not simply a 
temporary upheaval. Is not the 
future of man much more ambigu- 
ous, much more uncertain than de 
Chardin allows? Can one substan- 
ciate one's faith in the objective 
verities of nature, and does not de 
Chardin add his faith to his scien- 
tific training with a kind of "leap"? 
The whole trend of the twentieth 
century is to suggest that man's 
knowledge is much more limited 
and that he shall have to learn to 
live without a clear discernment 
of the essential nature of things. 
Finally, the Omega point re- 
mains a paradox. Is not biblical 
faith tied to a "new heaven and 
a new earth" rather than the sub- 
limation of earth? Does the Omega 
point do justice to the biblical doc- 
trine of the unity of body and soul? 
Are we not destined to live in an 
uncertain future, from any scien- 
tific point of view, but within the 
hope that in the resurrection of 
Jesus Christ we have life. I hardly 
think we can pay so little attention 
to the experience of the twentieth 
century in any assessment of the 
future hopes of mankind. 

THE HUMOR OF CHRIST, Elton Trueblood. 
Harper & Row, 1964. 127 pages, $2.50 

A MATURE person has a sense 
of humor. This book is about a 
significant but often unrecognized 
quality of Jesus' teaching. Jesus 
was no joker, a hearty teller of 
funny stories, but Dr. Trueblood 
points out, he did use humor, 
irony, paradox, the preposterous, 
and the incongruous which certain- 
ly brought smiles, chuckles, and 
sometimes laughter from his hear- 
ers. Without recognizing this as- 
pect of humor, the author feels it 
is impossible to fully appreciate 
and understand some of his com- 
ments (such as some made about 
Herod, the Pharisees, priests, and 
even the disciples) and some of 
his parables (that is. The Old and 
New Wineskins, the Talents, and, 

especially, the Unjust Steward). 

A careful study of this thought- 
ful book which also surveys philo- 
sophical and classical insights and 
references to humor illuminates 
many of the teachings of Jesus and 
offers new insights into the Gos- 
pels. Jesus used humor not for 
humor's sake, but to reveal some 
facet of truth that would otherwise 
not have been revealed. Despite 
its scholarliness, the book is also 
delightful to read. Harold Z. Bam- 
berger, McPherson, Kansas 

Abingdon Press, 1964. 158 pages, $2.75 

Here is a series of short ser- 
mons, telling how our Master met 
the specific needs of those he con- 
tacted. The book is easy to read; 
profound thoughts are expressed in 
simple words. We are reminded 
again how our Savior is concerned 
with problems outside the church 
doors. And we are impressed with 
our own indifference, so often 
shown by closing our eyes to the 
problems of others. The author 
selects thirteen incidents in the life 
of our Lord that illustrate his love 
for the suffering, physically and 
spiritually and mentally. 

The book is recommended for 
lay persons, but contains excellent 
sermon material for our pastors. 
The author has been active in 
Christian work in Australia for 
years and has conducted preaching 
missions in many countries of the 
world. W. Newton Long, Balti- 
more, Maryland 

WORLD, Paul Tournier. Harper 8. Row, 
1964. 180 pages, $3.75 

A PROVOCATIVE study for a de- 
nomination whose theme is To Heal 
the Broken and for its leaders who 
desire to implement it. An inter- 
nationally renowned Protestant 
Swiss physician and psychiatrist 
diagnoses the illness of our time 
and prescribes the healing message 
of the gospel. He sees the modem 
world as ill, broken, divided within 


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BRETHREN TRAVEL. Reservations are now 
being accepted for Bible Study Tour of 
the Holy Lands, June 14 -July 7, 1965. 
Bible study and worship services led by 
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Pa. Reservations also being accepted for 
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tours write: J. Kenneth Kreider, 306 
Cherry St., Elizabethtown, Pa. 17022. 



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itself like the victim of a mental 
disorder and states that this origi- 
nates in a "rift between the spirit- 
ual and temporal." Not only to 
individuals and society at large but 
to a divided church, Tournier in- 
sists upon penetrating and often 
disturbing therapy. This study 
could be called a book on the 
Christian faith undergirded by the 
best psychological concepts or a 
book on psychology with the finest 
theological moorings. Harold Z. 
Bamberger, McPherson, Kansas 

2-4-65 MESSENGER 27 


Xerox makes 
UN education 
almost fun 

A Cakol for Another Christmas, the first of a 
series of five ninety-minute TV specials inspired 
by the United Nations, suggests that the selective 
viewer is to be treated to one of the most remark- 
able ventures in television history. 

Perhaps the most selling thing that could be 
said is that the John Birch Society asked its mem- 
bers to send a "flood of 50,000 to 100,000 letters" 
to the sponsoring Xerox Corporation, condemning 
the series and threatening a nationwide boycott of 
Xerox's (electro-copy machine) equipment. Sold? 

According to one report, Xerox has received 
approximately 25,000 letters written by, according 
to the company's best calculations, perhaps 5,000 
individuals. Christians may want to write to Mr. 
Joseph C. Wilson, President of Xerox Corporation, 
6 Haloid Street, Rochester, New York, and, for the 
first two shows, to Mr. Leonard Goldensen, Presi- 
dent, American Broadcasting Company, 7 West 
66th Street, New York, New York, to register ap- 
preciation for good quality television and for the 
daring sense of mission these men represent. 

Xerox is underwriting the total four-million 
dollar budget and is dead set against any com- 

by Richard N. Miller 

mercials interrupting their TV dramas — thus, 
providing a TV treat instead of the treatment. 
Producers, directors, stars, writers, and composers 
— and they have lined up some of the best — are 
donating time and talent for the basic minimum 
wages and fees required for their guild. If it were 
not for this, the programs would be the costhest 
ever produced for TV, if not prohibitive. 

Rod Serhng, one of television's few famous 
writers, gave the first of the series a kind of UN 
a-la-Dickens, a-la-"one-step-beyond" treatment. 
One might have preferred the more famiHar 
ghosts of Dickens' Christmas Carol to the coffins 
of war dead and the visit to Hiroshima's faceless 
survivors with the Ghost of Christmas Past. 

Sterling Hayden, turning down a $50,000 
movie role, played the ever-present isolationist 
version of Scrooge as Daniel Grudge, who found 
it easier to feast on Christmas dinner with Ghost 
Present when he could not see the world's starving 
(that is enough) — a memory that the viewer could 
well have done without until after the holidays, 
at least. 

Comic Peter Sellers, shunning his usual quarter 
of a million dollars a picture for the fee of $350 
required by his guild, played the not-so-funny 
Imperial Me, leader of the handful of isolationists 
remaining after the war that Grudge could not 
get Ghost Future to say "had to be or not." 

In no sense documentaries, each play in the 
UN series is full-fledged entertainment with the 
"message" imparted as subtly and unobtrusively 
as the participating artists can manage. For ex- 
ample, the point of the first was that men do not 
begin to swing fists until they stop arguing; thus, 
the UN exists to keep the nations talking, even 

"Who Has Seen the Wind?" will be the next 
to be broadcast on Friday, February 19, over the 
ABC network, 9:30-11:00 p.m., EST, starring 
Edward G. Robinson and Maria Schell. It is 
produced and directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, 
director of "Cleopatra," the most expensive picture 
ever made. Two others will be scheduled later 
on NBC and ABC. 

Commenting on the why of the venture, 
Xerox President Wilson observed, "How ridiculous 
it would be for us to build a showroom in New 
York without simultaneously trying to build a 
peaceful world." There must be a "subtle and 
unobtrusive" message here somewhere! D 

28 MESSENGER 2-4-65 

How to 

■ Finger painting can be fun. 
You too can share in the enjoy- 
ment of finger painting and 
make beautiful and useful 

Finger paint is very simple to 
make. Its ingredients consist of 
regular cornstarch and a few 
other inexpensive household ar- 
ticles. With it, you can decorate 
all sorts of things and even 
make a painting which you can 
frame and hang on the wall of 
your home. 

Besides the paint you will 
need some water and a sponge, 
a roll of shelf paper or coated 
paper and a working surface 
protected with newspapers or 
an oilcloth. 

The technique is easy. First, 


cut a sheet of paper and wet 
it with a sponge. Smooth it flat 
on the surface of the working 
area. Next, put a large blob 
of the finger-paint mixture on 
the paper and spead it out, us- 
ing both hands. Now you are 
ready to play. Use thumb and 
fingers to make small forms and 
swirls. Use the side of the 
hands to make leaf forms or 
stripes. Fingertips and finger- 
nails are useful for sharp lines 
and lettering. 

Finger painting is really the 
reverse of regular painting. In- 
stead of putting color on a par- 


Vi cup cornstarch 

1 cup of cold water 

1 envelope of unflavored gelatin 

2 cups of hot water 

V2 cup of soap flakes or detergent 

Various bottles of pure food colors 

Combine cornstarch and % cup cold water; soak gelatin 
in remaining Ya cup cold water. Stir hot water slowly into 
cornstarch nnixture. Cook and stir over medium heat until 
mixture boils and is clear. Remove from heat; blend in 
softened gelatin. Stir in soap or detergent until dissolved. 
Cool mixture; then divide into a jar for each color. Stir 
food colors into mixture in each jar to desired intensity. 

ticular spot, the design is 
formed by pushing the medium 
away from certain areas. For 
free swinging designs work 
standing up. There is a far 
greater freedom of movement 
when the whole body sways 
with the strokes of the arms 
and hands. 

To work with more than one 
color at a time, some care must 
be taken not to wind up with 
a muddy effect. With practice, 
however, beautiful multicolored 
paintings are possible. 

What to make? Well, obvi- 
ously gift wrapping paper be- 
cause it can be personalized 
with a name or message; covers 
for wastebaskets, desk files, 
canisters, and books; link chains 
for an old-fashioned Christmas 
tree; mobiles and other party 
decorations, even holiday or 
birthday table mats. The list is 
almost endless. 

Tightly covered finger paint 
keeps almost indefinitely so do 
not confine it to the rainy days. 
It is both relaxing and creative, 
and, of course, it is always pop- 
ular as a party game or shut-in 

2^-65 MESSENGER 29 


By Ruth Eitzen 

God has given each creature a 
way of protecting himself when 
the cold winter winds blow. On 
the right side are some of these 
homes. On the left are those who 
live in them. Can you draw a path 
from each one to his winter home? 
Finish the rhyme below, using 
the pictures to help you. 
The p loves his warm 

barn well; 
The snail hides under the leaves 

in his 

The boy has a of his 

very own; 
The ladybug crawls under a 


The squirrel has a nest in the top 

of a , 

And a is the home of 

the honeybee. 

hurries home to 

his cozy den. 
Each one has a home until spring 
comes again. 

All rights reserved 


The Galen Franiz family, of Rocky Ford, 
Colo., has gone to Nigeria, where fhey are 
serving with a Colorado State University over- 
seas project. . . . Dr. Andrew W. Cordier is 
one of the coeditors of a book entitled The 
Quest for Peace, published by Columbia 
University Press. He is dean of the School 
of International Affairs at Columbia. . . . Con- 
gratulations are in order for several couples 
observing golden wedding anniversaries; Mr. 
and Mrs. Clyde Smith of Hartford Cit/, Ind.; 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl M. EIrod of Prairie City, 
Iowa; Mr. and Mrs. Fred Plunkett of Robin- 
son, III.; Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Nance of War- 
rensburg. Mo.; and Mr. and Mrs, X. L. 
Coppock of McPherson, Kansas. Three couples 
have marked a sixtieth anniversary: Mr. and 
Mrs. Harry D. Miller of Claysburg, Pa.; Mr. 
and Mrs. Howard Weiss of Lebanon, Pa.; and 
Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Sample of Ashland, Ohio. 
In Eastern Pennsylvania three couples recently 
observed a longer period, sixty-three years, 
of married life. They are; Mr. and Mrs. 
Moses Kreider of Annville; Mr. and Mrs. John 
Breldenstlne and Mr. and Mrs. S. K. Wenger 
of Lebanon. 


For ministers with sermons ready for pub- 
lishing; send copies to Dr. G. Paul Butler, 
editor of Best Sermons, Little Silver Point 
Road, Little Silver, N. J. . . . For summer 
travelers, interested in a bus tour to Ocean 
Grove, New England, Nova Scotia, and 
Quebec; write to L. W. Shultz, North Man- 
chester, Ind. . . . For a retired doctor, a 
position as house physician at Bethany Breth- 
ren Hospital; write to Olga Bendsen, 3420 
W. Van Buren St., Chicago, III. 60624. . . . 
For Brethren living in isolated areas of Col- 
orado and New Mexico where mission points 
might be established; send names and ad- 
dresses to the Mission Commission of the 
Colorado District, Mrs. Amelda Tompkins, 901 
E. Aspen Ave., Fruita, Colo. 81521. . . . For 
students and vacationers interested in a thirty- 
four-day tour of Europe with college credit 
in art and literature, leaving New York on 
June 14: contact Delia Lehman, 2909 Arrow 
Highway, La Verne, Calif. 


Immediately after burning their mortgage 
on recent additions to the Pleasant Hill 
church. Pa., the members considered plans 
for building a new parsonage this year. . . . 
A similar project will be in store for the 
English River church in Iowa, according to a 
recent congregational meeting. . . . Also in 
prospect is a new baptistry for the Stony 
Creek church in Ohio. . . . New facilities 
are being effectively used in the Rouzerville 
church. Pa. . . . and the Melvin Hill con- 
gregation in South Carolina, having dedicated 
a new addition, reports that a heavy local 
program did not keep it from giving more 
than $4,200 to outreach during the year. . . . 
A 12.4-acre plot of land purchased by Eliza- 
bethtown College will serve community recre- 
ation purposes until such time as the college 
needs the property. 


More than two thousand Christian edu- 
cators are expected to gather at Louisville, 
Ky., Feb. 12-18, for the annual meeting of 
the Division of Christian Education of the 
National Council of Churches. Theme of the 
program is "Mission: the Christian's Calling." 
. . . Women around the world will sponsor 
observances of the World Day of Prayer on 
March 5. Worship services are based on 
Micah 6:8 and confront the question, "What 
doth the Lord require?" . . . Dedication 
services for the new Lynchburg church, Va., 
are scheduled for March 21. . . . A second 
North American Conference on Church and 
Family is being planned for May 30 — June 
3, 1966, at Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 


Keltner, Frank V., Fort Hamilton, Ohio, on 

Nov. 28, 1964 
Kimmel, Stanley, Lanark, III., on Nov. 22, 

1964, aged 35 
Kretzer, Myrtle E., Maugansville, Md., on Jan. 

16, 1964, aged 91 
Leece, Jay D., Marne, Mich., in 1964, aged 62 
Lindsay, Ida, Lanark, 111., on Nov. 16, 1964, 

aged 82 
McGowan, Carl, Fawcett, Ohio, on Nov. 27, 

1964, aged 74 

Jan. 31 — Feb. 7 National Youth Week 

Feb. 7 Boy Scout Sunday 

Feb. 14 Race Relations Sunday 

Feb. 21-28 Brotherhood Week 

Feb. 28 Brotherhood Interpretation Sunday 

Feb. 28 — March 5 Brethren Adult Seminar 

March 3 Ash Wednesday, beginning of Lent 

March 5 World Day of Prayer 

March 7 Girl Scout Sunday 

March 16 — 19 General Brotherhood Board meeting, Elgin 

March 21 Camp Fire Girls Sunday 

March 28 One Great Hour of Sharing 

Metzger, Clarence, North Manchester, Ind., on 

Dec. 24, 1963, aged 81 
Myer, Fred, Flora, Ind., on Nov. 16, 1964, 

aged 79 
Miller, Edgar W., Bridgewater, Va., on July 

20, 1964, aged 49 
Mohler, Lizzie B., Lititz, Pa., on Nov. 11, 1964, 

aged 87 
Norcross, Charles D., Glendora, Calif., on 

March 11, 1964, aged 92 
Parrett, Harry A., Flora, Ind., on Oct. 29, 

1964, aged 71 
Petry, Mary, New Lebanon, Ohio, on Aug. 27, 

Phares, Lula S., Harrisonburg, Va., on Nov. 

20, 1964, aged 81 
Replogle, Minnie, La Verne, Calif., on Dec. 3, 

1964, aged 68 
Roberts, Mary, North Manchester, Ind., on May 

23, 1964, aged 80 
Rohrer, Harry V., Fulton County, Ind., on Oct. 

26, 1964, aged 86 

Sandridge, Eva, New Hope, Va., in 1964, aged 

Shedron, Roscoe R., Rossville, Ind., on Nov. 

11, 1964, aged 80 
Shively, Jacob C, Bremen, Ind., on Sept. 2, 

1964, aged 91 
Shope, Frank M., Shippensburg, Pa., on Nov. 

17, 1964, aged 78 
Slyder, Ella C, New Lebanon, Ohio, on Oct. 

5, 1964, aged 91 
Spaid, Bertha L., Yellow Spring, W. Va., Nov. 

3, 1964, aged 81 
Stanford, Henry B., Mobile, Ala., on Dec. 4, 

1964, aged 54 
Swartz, Myrtle, Des Moines, Iowa, on Sept. 

27, 1964, aged 80 
Trent, Rebecca, Flora, Ind., on Nov. 4, 1964, 

aged 44 
Weaver, Milo, Bremen,^ Ind., on July 13, 

1964, aged 69 
Westheaffer, Anna G., Arcadia, Fla., on July 

31, 1964, aged 87 
Wright, Roy S., Bridgewater, Va., on Sept. 2, 

1964, aged 62 


We can help to end the war 

In commenting upon the state of the world 
as well as upon the state of the union, Presi- 
dent Johnson said, "We will not, and should 
not, assume it is the task of Americans alone 
to settle all the conflicts of a torn and troubled 

To this sentiment we would add a hearty 
amen. But we must hasten to point out that a 
good place to put such noble words into im- 
mediate application would be in "torn and 
troubled" Vietnam. 

The President says that our American mil- 
itary forces are there at the request of a friend- 
ly nation that wants help in fighting communist 
aggression. He neglects to explain that the 
communist danger there has grown because 
of a long series of blunders on the part of the 
French, who used to be the colonial masters 
in Indochina, and on our part as well. He 
neglects also to mention that the people of 
Vietnam, whom we are supposedly defending 
by means of the military "advisers" we station 
there, do not have confidence in the dicta- 
torial leaders of their country who have main- 
tained their power, not by free elections, but 
by our financial and military support. He says 
nothing about the fact that the foreign troops 
in Vietnam are American troops, not Chinese 
troops or North Vietnamese troops. 

The truth is that over a period of years, 
under different administrations, we have be- 
come involved in a civil war, apparently main- 
tained on behalf of people who are themselves 
weary of war and desirous of peace. The re- 
sults of this policy have not been to strengthen 
democracy in Southeast Asia but to run the 
risk of all-out war. We are actually helping to 
create the kind of conditions in which com- 
munism is most likely to thrive. 

In the light of our predicament some of our 

in Vietnam 

leaders are urging us to carry the war into 
North Vietnam as a means of stopping guerilla 
activity in South Vietnam. We would then be 
the obvious aggressor and would lose what 
little moral influence for peace and order we 
still have in Asia. We would be in great danger 
of escalating the war into a major conflict, with 
all the awesome implications a nuclear war 
would entail. 

In recent weeks a few lone voices have 
called for a new look at our role in Vietnam. 
Surely the time is here to call for a cease-fire, 
to begin the withdrawal of American troops, to 
ask for the convening of a conference of all 
the nations that have been involved in the 
conflict, to negotiate a settlement that will 
neutralize all of Southeast Asia, and that will 
provide for free elections under UN supervi- 
sion in both North and South Vietnam. 

Surely, if the President meant what he said, 
that it is not the task of Americans alone to 
settle world conflicts, he ought to welcome 
constructive proposals that look toward a ne- 
gotiated settlement. 

Because the public has been generally mis- 
informed or uninformed about the actual situ- 
ation and the reasons for it in South Vietnam, 
there has been little support for a constructive 
peacemaking policy. As individuals we are all 
a part of the public whose opinion needs to be 
heard. Let us first become better informed as 
to the actual situation. Then let us inform our 
government of our desire to see the killing 
stopped and the reconciliation begun. We be- 
lieve that is what the Vietnamese people 
themselves most desire. — K.M. 

32 MESSENGER 2-4-65 

Relevant to today's living . . . 

Selections from ABINGDON'S 
New Winter Books 

The Way of the Master 

Emerson S. Colaw. Eight sermons directing attention to the 
points of traditional emphasis during the Lenten-Easter season. 
Shows the relevancy of Jesus' examples to our lives today. 
128 pages. $2.50 

One Sovereign Life 

Edwin Prince Booth. These thoughts on the life of Jesus pre- 
sent a powerful picture without the myths and traditions 
that have attached themselves to his life through the years. 
144 pages. $2.50 

The Holy Spirit and You 

Donald M. Joy. A primer on the Holy Spirit and his relation- 
ship to men. Written to help today's laymen form a closer 
relationship with God by responding to his call for Spirit-fiUed 
living. 160 pages. $2.75 

Behind the Clouds — Light 

L. H. Mayfield. These twenty-seven meditations offer a very 
special type of therapy to all who face crises and suffering — 
assurance of better things to come. Special bookmark on 
jacket. 64 pages. Illustrated, boards, $1.50 

New Apex 
Paperbound Reprints 


by Ernest Marshall Howse. This perceptive, 
powerful study of eight plays by the world's 
greatest dramatist illuminates human nature 
and universal moral problems as well. 160 
pages. Paper, $1.25 

A well-known marriage counselor tells in a 
down-to-earth way how to make marriage the 
rich, satisfying experience it ought to be. He 
comes to grips with perplexing problems and 
gives practical help in solving them. 160 pages. 
Paper, $1 
W. W. Sloan. A study of the Old Testament, 
showing a people who moved step-by-step to- 
ward knowledge of God. "Excellent for use 
in Bible classes." — Library ]ournal. 336 pages. 
Paper, $1.50 
Weatherhead. One of Christendom's great pul- 
pit voices unlocks the secrets of the kingdom 
of God as contained in Jesus' 22 parables. "In- 
spirational to all Christians." — Virginia Kirkus. 
272 pages. Paper, $1.25 

Order from your bookstore 





No CSSUQI triumph. This is the way a missionary writer describes 
tiie success of an Ecuadorian girl in securing an education in preparing 
to teacti. by Estella Horning, page 2 

yNhy demonstrations? Many persons question tiie necessity for 
some civil rigiits activities. A white Southerner answers their questions. 
by Sarah Patton Boyle, page 9 

Life begmS at 65 in new and creative ways for persons who pre- 
pare for an enriched life at their time of retirement, by Ira H. Frantz. 
page 7 

Pierre Tie/fjard de Cfiardin reflects on the future of man in 
a new book. Reviewed by Donald E. Miller, page 25 

Xerox makes UN education almost fun, a review of 

a significant television production dealing with current issues, by Richard 
N. Miller, page 28 

OTHER FEATURES include a special report evaluating Vatican II, nev\/s of 
evangelistic outreach at Frederick, Maryland, the story of a controversy 
over curriculum in Canada, a special page for children, and a meditation, 
God Speaks to You, by DeWitt L. Miller. 


How a Cheyenne Indian became a member of an Ohio church and dis- 
covered a mission while in army service in Vietnam is the subject of a 
fascinating story by Lois Teach Paul . . . Are you an enemy of the dream 
of the prophets — the dream of a world of justice and peace — or are you 
a supporter of that dream? asks C. Wayne Zunkel ... A layman raises 
questions about exempting clergymen from the draft ... A churchman 
explains how the National Council of Churches serves its member churches 
. . . Special news reports survey action by Christian groups regarding 
open housing and the situation in Vietnam . . . Short features include a 
pledge for fathers and another for mothers. 

VOL. 114 NG 

Pete Contret^s. 
hsm with a mission 




Structuring the Church for Miission 

Holders o¥ the Dream 


£3r In the first week following the 
appearance of the new Messenger, a 
number of readers wrote brief notes 
to express their reactions. The fol- 
lowing quotes from letters are typical 
of the comments received. — Editors. 

The format is attractive, and it is 
good reading from cover to cover. . . . 
I also feel it is an advantage to have 
the magazines come less frequently, 
thus allowing more time to read each 
one. — Oregon 

May I congratulate you on the new 
Messenger, which was long overdue 
for some changes. The new paper 
gives a fresh appearance outside and 
throughout the inside. — Pennsylvania 

I have heard nothing but praise 
for the new Messenger and thought 
I would pass it along. I have heard 
expressions of appreciation all the 
way from ages nine or ten through 
eighty. — California 

I am greatly impressed with the 
clear photographs, good art work, and 
the use of color. The Messenger looks 
very inviting among the other maga- 
zines on the coffee table. — Pennsyl- 

It is of such quality and workman- 
ship that it "demands" to be read 
as soon as it comes into one's hands. 
For many years I had hoped we 
might have such a paper. Your 
achievements have gone beyond my 
fondest dreams. — Colorado 

When we picked up the Messenger 
yesterday we experienced a sense of 
loss, similar to that felt at the death 
of an old friend. 

That was soon replaced by genuine 
appreciation for the splendid new 

features. Life constantly changes. An 
effective message for today requires 
alert messengers to carry the faith of 
our fathers. — Iowa 

I found the articles and items both 
interesting and inspiring and read it 
through entirely during the first few 
hours. It was especially good to have 
an introduction to Tom Wilson, pas- 
tor of the First Church of the Breth- 
ren, Chicago. — Virginia 

As one interested in the improve- 
ment of pubhcations and realizing the 
problems involved, I am sincere in 
saying that the redesigned magazine 
is a very good job. — Pennsylvania 

We do like the new format of The 
Gospel Messenger. And so fitting to 
have the lead article in the new 
Messenger on a most outstanding 
courageous young man. Thank you 
for the article on Thomas Wilson. — 

The format is striking and equal 
to that of any present-day journals 
of religion. The content in this first 
issue sets a standard that will demand 
much to maintain. The Gospel 
Messenger has been part of my life 
since boyhood days in the Church of 
the Brethren. Now the Messenger 
comes as a worthy successor to a 
journal that has contributed much to 
my life and thinking. Christopher 
Sower could well be proud of the 
new Messenger. — Presbyterian min- 

I think the new Messenger is the 
greatest improvement in our denomi- 
nation in my generation! — Virginia 

Congratulations on the new format 
for the Messenger. I have nothing 
but praise for the entire issue. I 
really didn't expect that that much 
could be done to improve the quality 
of the magazine. — Washington 

I like the new Messenger. I only 
wish it were larger. I read it all, 
and get so much good from the mis- 
sionary articles. — Indiana 

We like all of the new articles and 
stories. We are somewhat disap- 
pointed, though, because several of 
the items we enjoyed reading were 
left out. They include Kingdom 
Gleanings, tlie anniversaries, the obit- 
uaries and the church news. It was 
very interesting to read what other 
churches were doing. — Illinois 

I bke the format of the new 
Messenger very much. The content 
is generally of excellent quality. But 
I feel that we are leaving out a thrust 
that is very vital — evangelism. — 

We don't like it at all. It looks just 
like a farm magazine. — Iowa 

Most of your subscribers are 
middle-aged or old people. They 
looked forward to reading news from 
all the churches. Everyone looked 
forward to reading the obituaries of 
loved ones. Now in your new paper 
nothing but the date appears. — West 


My first thought about the 1964 
postage stamp for Christmas was also 
that the stamps were void of a true 
Christmas message. Then my chil- 
dren came home from school with 
stories about the poinsettia, mistletoe, 
and evergreen. The poinsettia repre- 
sents the flaming star; the evergreen 
reminds us of everlasting life; mistle- 
toe grows high and is not easy to at- 
tain without struggle. It is always 
easy to see the negative aspects of 
many things in life. A rewarding ex- 
perience is to look for the good even 
in the worst situations. 


Naperville, 111. 

MESSENGER, Vol. 114, No. 4. Feb. 18, 1965, publication 
of the Church of the Brethren continuing "The Gospel 

Editor: Kenneth I. Morse 
Managing Editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh 
Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Weigle 
Director of News Service: Howard E. Royer 

MESSENGER, official publication of the Cfiurch of the Brethren, is 
owned and published every other week by the General Brotherhood 
Board — Church of the Brethren, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120, 
Norman J. Baugher, general secretary. Editor, Kenneth I. Morse; 
managing editor, Wilbur E. Brumbaugh; editorial assistant, Elizabeth 
Weigle. Filing date, Oct. 1, 1963. Entered as second-class matter Aug. 
20, 1918, under Act of Congress of Oct. 17, 1917. Second-class postage 
paid at Elgin, III. 

MESSENGER is copyright 1965 by the General Brotherhood Board, 
Church of the Brethren. 



man ivith 

a mission 

Pete felt right at home among the 
Montagnard (mountain savage) 
people who lived in the highlands 
of Vietnam. His mission: to 
provide them with food and 
clothing — and to teach them the 
Christian way he first discovered 
in a Brethren home 
and a Brethren church 

The slight, swarthy man looked right at home 
amid the horde of eager, brown children. Only 
his uniform distinguished him. Sergeant Major 
Pedro Contreras of the United States felt 
strangely akin to these mountain tribesmen of 
South Vietnam. "We even look alike," said 
Pete, "me, a Cheyenne Indian, and they the 
Montagnard." How Pete found his way to 
Vietnam would in itself be no unusual story, 
but in order to understand why he found a 
mission among the Montagnard you need to 
know more about him, about his early life, his 
marriage to a Brethren girl in Dayton, Ohio, 
his conversion, his Christian service as a mili- 

A MESSENGER is a member of the Associated Church Press and 

■pr^ subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 

V_^ Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are 

P from the Revised Standard Version. 

Subeaiption rates: $3.75 per year for individual subscriptions; $3.00 
per year for church group plan; $2.50 per year for every home plan; 
life subscription, $60; husband and wife, $75. 

If you move, clip old address from MESSENGER and send with new 
address. Allow at least fifteen days for address change. 

ABOUT THE COVER: We are pleased to present a block print of 
feetwashing by Iowa Kuehl, a member of the Church of the Brethren 
and an art teacher in Polo, Illinois. Her students are fortunate to have 
so creative a person as teacher. You may remember a photo story 
of her classwork in FRIENDS magazine sometime ago. We are struck 
with the simplicity and depth of feeling in this one piece of her work. 
PHOTO CREDITS: 3 U.S. Army photograph by Sp5 Robert Salazar; 
4 Bryce E. Baker; 11 Monkmeyer; 17 H. Armstrong Roberts; 25 "City" 
by Lyonel Feininger, photograph courtesy of the National Gallery of 
Art, Washington, D.C 

Duty in Vietnam convinced Pete that God ha 

tary man and, of course, you must learn the 
circumstances that took him to Vietnam. What 
follows is Pete's story. 

Pete was born on an Indian reservation in 
Oklahoma in 1919. His father, John, was one 
of several sons in the Sanders family group. 
How they came by the Anglicized name, Pete 
does not know. His mother was half Spanish 
and Catholic. 

The Sanders men were typical Cheyenne 
lighters with a sense of independence and alert 
minds that searched for meaning beyond them- 
selves. They chafed at the government's 
regimentation. John was killed by guards 
during a "period of unrest " about the time of 
his son's birth. The family left the reservation 
and settled near Arkansas City, Kansas, where 
the men worked for the railroad. 

Before Pete was a year old, his mother 
married again. She left him with the Sanders 
grandparents until he was ready for school. 
After she died, when Pete was nine, he re- 
turned to his grandmother. The Catholic up- 
bringing, the tribal rivalries, the sting of race 

2 MESSENGER 2-18-65 

prejudice, and a tough school life fed the re- 
bellion in the growing boy, until he left school 
and home to travel as sparring partner for his 
prizefighter brother. 

When his brother got married and quit the 
ring, Pete was on his own. He gravitated to 
the army, but only the cavalry was open to an 
Indian, short of stature. When he enlisted at 
Ft. Bliss, Texas, he sent for his baptismal 
record. Only then did he discover that his 
mother had not given him his proper surname, 
but rather, had registered him legally under 
the name of her second husband. Pete Sanders 
was not his name, he was Pedro Contreras. 

Fifteen years later, he was a captain as- 

jpens package which 
ns soap, toothbrushes, 
\aste, and clothing 

Another box of ciothing is on 

its way to the Montagnard 

in Kontum, Vietnam 

ob for him to do 

signed to the 3rd Armored Division at Ft. Knox, 
Kentucky. One day he impulsively answered 
a note from a girl in Dayton, Ohio. He knew 
the note was one of those casual things that 
civilians were encouraged to do to "cheer up" 
servicemen. She wrote back and seemed to be 
such a nice girl that they were soon corre- 
sponding regularly. 

At the first opportunity, Pete went to Day- 
ton and called his pen pal, Frances Heitzman. 
She invited him to her home on Saturday. He 
had never known people like the Heitzmans 
or that a home could be so full of love and 
laughter. He was accepted without the hesi- 
tation he had expected when they would rec- 
ognize his obvious ancestry and would learn 
that he was ten years older than Frances. He 
asked Frances for a date on Sunday, and she 
invited him to accompany her to church. He 
had never been inside a Protestant church, but 
he was impressed with the spirit he found 
there, the sincerity and the friendliness, and 
with the sermon the young minister preached. 

"The church confronted me with Christian 

love and I saw what it meant — in the home 
and the church. I became curious about the 
Bible and began to read it eagerly," Pete 

He returned to Dayton as often as he could, 
and the conviction grew that this girl he loved, 
her home, and her church was Christian the 
way he wanted to be. Even before he and 
Frances became engaged, he had spoken to 
the pastor about baptism. The rites were per- 
formed in the Ft. McKinley Church of the 
Brethren. Two weeks later, he and Frances 
were married in the same sanctuary. 

"My baptism was a true rebirth," Pete says. 
"I felt it was the result of God's long call to me. 
I was so thrilled that Christ had accepted me. 
I was truly blessed when I entered the church." 

In the year that followed, Pete's conversion 
helped him overcome the sense of rejection 
that had been so deeply planted in his child- 
hood. His wife's parents, Harry and Martha 
Miller Heitzman, had at one time attended 
Bethany, and they spent many hours in discus- 
sion and instruction from the Bible. Frances' 
encouragement and example were his bulwark. 

When he was sent to Germany on a three- 
year tour of duty, Pete used the time for study, 
searching, and growing up in the faith. The 
Contreras family returned home in November 
1957, bringing their tiny son, J. Calvin, to meet 
his grandparents. 

Pete resumed duty at Ft. Knox, where he 
and his wife began to work in a small Baptist 
mission near their home. 

"They needed us," Pete says, simply. "The 
members were fine people, some were sub- 
standard in education, and they had grown 
used to being listeners rather than doers. Fran 
helped with the music; we both taught Sunday 
school classes and did a lot of community 
work. The pastor asked us to transfer our 
membership, but we couldn't. Being Brethren 
is more than a name; it is a philosophy." 

Early in 1963, Pete began to wonder what 
he had best plan to do to support his family, 
for his twenty-live years in the service would 
soon terminate. He was forty-four years old, 
had a wife and two small children, and another 
child due in early spring. Then early in April, 
instead of discharge papers, he received orders 
for a twelve-month tour of duty in Vietnam. 

am children express a 
tmas greeting to church 
'i remembered them 

2-18-65 MESSENGER 3 

He became convinced that God had something 
special for him to do. "I felt a strange alertness, 
why I didn't know. We saw this twelve months 
of separation as a challenge to Fran to learn to 
manage the family alone, if she should be 
called on to do so." 

Four weeks after the baby was bom safely, 
Sergeant Major Contreras was in Vietnam. He 
was assigned to the jungle country of the cen- 
tral highlands, 590 kilometers north of Saigon 
as a U.S. army adviser. They were stationed 
near Kontum, a village that lay in the bend of 
a river and was home to 20,000 people who 
lived under the most primitive conditions. 
These people were Vietnamese, but up the 
mountain slopes, in the jungle that surrounded 
the city, live the Montagnard tribesmen — 
"mountain savages." 

These tribesmen are nomadic and wander 
along the mountain ranges, unmindful of na- 
tional boundaries. They have never been 
accurately counted and feel no allegiance to 
any government beyond their tribe. The 
Montagnard are considered an inferior race by 
the Vietnamese, who exploit them at every 
opportunity. The mountain people are peace- 
able, freedom-loving, and nominally Catholic. 
The communists have made little headway 
among them, but the Viet Cong, hiding in the 
jungle, are a constant threat to their carefree 
life and safety. 

When Pete arrived at the U.S. advisory 
compound, he observed that the country re- 
sembled the early American west, and the 
Montagnard looked like Indians! They pos- 

sessed the same independent and dignified 
manner that he recognized. Pete's heart went 
out to them when he saw their poverty, their 
exploitation, their ignorance, and their super- 

The advisory detachment itself totaled 
about a hundred forty soldiers. When Sunday 
came, Pete went to Protestant services. Three 
other men were present. At the end of the 
short service, Pete spoke to the sergeant in 
charge and offered his help. "Oh, thank God," 
said M. Sgt. Bunn, as he grasped Pete's hand. 
Together they talked over the situation. The 
detachment chaplain was a Catholic priest, 
and there were only a couple of Bibles and 
hymnals and no teaching materials. The near- 
est Protestant minister was an independent 
missionary, a Mr. Stanley Smith, whose small 
mission that had been started by his father 
was several miles away. 

"Then it hit me," Pete said; "I knew why 
God had sent me here — to the Montagnard 
and to the prodigal sons of our own detach- 

He wrote home to Fran and to his mother- 
in-law, describing the conditions. "If only I 
had something to work with. Send me some 
teaching materials, back issues of the Leader, 
and some songbooks. Send me some children's 
clothes, too. These kids are almost naked, and 
the nights get cold. Put in some hard candy 
and some salt, that's so precious here." 

Fran caught his sense of mission, and so 
did Martha Heitzman. As Ft. McKinley's aid 
director, Martha challenged the women of 
the CBWF to a person-to-person Christmas 
Vietnam mission project. In three months' 
time, the women had collected, mended, and 
packed eleven boxes of clothing and shipped 
them. They had tucked other small items 
among the garments — soap, envelopes of salt, 
candy, toothpaste. Ft. McKinley's men helped 
too; they collected and sent to Pete enough 
money to buy twenty Bibles for the detach- 
ment. Fran sent small toys, bubble gum, Kool- 
aid, popcorn, and other small sweets that Pete 
used to make friends with the shy villagers. 

Pete worked as he had never worked be- 
fore. Every off-duty hour he spent working 
among the men, reminding them that their 
conduct here witnessed to their religious 

Pete Contreras, one 
quarter Cheyenne, but 
wholeheartedly Christian 

faith and their country's image. He taught, 
preached, led singing (off key) and atten- 
dance grew. The men became interested in 
Pete's project and donated to a mission project 
of their own — the building of a small chapel 
for Mr. Smith in the Dak To area. The con- 
tributions that the men collected enabled Mr. 
Smith to build two chapels in his mission 

To keep himself fit, Pete would run several 
miles a day. He planned his itinerary and filled 
his pack with clothes and goodies so that he 
could visit different villages each day of the 
week. The people soon learned his schedule 
and when he approached, he found the chil- 
dren waiting for him. People from outlying 
villages soon began to appear too and ask for 
help. He distributed sweets, clothing, and 

The villagers, though they were in great 
need, would accept nothing for themselves 
unless there was enough for every one. They 
would take nothing from Pete's hand; rather, 
they would stretch out their cupped hands, 
and he would lay his gift in them. Pete made 
two rules for himself: insist on cleanliness, 
and always tell them that the gift he gave 
came from Christian friends in the United 
States who loved them. He felt rewarded 
when they would ask whv he was doing these 
things, giving him an opportunity to tell them 
what Christian love and sharing meant. "I 
was only the channel through which this 
Christian love flowed, at God's bidding. The 
people back home gave, I was only God's 
instrument. I feel this strongly, and am 
grateful that God gave me such a thrilling 
opportunity to serve." 

As word of his work spread, other Chris- 
tians began to help. He met James and 
Alice Cooper from the Summer Institute of 
Linguistics, who were working on a New 
Testament translation into the tribal lan- 
guage. They lived and worked in a village. 
Mr. Cooper was soon helping Pete in the 
army detachment services and with the cloth- 
ing distribution. Charles Heinze, a member of 
the advisory detachment, pitched in, too. 
Even Vietnamese Christians helped. 

As his tour of duty came to an end, he 
made plans for these friends to continue the 

Pete assigns fourteen year old Trui the task of making distributions in his absence 

distributions, for he determined to send things 
after he returned home. Heinze was his con- 
tact man. Before he left, a Brethren man, 
Sergeant David A. Blackburn of Ohio, came 
to the detachment as a replacement. Another 
Brethren, Lynne Cabbage, of Prairie City, 
Iowa, was there too. He was working with the 
natives to improve agricultural methods under 
the auspices of USOM. "It's amazing; you can 
pick out a real Brethren man, their sense of 
mission is something special." 

Pete returned home a year to the day from 
when he left. He is a man with a new mission 
in life. "I know now that God can take an ordi- 
narv guy like me and accomplish his work. I 
had the willingness, was in the right place at 
the right time, and God used me. The same 
call comes to everyone — we just have to learn 
to hear it and accept it. For this I deserve no 
credit. I feel he means for me to go back to 
the Montagnard someday, just how or when, 
1 don't know vet. I send a box at least once 
each month to Mr. Cooper through Mr. Heinze 
and correspond with my friends." 

"Our country and the church must be 
prepared to help those people when peace 
comes. The Montagnard are friends of the 
United States more than the Vietnamese. I 
plan to retire from the army in 1968, and I 
am eager to know what God wants me to do 
next. I am praying for guidance." 

Jesus gave us the secret of an abundant 
and joyful life — " 'he who loses his life for my 
sake will find it.' " Sergeant Major Pedro 
Contreras knows exactly what that means. D 

2-18-65 MESSENGER 5 

I accept my responsibility in ttie partnersiiip 
of parenthood. I count it a joy to share 
in this wonderful relationship with the 
mother of our children. I will give her 
the honor due her position and all my 
love to support her in her task. 

I will be sensitive to our children and 
their special needs. I will seek to 
uncover their hidden strengths and 
talents and to encourage their development. 
I will offer gentle guidance toward 
pathways of useful service. 

As God gives me strength, I accept my 
duty to earn a living for my family, to 
provide shelter, clothing, food. But more 
than house or fabric or bread, to provide 
a home for the soul, a retreat from 
rush and conflict and hurt, a place 
warm with love, security, trust. 

I will take time to live, to be a real 
member of the family, to spend with 
them those hours which show their 
importance to me. I will take 
time to be a true parent. 

I will give spiritual leadership to my 
family, in regular worship periods and 
day-by-day teaching. I will be a true 
follower of Christ myself and lead 
my family to live for him too. In word 
and deed I will endeavor always to 
be an example worth following. 

I bow my heart to God in thanksgiving 
for his grace and in petition of his 
strength as I make this pledge. 
Grant and Ruth Stoltzfus 

Concord Poster 116. © 1962, Grant and Ruth 
Stoltzfus, R. 2, Harrisonburg, Va. 

I will do my part to make our home a 
happy place to work, play, love, and 
worship. I will give Christ his place in 
my life and help each family member 
to be loyal to him and to the church. 

I will be a loving companion to my 
husband, mentally, physically, and 
spiritually. When misunderstandings 
come, I will be quick to forgive and 
to ask forgiveness. I will encourage 
a happy relationship between my 
husband and our children. 

I will take time to enjoy our children and 
to appreciate each one individually. I will 
discipline out of love and not to relieve my 
inner feelings. I will help our children to 
befriend people of all races and to live 
above petty grievances. I will answer 
all their questions about life and teach 
them about eternal life in Christ. 

I will maintain an interest in people and 
affairs outside our home. 1 will pray, 
give, and go as God leads me to 
help those in physical or spiritual need. 

I will look upon this life as only a part 
of God's great plan for me. I will keep 
busy and happy, with an enthusiasm 
for life but with my face set toward 
my Father's house of many mansions. 

God helping me, this is the kind of 
person I will be that my life might 
be a blessing to my husband, to our 
children and to the generations to come, 
to the church and to the world. 
Ruth B. Stoltzfus 

Copyright © 1959 by Concord Associates, R. 2, 
Harrisonburg, Va. All rights reserved 

6 MESSENGER 2-18-65 

IVhy do not more HI O I Cl © I^S 
persons today share the vision of the O ■ 
men of the Bible who looked for XnG 
a new day to corned Cl I^G SI ItW 

The Old Testament prophets had a dream. They were realists. 
They were well aware of sin. They were deeply sensitive to man's 
inhumanity to his fellowman. They had seen injustice, violence, 
and abuse. But they did not become cynical or pessimistic. They 
had a dream. Because of their deep faith in God they looked for 
a day when God would rule in the hearts of men and when war 
and injustice and poverty would be no more. 

Micah and Isaiah both said that one day men will "beat their 
swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks." 
Nations will no longer go to war, but each man will sit under his 
own fig tree — not under fig trees in Vietnam and West Germany 
and Korea — and none shall spread fear upon the earth. 

In the New Testament this deep longing takes on substance. 
Jesus talks about it in specific terms as his ministry becomes the 
kingdom of God. The New Testament pages come alive with the 
promises of an end to war, of peace on earth and goodwill among 
men. Jesus spells out in detail the spiritual, moral, and ethical 
demands that the coming of God's kingdom will mean. He warns 
that before these things are accomplished there will be wars and 
rumors of war. There will be oppression and persecution. But he 
keeps these dreams alive by promising that though such turmoil 
will surely lie ahead, "the end is not yet." This is not God's final 

And the very last book of the Bible, The Revelation, written 
in a time of extreme turmoil and persecution, continues with vibrant 
optimism to look to a time when there will be a new spirit upon 
the earth, when crying and pain and war shall be no more. 

There was a day when individual families warred against one 
another. You see this in early Old Testament times: Family clans 
went to war against other tribes or clans. Then men learned to 
live together as families within cities. And in the ancient world, 
cities warred against one another. 

In some areas, as in ancient Greece, cities joined together for 
mutual defense and peace. And then cities united within states, 
and there came the emergence of nation-states. 

In our own country, after considerable struggle, we went 
beyond that through the formation of what we called the "United" 
States — where states live side by side in peace. 

More recently in our history, we have expanded this to still 

2-18-65 MESSENGER 7 

Man must learn, step by painful step, to realize the dream of the Old Testam 

larger regions. At one time Canada and the 
United States could easily have gone to war over 
disagreements over the waterways and the Great 
Lakes region. There was a time when misunder- 
standings and tensions were even deeper than 
those presently between the United States and 
the Soviet Union. But through negotiation, we 
arrived at disarmament along that vast border, 
a disarmament with controls. Today our northern 
border is one of the longest unarmed borders in 
the world. 

So man has learned, step by painful step, to 
realize the dream of the Old Testament prophets. 
We are slowly achieving disarmament under law 
on an ever larger scale. The progress is not 
always forward. Sometimes we take one step 
forward and two steps backward. And we may 
yet destroy ourselves before we catch the knack 
of it. But across the centuries, there has been a 
discernible movement toward the dream of the 
biblical spokesmen. 

In this century there have been faltering at- 
tempts to enlarge this still further to the largest 
unit of all — to encompass the entire earth. After 
World War I, nations hesitantly formed a League 
of Nations, a loose association formed to lessen 
the chances of war. Prior to that, in 1899, man- 
kind had established a World Court, which was 
revived and revised in 1920. Here was an oppor- 
tunity for nations to submit differences to an 
impartial judicial body and receive interpretations 
based on treaties and recognized international 
law. Our own country through our Connally 
Resolution still reserves the right not to abide by 
decisions of this world body. But it is there, and 
it has resolved many conflicts on the basis of 
law rather than on the basis of sheer power. We 
ought to know more about it — what it is and 
what it could become. 

In our own day we know the faltering, half- 
hearted attempt at a United Nations. We are 
not sure we are ready for this on a world scale 
yet, but the presence of nuclear weapons has 
helped to prod us reluctantly on toward reliance 
on reason and on law rather than on brute force 
and threats. 

In all honesty, we must say that not every- 
one shares the dream of the men of the Bible. 
Some folks frankly doubt that the dreams of 
the Bible could ever materialize. They point 
to sin in human nature which seems a permanent 
part of life on this earth. They feel there will 
always be passions, violently expressed, and that 
these passions will continue to erupt even among 
nations. For a proof text they quote the first 
part of Jesus' statement: "There shall be wars 
and rumors of wars," but they conveniently leave 
off the last part of what Jesus said, "But the end 
is not yet." 

Others do not doubt the possibility of such 
a world but they question its desirability. Quite 
frankly, they fear the kind of dreams the Bible 
sets forth. They oppose talk of "world order," 
as if this would somehow deny them some of 
their "freedoms." They fear talk of justice for 
the oppressed, as if this would somehow limit, or 
tie the hands, of the oppressor. They lash out 
at what they call "one worlders" or "visionaries." 

^^o let us look for a moment at what they 
say they fear. Let us look back over the centuries 
to see whether the growth of equal justice under 
law and growth in the cooperation among men 
have meant more or less freedom. 

The fact that you can walk out of your home 
today without a six-shooter on your hip does not 
mean that you have less freedom. In some of 
the frontier towns of the old West, the man with 
the fastest gun made the rules by which men 
lived. The fact that across our country, from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, we have established 
an order in which we make our laws by ballot 
and hire police to carry our guns has not resulted 
in a perfect system, but in this limited area we 
have disarmament between a man and his fellow- 
man with strict controls. Everyone of us has 
infinitely more freedom to speak and move about 
unafraid than he would have had in the days of 
the old West. 

There is still some violence; there are still 

8 MESSENGER 2-18-65 

ifhets before he destroys himself 

areas of fear and lack of freedom. But the fault 
is not in our laws and justice. The failure is that 
we have not yet gone far enough toward the 
dream of Jesus and the Old Testament prophets. 
Their ethical and spiritual values have not yet 
been fully incorporated into even this limited 
area of our relationships. 

This age-old struggle between the holders of 
the dream and the enemies of the dream comes 
up to face us. In Old Testament times the 
prophets sometimes referred to the enemies of 
the dream as false prophets. But the false 
prophets used the cloak of fervent religion. They 
used religious language to try to defend injustice, 
violence, the oppression of the poor, to uphold 
the wrongs about them. They were the defenders 
of the status quo, the paid spokesmen for those 
who oppressed and abused others. 

And the false prophets are still with us. 
Today we still find people using the language 
of fervent religion, calling upon the name of 
God and the Bible, as they pursue aims directly 
contrary to the kind of basic principles which 
the scriptures set forth. Today's false prophets, 
like those of ancient Israel, do not want peace. 
They do not want a lessening of tensions among 
nations. They do not want justice and equal 
opportunities for all; they do not want the grind- 
ing weight of poverty lifted; they do not believe 
in the worth of the individual. They preach 
hatred; they preach mistrust; they preach dis- 
crimination; they preach the abuse of those who 
happen to differ with them. 

The struggle between the holders of the 
dream and the enemies of the dream is greater 
than politics. It is greater than any one candidate 
or party. It is greater than any one election. I 
would guess that in 1968 and in 1972, far more 
than in the past election year, America will be 
struggling even more sharply with this basic 
choice as to whether we will be supporters of 
the "dream" or enemies of the "dream." 

Norman Cousins wrote last summer in The 
Saturday Review of a visit to the Fiji Islands. 
"Nowhere on this earth," he wrote, "have we 
encountered a people as warmhearted, generous, 

and trusting, as the Fijians." They are a refresh- 
ing reminder that humans still are "capable of 
outstretched hands and uncalculated smiles." 

But it has not always been so. Fijians, who 
now find it practically impossible to do bodily 
harm to another human being, only eighty years 
ago ate their last missionary. Just that recently 
they were a cannibal people. 

And this was but one aspect of a larger cul- 
ture which encouraged cruelty, the nursing of 
revenge, and a way of violence. Little children 
were taught, if wronged or insulted, to keep a 
rock or some object close by as a constant re- 
minder until that insult or wrong was repaid. 

^#ut all that changed. It changed completely, 
and it changed rather suddenly. 

Christianity came to the Fiji Islands. The 
"dream" of the Christian faith caught the 
imaginations of these island cannibals and 
changed not just their individual hearts but their 
entire culture. From a nation of cannibals they 
became a people of compassion and tenderness. 

And Norman Cousins asks, "If the Christian 
faith could so transform that group of people, 
then the rest of the world would do well to find 
out what kind of Christianity that is." 

We do not face cannibalism today, but we 
are brewing disease germs and poison gases and 
lethal rays to use against one another in war. 
We no longer cook individual men or women, 
but how much concern is raised over the fashion- 
ing of thousands of hydrogen torches, any one of 
which can incinerate several million humans in 
less than a second? "Perhaps," says Norman 
Cousins, "the Fijians can be persuaded to send 
missionaries to the rest of the world, including 
those countries that sent missionaries to them in 
the first place." 

The struggle between the holders of the 
dream and the enemies of the dream goes on. 
And amid that struggle God's gentle cannibals 
from the Fiji Islands hold out hope. If they can 
give up cannibalism and everything that goes 
with it, there may be hope for the rest of us. Q 


2-18-65 MESSENGER 9 


by Norman J. Baugher 

I HE VITALITY of the ministry of our church 
in a changing world brings into sharp focus the 
role of our Brethren membership in the National 
Council of Churches. Perhaps it would be more 
accurate to say we should review the role and 
place of the National Council of Churches in the 
life of our denomination, for the council is the 
cooperative agency which gives practical ex- 
pression to the common spirit and purpose of 
the thirty-one Protestant, Anglican, and Eastern 
Orthodox communions which it serves. In reality 
it is an extension of the Church of the Brethren. 

The National Council is really "the servant 
of American churches." Its objectives, as stated 
in its constitution, which we have helped write 
and have approved, include: "To manifest the 
common spirit and purpose of the cooperating 
churches in carrying out their mission in the 
world; to do for the churches such cooperative 
work as they authorize the council to carry on in 
their behalf; to encourage study of the Bible and 
to assist in the spread of the Christian religion; 
to encourage fellowship and mutual counsel con- 
cerning the spiritual life and religious activities 
of the churches." 

The council provides many ways through 
which our denomination and its congregations 
take advantage of these and new opportunities. ^^ 

For many years, for example, our editors have 
cooperated with other church editors through 
the National Council in preparing the outlines 
for both the Uniform and the Graded Series 
church school lessons. We also work together in 
the whole field of Christian education. 

Our own scholars and educators have pre- 
pared materials for our church schools on the 
basis of these outlines. They have also found 
great help in the biblical study and insights of 
scholars of other communions. As a result, our 
churches have received high quality material and 
realized great savings through the cooperative 
effort, for we would have consumed much staff 
time and money if we had undertaken such a 
comprehensive job on our own. These benefits 
for a small denomination are very obvious. 

In many cooperative programs we benefit from 
foundation money which is given to interdenomi- 
national groups but which is not available to 
individual church agencies. The Ford Foundation 
grant of $54,000, underwriting the cost of an 
urban ministry educational project for two years, 
is just one example. Galen B. Ogden of our 
Brotherhood staff has been closely related to this 
development as have several Brethren of the 
Chicago area, where the Urban Study Center is 

located. A similar center has been opened at 
Merom, Indiana, for town and country training. 

Problems common to all churches are explored 
by departments and divisions of the National 
Council, on whose committees many of our repre- 
sentatives sit. One study, recently published, 
assesses the salaries paid clergymen in the United 
States and Canada and provides local congrega- 
tions with some guidelines to help them determine 
whether their support of their pastors is adequate 
and realistic in these high cost-of-living days. 
Clifford Huffman of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, has 
represented us on this committee and is serving 
also on the committee studying this same problem 
for us. 

Almost every church is engaged in or con- 
templating new construction. Programs such as 
the annual National Conference on Church 
Architecture, sponsored jointly by the National 
Council's Department of Church Building and 
Architecture and the Church Architectural Guild 
of America, make available to local congregations 
a wealth of material on new church design. The 
council has also compiled information for "On 
Building and Equipping for Christian Education" 
— a basic guide for local churches. Arthur L. 
Dean, our church building counselor, receives 
invaluable professional information on building 
matters from such contacts, which information in 

2-18-65 MESSENGER 11 

turn is made available to the hundreds of congre- 
gations which seek his professional services each 
year on church building problems. 

Similar council-sponsored conferences on high- 
er education, church-state relationships, audio- 
visual aids, broadcasting, family life, and other 
areas of concern, provide opportunities for an 
exchange of ideas and the use of a wide range 
of information and materials on an interdenomi- 
national basis. 

The council serves us not only in our home 
communities but wherever we go. The council 
sponsors a Christian ministry in our national parks. 
And in 1964, there was a summer-long series of 
special seminars on the UN, conducted at the 
Interdenominational Church Center for the United 
Nations, for visitors to the New York World's Fair. 
It was sponsored jointly by the Department of 
International Affairs and United Church Women. 

As opportunities to gain new insights for our 
own programs and problems are increasing, our 
responsibilities for a worldwide ministry are 
multiplying at a startling rate. Certainly we must 
see the church as more than a physical building 
or spiritual home on Sundays. The church must 
be wherever men are, and it must work particu- 
larly in the midst of humans in need. Christ's 
commandments that we "go into all the world" 
and "love one another as I have loved you" take 
on sharp new meaning in the face of massive 
world need, international tensions, and the 
estrangement of man from man. 

To meet these complex problems, we must 
bring the full force of our Christian ministry to 
bear on them, and we can do this effectively in 
cooperation with our sister churches in the 
National Council. 

We contribute relief materials to the starving 
and homeless in more than fifty nations through 
Church World Service, a National Council agency. 
Thirty-four other denominations cooperate in this 
compassionate task. In a world where two thirds 
of the people go to bed hungry we simply cannot 
do this effectively alone. Recently, through 
Church World Service, we helped bring water to 
the arid Greek island of Symi through the con- 
struction of the first solar sea-water conversion 
unit of its kind in the world. With this water 
comes new hope and health for thousands on the 
island. In similar ways we witness to the love 

and compassion of Christ in dozens of Church 
World Service projects of rehabilitation and self- 
help around the world. 

We are also able to coordinate our aid, vdth 
the assistance from many other communions, to 
national disaster areas. During 1964, the council's 
Division of Home Missions channeled church aid 
to earthquake-stricken Alaska, and through 
Church World Service we offered emergency as- 
sistance to flooded communities in the South and 
Middle West. 

Because of our experience and skill in process- 
ing material aid, the Brethren, at the request of 
Church World Service, now operate the nine 
processing centers across America through which 
most of Protestant relief goods is processed for 
distribution to all parts of the world. W. Ray Kyle 
is the director of all these centers. 

Our contributions through another National 
Council agency, the Committee on World Literacy 
and Christian Literature (Lit-Lit), helps expand 
a comprehensive program to break the chains of 
ilhteracy which bind nearly forty-four percent of 
the world's population in subservience and ig- 

In the total field of world mission, in which 
our efforts often seem inadequate in the face of 
the tremendous need, we are able to make our 
ministry count more by planning together for 
new, unreached areas. Our membership in the 
Division of Overseas Ministries makes available 
to us a wealth of information on the needs, insti- 
tutions, and resources of prospective mission 

In recent years the church has come to 
realize that its outreach, if it is to be real and 
meaningful, cannot be limited to far-off overseas 
posts but must be applied as well to the crying 
human need at home. Again our efforts are made 
effective by participation in programs of the 
National Council which mobilize particular re- 
sources, skills, and experience in health and wel- 
fare, marriage counseling, and other ways to meet 
these needs. 

Our aid through the council's Migrant Ministry 
brings Christ's healing message in relief and 
prayer to the million homeless, overworked, 


12 MESSENGER 2-18-65 



Should Christians pray directly to 
Christ, or is it proper to pray 
only to the Father in Christ's 

Since Christians have tradi- 
tionally believed Jesus to be the 
second person of the Trinity, 
fully God, while at the same 
time truly man, it is quite proper 
that prayers be addressed direct- 
ly to him as the Christ. It would 
be equally proper to pray to the 
third person of the Trinity, the 
Holy Spirit. 

While most of our prayer 
hymns are addressed simply to 
God or to God the Father, many 
are specifically directed to the 
other persons of the Trinity. Ex- 
amples are: "Jesus, my Lord, 
my God, my All"; "Jesus, Thou 
Joy of Loving Hearts"; "O Holy 
Spirit, Come to Me"; and 
"Breathe Upon Us, Holy Spirit." 
The Hymnal contains many 
other such prayers directed to 
specific persons of the Trinity. 

Generally, Christians pray to 
God, the Father, who is the 
creator, and sustainer of all life. 
The prayer which our Lord 
taught his disciples begins, "Our 
Father, who art in heaven." And 
we are further taught to pray 
to the Father in Jesus' name. 
" 'If you ask anything in my 
name, I will do it'" (John 14: 

This means that first of all our 
prayer is rooted in the mind and 
spirit of Jesus and is intended to 
be in accordance with his own 
character. But more than this, 
we pray not because there is 

you ask 

anything in us to deserve God's 
favor but because of the merit 
of Jesus Christ, who himself 
was perfectly obedient to the 
Father's vWll. We dare to come 
to God boldly in prayer not be- 
cause of what we are but be- 
cause of who Christ is. 

The epistle to the Hebrews 
further gives us the picture of 
Jesus sitting at the right hand of 
the Father making intercession to 
him for all who come to God. 
"Consequently he is able for all 
time to save those who draw 
near to God through him, since 
he always lives to make inter- 
cession for them (Heb. 7:25). 
Thus Christ himself makes peti- 
tion to the Father for those who 
pray in his name. 

So we pray to Christ, or to the 
Father through Jesus Christ, our 
Lord. This phrase with which 
we close so many of our prayers 
should be more than a conveni- 
ent way to conclude our peti- 
tions. Each time it is repeated 
it should remind us both of our 
right to pray as Christians and 
of the power of our prayer. 

Who were the Essenes? 

The Essenes were an important 
Jewish community numbering 
about four thousand which 
flourished in Palestine during the 
time of Jesus. They devoted 
themselves to a kind of ascetic 
life in colonies to which they 
retreated from the larger cities 
because of their strict adherence 
to the Levitical purity laws and 
their fervent desire to escape 

all ceremonial uncleanness. 

A remarkable series of dis- 
coveries in the wilderness of 
Judea beginning in 1947 pro- 
duced a major part of this com- 
munity's literature, now known 
as the Dead Sea Scrolls. These 
important manuscripts have 
focused new interest upon the 
Essenes and their times. 

The best historical references 
to the Essenes are to be found 
in the works of Philo and 
Josephus. Like the Pharisees 
and the Sadducees, other re- 
ligious sects flourishing in the 
time of Jesus, the Essenes were 
strict in their observance of the 
Mosaic law and were strong in 
their support of a national ex- 
istence for Israel apart from the 

The Essenes practiced a com- 
munal ownership of property. 
Philo states, "Having each day 
a common life and a common 
table, they are lovers of fru- 
gality who shun expensive luxu- 
ry as a disease of both body 
and soul." They were generally 
celibate, although some colonies 
permitted marriage, according 
to the ancient records. The 
Essenes were diligent in their 
study of the scriptures and be- 
lieved that the promises of God 
foretold by the prophets were 
actually being fulfilled in their 
own history. Their morality was 
lofty. They promised "to honor 
God, to be righteous toward 
man, to injure no one, either at 
the bidding of another or of their 
own accord, to hate evil, to 
promote good, to be faithful to 
everyone, especially those in 
authority, to love the truth, to 
unmask liars, and to keep the 
hand from theft and the con- 
science from unrighteous gain." 

If you have a question you would like to have answered 
on this page, send it to Questions You Ask, Messenger, 
Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 
Replies to questions are written by Dr. Paul M. Robinson 


No more exemptions 
for clergymen 

THE SEPARATION of church and state has 
been much in the eye of federal judges re- 
cently. It is a wonder that the present priv- 
ileged position of clergymen under Selective 
Service has not been challenged. I think it is 
time now to take a hard look at the exemptions 
from the draft that clergymen enjoy — includ- 
ing ministers in the Church of the Brethren. 

Only clergymen of recognized faiths are 
exempt — which certainly indicates a surpris- 
ing pat on the back by our government for 
organized religion. The weak and unknown 
religious group does not qualify. 

If statistics should be made public, I am 
confident they would reveal that many of the 
men who escaped any national service in World 
War II are today, twenty years later, not in the 
ministry. They may now sell life insurance. 
Bibles, or a hundred and one other things. 
Deliberate evasion was not practiced; it is 
perfectly normal for many young men to have 
second thoughts about careers. 

The religious life of our nation is not 
strengthened when an elite refuses to share 
in the common burdens of the day. A barrier 
has been established inside each religious 
faith that weakens, confuses, and demoralizes. 

Our problems today as individuals are 
sometimes overpowering. Each man should 
feel completely free to seek advice from his 
own religious leadership. If a clergyman has 
himself served along with his fellow Americans 

in some form of national service, understanding 
is easier, talk is easier. The language of reli- 
gious assistance can be more helpful. 

I know that ministers in the Church of the 
Brethren are not cowards. They are not draft 
dodgers. They never asked to receive an ex- 
emption from national service, either as indi- 
viduals or as a professional group. But I think 
it is now time for them to take immediate 

1. Let all Brethren who have in the past 
accepted a ministerial exemption repent and 
ask forgiveness of the church. 

2. Let the Annual Conference of the Church 
of the Brethren make it completely clear that 
henceforth no minister or seminary student or 
student destined for a ministerial career shall 
accept a professional exemption. 

3. Let the Annual Conference prove its 
purpose by providing that henceforth any min- 
ister in the Church of the Brethren who accepts 
any professional exemption from his govern- 
ment shall no longer be considered a minister. 

4. Let the Annual Conference instruct the 
Brethren Service Commission to urge our gov- 
ernment to discontinue all exemptions to all 
religious groups. 

Once we have reminded ourselves that 
each member of the Church of the Brethren 
counts for one only, that we are equals re- 
gardless of vocation, I look forward to new 
joys in Christian fellowship. Now that my 
pastor (whoever he may be) says he is willing 
to do anything he urges of me, I am more 
attentive. His mission is strengthened. I do 
not doubt he will provide great new inspiration 
for me and for many other Brethren. n 

Wilbur Dunbar 


The story of Pete Contreras was written by a fellow member 
of the Ft. McKinley church in Dayton, Ohio, Lois (Mrs. Galen) 
Paul. She has contributed a number of feature stories, most of 
them introducing persons of her acquaintance. 

Grant and Ruth Stoltzfus are the directors of Concord Asso- 
ciates, an organization providing family life messages for 
magazines and newspapers, posters for distribution, and radio 
broadcasts. They live near Harrisonburg, Va. 

C. Wayne Zunkel is pastor of the Harrisburg church. Pa. . . . 
Three Brotherhood staff members are represented in this issue: 
Noman J. Baugher is general secretary, Ora Garber is book 
editor, and Carl Myers is coordinator for a new emphasis 
related to the concern of his book reviews. 

Wilbur Dunbar frequently contributes timely editorials to 
newspapers in Ohio. He lives in Wooster, Ohio. . . . Contrib- 
utors of verse include Edith Lovejoy Pierce, Evanston, III.; Jean 
Hogan Dudley, San Miguel, Calif; Enola Chamberlin, Los 
Alamitos, Calif.; Roy 2. Kemp, Baltimore, Md.; Myrtle Chance 
Allen, Colorado Springs, Colo.; and Alice Mackenzie Swaim, 
Dillsburg, Pa. 



Waka's high school--another milestone 

As seventy-three blue-jacketed stu- 
dents marched with candles in hand 
to the rear of Waka chapel in Nigeria, 
another milestone was chalked- up 
in the many-faceted program of 
the Waka School. The combined 
baccalaureate-commencement exercise 
marked the end of five or six years 
of high school study for forty-eight 
students, the first to graduate from 
Waka's secondaf-y school program. 

\lso receiving certificates at the 
same time were twenty-four men and 
four women who had just completed 
a two-year course at Waka Teacher 
Training College, a program now in 
its fifteenth year. While all in this 
group previously had taught school, 
the additional study qualified them 
to teach without restrictions in any 
or all elementary grades in Nigeria. 

Among the students were three 
Muslims who did not participate in 
the farewell chapel service. 

The high school graduates will en- 
ter nursing, teaching, the army, police 
work, agriculture, industry. A dozen 
may take specialized training; a few 
will earn college degrees. 

But whatever direction is pursued 
by the secondary students upon leav- 
ing the Church of the Brethren school 
complex at Waka, the future is 
strange and uncharted. None has 
parents who came so far in formal 
education. For a majority, their par- 

ents cannot read or write. Only with 
considerable effort were many of their 
families able to obtain the yearly fees 
of approximately $55 charged at 

Now the youth have joined the ris- 
ing generation of trained personnel 
to whom their countrymen look. So 
does the church look to them, at the 
same time grateful to have had a 
major hand in preparing them for a 
new role in a new society. 

Time running out on Amisli taxation 

Exemption of the Old Order Amish 
from all provisions of the Social Se- 
curity Act was one of the first bills 
to be introduced in the 89th Con- 
gress. If the bill is not passed soon, 
a showdown between the Amish and 
Internal Revenue Service is likely. 
Rep. Richard S. Schweiker (R.-Pa.) 

submitted the legislation, commenting 
that the present law "impinges upon 
long-established religious beliefs of 
the Amish. Government must not 
ride roughshod over the religious be- 
liefs of any group, no matter how 

"It is difficult to understand why 



we have not been ready to permit 
religious groups to conscientiously ob- 
ject to economic regulation when we 
rightfully recognize their right to ob- 
ject to the military draft." 

The Amish have sought exemption 
on the grounds that Social Security 
is an insurance which would reflect 
a mistrust in the providence of God 
to meet their future needs. 

Consonant with their convictions, 
many Amish have refused to pay the 
tax, which was extended six years 
ago to include self-employed farmers, 
the occupation most common to 
Amish. Last year the IRS quietly 
placed liens against the farms of some 
of the Amish as a safeguard to collect- 
ing the debts. If the IRS is to collect, 
under the statutory limit for debt col- 
lection it must do so soon since the 
time limitation is near. 

The proposed bill conceivably 
would exempt other groups, such as 
Mormons, other Amish-Mennonite 
sects, and the cult of Father Divine, 
observers said. Likely a similar pro- 
vision would be desired by some of 
the groups if a medicare measure 
becomes law. 

And ye visited me 

An inmate of two years at Moberly 
Medium Security Prison in Missouri 
did not know the procedure of enter- 
ing the visiting lounge. He had never 
had a visitor until a volunteer from 
the Missouri Interfaith Service Asso- 
ciation called on him. 

Another inmate of eleven years had 
not seen a relative or friend from 
home since 1957. The man is direc- 
tor of the prison choir that sings 
for a syndicated radio broadcast 
called "Prisoners at Prayer." 

To befriend such men and assist 
them upon parole is the aim of MISA, 
a unique prisoner rehabilitation 
agency. Last month the agency was 
one year old. 

Its executive director is thirty-year- 
old Marvin W. Thill, part-time pastor 

of Missouri's Plattsburg Church of the 
Brethren. He serves as the liaison 
between the agency oflice in Kansas 
City and prison administrators and 
parole officers. 

Among MISA's small group of 
selected volunteers are two other 
Brethren, Ira W. Gibbel, pastor of 
Messiah church in Kansas City, and 
S. G. Hoover, a layman from 

At Moberly and at Tipton pris- 
on for women, the volunteers visit 
prisoners nine to twelve months prior 
to release, assist in locating employ- 
ment and housing, and maintain a 
continuing personal concern for the 

The program is related to the Mis- 
souri Council of Churches, although 
its pohcy board is to include Catholic 
and Jewish as well as Protestant rep- 
resentation. The Church of the Breth- 
ren through the Missouri district con- 
tributed $500 this year. 

"MISA seeks to reassimilate the ex- 
offender into society in a way in 
which he will be less likely to become 
a repeater," Director Thill explained. 
"The approach is intentionally differ- 
ent from halfway houses, which are 
costly and somewhat resented by the' 
ex-offender because of its institutional 
setting. In rehabilitation, the support 
of society is most important." 

As a graduate student in sociology 
researching violent "gangs," Director 
Thill is intrigued with the prospects 
for the MISA ministry. Though his 
training was in a Nazarene college 
and Nazarene seminary, he feels the 
program "very much akin to Brethren 

nterfaith "Brethren" Service 

The gift 

At Christmas a year ago the Com- 
munity Church of the Brethren in 
Hutchinson, Kansas, went all out to 
help a young family in need. Neither 
the husband nor the wife had much 
work, and one of the two children, 
a boy, was partially blind. 

Food, furniture, and Christmas 
gifts were brought to the family by 
church members and community 
groups. One member paid the family's 
rent for a month as a gift. 

This past Christmas the church had 
a letter from the recipient family. 
They had moved to another city. The 
husband was in radio work. The wife 
was looking for a teaching position. 
The son had had an operation and 
had regained full vision. 

The family wrote that they had 
not forgotten the generosity of the 
church. To prove it, they sent along 
two money orders. One was a tithe 
for the church offering. The other 
was for the parishioner who had 
helped pay the rent. 

1-Ws in Congo 

Among the Belgian and American 
prisoners in the street massacre in 
Stanleyville in the Congo were two 
young Mennonite alternative service 
workers, Eugene Bergman, Paso 
Robles, Calif., and Jon Snyder, 
Canby, Ore. Both escaped unharmed. 

They and Dr. Paul Carlson and 
five members of the American con- 
sulate were taken in late October by 
rebel forces as hostages of war. On 
Nov. 24, as paratroopers approached, 
the prisoners were marched into the 
street where they fled the rebel sol- 
diers during gunfire. In the scramble, 
only Dr. Carlson was hit fatally as 
he was pulled over a wall. 

Shortly thereafter, the two Men- 
nonite I-Ws were reported ready to 
resume their work in the Congo. 

Terse verse 

The growing concept of the church 
as the people of God has been 
summed up by Catholic writer John 

Who is the church? 

16 MESSENGER 2-18-65 


Brethren and open occupancy 

"OUR GOAL must be nothing less 
than an integrated church in an inte- 
grated community." 

From this resolve of the General 
Brotherhood Board in 1954, of the 
Annual Conference in 1963, and of 
scores of congregations since, the 
church's stand on race relations is 
crystal clear — on paper. 

In practice, the record seems less 
impressive. Rare are the congrega- 
tions that are seriously working at 
becoming "an integrated church in 
an integrated community." Inasmuch 
as parishes tend to be more or less 
residential, likely few will arrive at 
an integrated church, beyond token 
proportions, unless the community 
they serve is integrated. Herein lies 
the hitch. 

In surveying some communities 
where Brethren live and where open 
occupancy housing has been a public 
issue. Messenger found a widely vary- 
ing pattern of Brethren involvement. 

Nowhere has the church stood 
more in the midst of battle for equal- 
ity of opportunity in residence than 
in California. It was here in Novem- 
ber that the movement to eliminate 
bias in housing suffered a severe blow 
when voters 2 to 1 passed Proposition 
14, a bill that wiped fair-housing 
legislation off the books. 

In effect, according to Stanford 
University's Robert McAffee Brown, 
the California initiative gave the con- 
stitutionally guaranteed right to say 
to a prospective renter or buyer, "I 
realize you've got the credit, the ref- 
erences, and the financial stability to 
move in here, but it so happens I 
don't like the color of your skin, so 
take your money somewhere else." 

In opposing Proposition 14 as im- 
moral, there was virtual solidarity 
among California's religious leaders, 
save one notable exception, the 
Roman Catholic Cardinal Mclntyre of 
Los Angeles. A score of Brethren 
pastors gave creative leadership to the 
drive against the proposition. For the 
most part they had the backing of 
their churches. 

But for churches as a whole the 
distance between pulpit and pew was 

apparently greater than the leader- 
ship figured. "I am in favor of inte- 
gration but I am opposed to being 
coerced into it by the state, " many 
laymen declared. Teachers and school 
administrators, sensitive to the ex- 
tremist pressure put upon the school 
systems in some communities, tended 
to react passively, many refusing even 
to allow their names to be used in 
newspaper advertisements supporting 
freedom of residence. 

The vote tally revealed that laymen 
like Irving Porter of the Bakersfield 
Church of the Brethren were unique. 
With considerable investment in 
apartment houses, Porter, as chairman 
of the congregation's missions and 
service commission, brought a recom- 
mendation urging members to vote 
no on Proposition 14. The church 
council adopted the recommendation. 
Similar action was taken by the La 
Verne Church of the Brethren and 
by the Pacific Southwest Conference. 

The executive secretary of the lat- 
ter unit, Glenn H. Bowlby, said re- 
garding the involvement of church- 
men: "For the first time leaders of 
minority groups outside the church 
have seen a valiant demonstration on 
the part of church leadership where 
ministers and laymen alike put prin- 
ciple ahead of status or prestige, even 
job security. This has left a deep 
impression and may do much to at- 
tract the secular mind toward the 
church and the gospel of reconcili- 

Detroit similarly was dealt a set- 
back in fair housing earlier last year 
when voters passed a "Homeowners 
Rights Ordinance," a measure now 
being tested for its constitutionality. 
The few Brethren who live within 
the city proper were reported by one 
obsei-ver as being about equally di- 
vided on the issue. 

However, in the suburban commu- 
nities where there are three Brethren 
congregations, a number of members 
are working with fair housing coun- 
cils and other race relations groups. 
Among them are Pastors Lloyd B. 
Stauffer of First church and W. Har- 
old Garner of Trinity church. 

Akron, Ohio, also had a housing 
referendum in November, and here 
too voters overwhelmingly rejected an 
ordinance to remove racial restrictions 
upon home ownership. 

"We thought we had a good thing 
in Akron with the passage last July 
of an open occupancy order by the 
city council," said Pastor Kent E. 
Naylor of the Springfield Church of 
the Brethren. He was chairman of 
the Akron Council of Churches Race 
and Cultural Committee, which pur- 
sued the matter with city officials. 
But in approaching the referendum, 
the Negro community was indifferent, 
church leaders felt restrained by the 
innuendos hurled by the opposition, 
and concerted church support was 
never secured. 

Principle ahead of prestige 

Reportedly only a limited number 
of Brethren from the three Akron con- 
gregations evidenced much interest in 
the housing plight of the community's 
minorities. "The work is here," said 
one spokesman, "but the spirit is not 
so willing and the flesh carries with 
it the stench of disinterest and non- 

In Chicago's western suburb of 

2-18-65 MESSENGER 17 



Lombard, a form letter with the 
forged letterhead of Richard C. Dun- 
ham, a member of the York Center 
church and a Freedom of Residence 
director, was circulated to signers of 
a petition published in the news- 
paper. The advertisement, entitled 
"An Appeal to the Conscience of the 
American People," bore the names of 
individuals pledged to fair housing. 
To the signers came the poisonous 
form letter indicating that soon the 
recipient's neighborhood was to be in- 
tegrated. It asked reactions to such 
questions as: "Would you feel prej- 
udiced against a Negro who raped 
your (1) wife, (2) daughter, (3) 
both?" "Do you prefer a clergyman 
who concentrates on destroying your 
right to own property, stirring up 
racial strife?" 

Community leaders and the area 
press exposed the" form letter as 
"racist propaganda" and most recipi- 
ents took it as such. But, as the 
Chicago Sun-Times explained, for oth- 
ers, the sheets have raised doubts — 
doubts passed on to neighbors. 

In Elgin, 111., a number of Brethren 
have worked several years through 
the Elgin Housing Group to maintain 
a listing of rentals and sale properties 
for minority groups and to educate 
the community on open occupancy 
housing. In Kalamazoo, Mich., the 
Church of the Brethren unanimously 
adopted a statement supporting open 
occupancy. In Dayton, Ohio, some 
Brethren have signed petitions urging 
the city commission to reconsider a 
fair housing ordinance it recently 
turned down. 

Raymond R. Peters, pastor of the 
Mack Memorial Church of the Breth- 
ren in Dayton and former executive 
of the Greater Dayton Church Feder- 
ation, pointed up some of the issues 
at stake: 

"The rank and file of the public 
still feel that property values go down 
when Negroes move in. This needs 
to be dealt with factually. Another 
point pushed by the opposition is that 

a fair housing ordinance may give 
freedom to the Negro but takes free- 
dom away from the white who has 
no choice in determining who the 
purchaser would be. Here again is 
an issue that needs to be clarified." 

There are studies available which 
quickly counter the hearsay and bias 
laid down as facts. For instance, in 
one of the more comprehensive sur- 
veys, encompassing three cities and 
twenty neighborhoods where Negroes 
have moved in in the past fifteen 
years, findings showed in eighty-five 
percent of the cases property values 
either went up or remained stable. 
Other surveys verify the findings. 

The one certainty for the future 
is that more communites and more 
states will be faced with housing 
referendums. The National Associa- 
tion of Real Estate Boards, which put 
$100,000 into promoting Proposition 
14 in California, has indicated will- 
ingness to back similar bills in some 
of the other fifteen states presently 
barring discrimination in housing. 

Not all realtors are in accord. Last 
month in Chicago a hassle was in the 
making as many realtors opposed an 
assessment to fight open occupancy, 
claiming that the charge was an effort 
to preserve segregation. 

The issue is manyfold. In a sense, 
forced housing already is a fact of 
existence for those minority families 
who are denied access to homes they 
can afford. There is the matter of 
democracy being poorly practiced. 
There is the question as to whether 
property rights are more basic to hu- 
man liberty than the civil rights of 
a minority. And inherently there is 
in all of these questions a moral issue 
which cannot be answered by a 
church detached on the sidelines. 

Even when the results turn out for 
the present as they have in California 
and Detroit and Akron, some persons 
feel a great deal has been gained in 
getting individual consciences to 
wrestle vAih the problem. 

"It is tragic indeed that our society 
is so structured that thirty-five years 
of association with the Church of the 
Brethren did not lead me to know 
the fine persons who are in minority 
groups," said Ralph E. Click, pastor 
at Bakersfield, Calif., who chaired 
Kern County's "No on 14" Commit- 
tee. "I had to become involved in 

a political campaign to learn to know 
some of these minority persons who 
are now among my closest friends. 

"It may be that God can use politi- 
cal organizations in ways that he 
could never ever hope to use the 

Growing edges 

Roaring Spring, Pa. A frequent ad- 
dition to the worship service has been 
inaugurated by the First Church of 
the Brethren here. Termed "Brethren 
in Action," the item consists of a brief 
statement by one of the members re- 
garding Brethren witness somewhere 
in the world. Its purpose is to infoiTn 
worshipers of denominational activ- 
ities and the results of their steward- 

Eglon, W. Va. A citation for "dis- 
tinguished service in the cause of ecu- 
menical Christianity" was. awarded by 
the West Virginia 

O Council of Churches 
to the Rev. Owen 
G. Stultz, executive 
secretary of three 
Church of the Breth- 
ren districts. First 
and Second West 
Virginia and West- 
ern Maryland. His work with the 
council includes chairing its commis- 
sion on chaplaincy and ROTC. In 
the chaplaincy phase, the committee 
has sought to establish chaplaincies 
in the state's penal, mental, and med- 
ical institutions. On ROTC, the com- 
mittee has urged the state legislature 
to provide an alternate program for 
go's from ROTC training at West 
Virginia University. 


Kokomo, Ind. Members of the 
Northview Christian church here 
were guests of the Church of the 
Brethren love feast and communion. 

One participant, Alvin F. Klotz, 
executive secretary of the Howard 
County Council of Churches, said of 
the ecumenical experience: "I can 
attest that I have experienced the 
Brethren love feast and communion 
many times in many places, but never 
with a sense of real fellowship with 
a true family of God more present 
than in this experience." 

18 MESSENGER 2-18-65 


A positive measure 
for Vietnam? 

The turn of the year brought mount- 
ing criticism of the United States' 
involvement in the Vietnamese war. 
Here and there churchmen spoke out 
in opposition to this nation's role in 
a situation which steadily was grow- 
ing from bad to worse. 

Late in December the Brethren 
Service Commission, in a letter to pas- 
tors and Brethren Service chainnen, 
urged the signing of petitions asking 
President Johnson to call for an im- 
mediate cease fire and to negotiate 
for a permanent settlement. Prompt- 
ing this direction, according to the 
petition, were three factors: 

• "the war in Vietnam serves no 
useful purpose and already has done 
great damage to the good name of 
the United States, 

• "American lives are being lost in 
a war that cannot be won, 

• "the people of Vietnam are em- 
bittered by the devastation of their 
country and the killings." 

About the same time more than 
100 clergymen from the Greater 
Washington, D. C, area called on 
the President with a similar appeal 
for a cease fire and effort toward a 
negotiated political settlement. The 
plea came in an open letter prompted 
by the Washington Ministers Associa- 
tion, of which Philip E. Norris, pastor 
of the University Park Church of the 
Brethren, is president. He and six 
other Brethren ministers were among 
the signatories. 

Similar concerns were expressed 
last fall in a telegram to the President 
by the Church of the Brethren North- 
ern Illinois and Wisconsin district 

New Zealand's Commission of 
Churches on International Affairs re- 

ported after a study of the Viet- 
namese situation that there was no 
likelihood that the current conflict — 
"too much a civil war" — would lead 
to peace and orderly government un- 
til there is disengagement by outside 
nations and some form of neutraliza- 
tion takes place under United Na- 
tion's supervision. 

The Portland, Oregon, Council of 
Churches also urged a review of the 
United States' military commitments 
to South Vietnam and opposed ex- 
tension of the war into North Vietnam 
because of the risks involved. 

A member of the Senate Foreign 
Relations Committee, writing last 
month in a lay Catholic magazine. 
Ramparts, also cited the "folly" of 
escalating the war to the north as 
a means of saving the south. The 
author was Senator Frank Church, 
who recommended neutralization . of 
Southeast Asia as a proper objective 
for the United States. The Idaho 
Democrat also suggested that a role 
be found for the United Nations as 
a guarantor of national boundaries 
in that area. 

Unlike at least two Senate col- 
leagues, Montana's Mike Mansfield 
and Alaska's Ernest Bruening, Senator 
Church did not favor immediate with- 

drawal of United States' forces. The 
view of those opposed to withdrawal 
is that it and possibly even neutral- 
ization would represent crushing 
political setbacks for the West. 

While hope of finding a positive 
change of American policy in Viet- 
nam appeared dim, Gilbert F. White, 
the former president of Haverford 
College, a Quaker-related school in 
Pennsylvania, proposed a plan in the 
December issue of the Bulletin of the 
Atomic Scientists. He recounted how 
four Indochina neighbors, Cambodia, 
Laos, Thailand, and South Vietnam, 
have worked through the current 
quarreling to develop the lower basin 
of the Mekong River for land and 
water projects. And this in spite of 
the fact that the four countries have 
been at one another's throats for 

"Enthusiasm for a massive common 
effort thus far has overridden shorter- 
term hostility on political issues," he 
wrote of this United Nations' project 
which he had personally appraised in 
1961. "Is it possible that vision of 
a majestic river, harnessed for the 
advance of twenty million people by 
an unprecedented piece of interna- 
tional cooperation, would so com- 
mand the imagination of the nation 
that the present grueling conflict 
could give way to a struggle for a 
more abundant life?" 

Professor White, backed by the 
American Friends Service Committee, 
urged that the United States support 
the venture with men, experience, 
and capital as a member of an inter- 
national team. 

In contrast to the dead-end streets 
to which most proposals for resolving 
the Vietnamese conflict lead, Profes- 
sor White's appeal for a bit of positive 
peacemaking may be worth heeding. 

DiS3St6r SGrviCG in Vietnam's most severe natural 
disaster in history, typhoons and floods in recent weeks have taken more than 
6,000 lives and left a half million persons homeless, adding to the chaos of 
war in South Vietnam. In cooperation with Church World Service through 
the Mennonite Central Committee's mission at Saigon, the Church of the 
Brethren contributed $1,000 for disaster service. The appropriation was from 
the Emergency Disaster Fund designed to give immediate response in such 
crises. Contributions to cover this appropriation are needed and may be sent 
to the General Brotherhood Board, Elgin, III. 60120. 

2-18-65 MESSENGER 19 


The face of Christ is no color. 
The face of God is light. 
Only in men is light bent and refracted; 
Only the skin of men varies in hue. 
Pity is transparent. 
Love is no color. 
When shall we all become one, 
Restoring God's image to wholeness? 
Edith Lovejoy Pierce 


The winter is a cradle full of peace 

Where silver snow lies gently on the 

As if a garment made of softest fleece 

Wrapped all the flowers until spring's 
new birth; 

As if a hushed, still waiting time lies deep 

Under the soundless falling of the snow. 

And growing things find quiet, healing 

Shielded by crystal flakes, in calm be- 
low . . . 

Lovely upon some clear spring morning 

After the thaws have brushed the silence 

From winter's peace bright blossoms will 

And drifts of shining bloom will star the 

Given their life and beauty through re- 

That brought renewal under love-spread 
]ean Hogan Dudley 

''But night is 

quickly done 



Toward the close of a sunless and a 

gloom-shrouded day. 
The sunlight broke through the dark veil 

In the path of its cheering and radiant 

A shimmering glow o'er the countryside 

The Creator was holding his world in 

his sway; 
Before his glad presence the shadows 

had fled. 
All that day his bright halo had been 

there, unseen 
By us only because of the clouds in 


How often the winds of adversity blow. 
The fulfillment of deep-rooted hope is 

And the dreams we have cherished with 

hearts all aglow 
By time's crushing floods are swept 

quickly aside; 
And then, through a rift in those clouds 

drooping low, 
The rich grace of our kind, loving God 

is supplied! 
Through rift in the clouds that are 

hanging above, 
Our glad souls can reach up to his 

down-reaching love. 

Ora W. Garber 

20 MESSENGER 2-18-65 


Do not too deeply mourn because the 

Spreads far across the land. 

And do not fear when your long-treas- 
ured spark 

Burns low beneath your hand. 

Accept the measured beat of life, be- 

In perfect time with God's great pendu- 

Accept your day and live it to the full; 

Accept the twilight dusk, 

And make your afternoon as beautiful 

As corn within the husk. 

Accept the slow, sad setting of the sun — 

The night will fall, but night is quickly 


Enola Chamberlin 


Things are lovelier at night 
In a candle's golden light: 
Lovers sharing blissful dreams. 
Building castles, planning schemes; 
Children kneeling by their beds. 
Praying little sleepyheads; 
Dinner places at a table; 
Gowns of gingham or of sable — 
It matters little, each may know 
Great happiness in candle glow. 

Candles are for daytime, too: 
Birthday cakes — pink, white, or blue; 
They lend holiness and grace 
Lighting up an altar place. 
Candles are most precious things. 
They will cheer a heart that sings 
Or will lighten hearts grown sad, 
Helping banish all the bad. 
With candlelight held in his hand. 
One may walk safely through the land! 
Roy Z. Kemp 


"Come home when you can," my father 

"When you can make it, come ahead." 
Back there in the little house, he meant. 
In the country town where his children 

Each year warm-clothed and comforted. 

The family has grown and spread 
Wherever time and talents led. 
Yet we recall his blandishment, 
"Come home when you can." 

As mortal men now call him dead. 
Somehow grief must be quieted; 
And, listening, our hearts consent 
To hear him tell us that he went 
To find a place and that he said, 
"Come home when you can." 
Myrtle Chance Allen 


The stars shine on, although our hearts 

are blind; 
They twinkle in the canopy of sky 
As steadfastly as homing pigeons fly 
Through rain and thunderclouds until 

they find 
Warm sanctuary where soft hands are 

Surely no loving Father would deny 
A place of shelter to our hearts that cry 
For strength and courage and a faith- 
filled mind. 
Alice Mackenzie Swaim 

2-18-65 MESSENGER 21 

MEANS TO US continued 

underfed and undereducated migrant farm work- 
ers, sometimes called "our forgotten citizens." 

Now that the increase in crime has become a 
national concern, we take part in human re- 
habilitation programs through various council 
program units involved with chaplaincy services 
in correctional institutions, hospitals for children, 
mental patients, narcotics users, and general 

If our total ministry is to be an effective one, 
efforts of direct relief and program for the needy 
must be complemented by a demonstration to the 
world of our Christian concerns for a variety of 
other issues. 

By action of the member denominational repre- 
sentatives, the National Council brings to the 
attention of churches and their memberships 
Christian ethical concerns on national issues as 
reflected by policy statements adopted by the 
council's General Assembly and General Board. 
These bodies are composed of official representa- 
tives named by the thirty-one Protestant and 
Orthodox member communions. The council 
speaks only through their representative action. 
Our Brethren representatives' officially represent 
the Brotherhood and participate fully in helping 
to determine the positions of the council. 

Through its Washington office — an agency 
which does not serve as a lobby — member 
churches are kept abreast of federal government 
trends and developments that affect the life and 
work of our churches. This agency also serves 
member churches and the National Council by 
indicating proper channels for contacts with 
government bureaus involved in such concerns 
as overseas relief, programs for migrant farm 
workers, and other work in which the churches 
have an interest. Our Brethren Washington Office 
is located with the council's Washington Office, 
which proximity offers us vast resources of in- 
formation, counsel, and contacts of inestimable 

Certainly, if we believe that the gospel speaks 
to the total human realm, we must accept the 
churches' responsibility for beaming the light of 
that gospel on significant issues. 

The reconciling love of Christ cannot be fully 
demonstrated within the physical walls of one 

church or denomination, and, in this period of 
painful antagonism between the races, the church 
has an overwhelming responsibility to make an 
effective ministry of reconciliation. The council 
provides a climate in which concerned people 
can witness to their conviction that the church 
has not forgotten to be prophetic. 

The council is in no sense a superchurch as 
critics sometimes charge, nor could it be, for it 
embraces the whole range of Protestantism from 
the Anglicans to the Friends and the traditions 
of Eastern Orthodoxy as well. It has no authority 
over the member churches. Rather, it is a concrete 
expression of the concerns of all its member de- 
nominations for a united ministry and a witness 
to our faith in Jesus Christ which we share. 

Overall authority for the council is vested by 
the denominations in the General Assembly. It 
consists of 490 clergymen and 244 laymen, all 
named directly or approved by the member 
communions, including our denomination's ten 
representatives. The Assembly meets every three 
years and constitutes a central board of inter- 
denominational strategy for concerted action by 
the churches. Our delegates report annually to 
the Annual Conference. 

Between assemblies, the General Board with 
260 members ( 165 clergy and 95 laymen, all of 
them likewise directly representing or approved 
by the member communions ) is the supervisory 
body which meets three times a year. There are 
five members of the Church of the Brethren who 
are members of the General Board. The General 
Board reports regularly to the member denomina- 
tions and makes policy decisions affecting the 
life and work of the whole council. 

In addition, committees of denominational 
executives and appointed representatives, who 
carry corresponding responsibilities within their 
churches, several of them members of communions 
which are not National Council members, direct 
each of the council's more than seventy programs. 

The council is no more of a perfect organiza- 
tion than are our several denominations. • But the 
council is making it possible for the Church of 
the Brethren to take advantage of expanding 
opportunities and to meet the challenges of in- 
creased Christian responsibilities. It is not an 
entity separate from us. Rather, it is an agency 
through which we can do these things together. □ 

22 MESSENGER 2-18-65 

a devotional guide for the family 

AFTER HER OLDER brother had mistreated her, our preschooler, 
Doreen, observed tearfully, "Randy doesn't seem to know that I have 
feelings too!" 

In our self-centered immaturity, all of us are guilty of forgetting 
how others feel. The smallest unkind act, bit of gossip, or lie can wound 
another deeply. 

"Once riding in old Baltimore, 
Heart filled, head filled with 

I saw a Baltimorean 

Keep looking straight at me. 

Now I was eight and very small. 
And he was no whit bigger. 

And so I smiled, but he poked out 

His tongue, and called me, 
I saw the whole of Baltimore 
From May until December: 
Of all the things that happened 
That's all that I remember."' 


Gen. 4:8-13; Matt. 12:50. All men are physical 
brothers; all Christians are spiritual brothers. 
Many men seem unwilling to accept these facts 
and strive to dominate their brethren. 

Luke 10:25-37. "How swift is he whose own 
wounds bleed/ To recognize a brother's need" 
(Leslie Savage Clark). "Lord, forgive us for 
looking at the world with dry eyes" (Laubach). 

Isa. 41:6-10. "Many hands make light work" . . . 
but communication and cooperation are required 
lest havoc results. 

1 Thess. 5:8-14. "Help us to build each other up." 
Through human contacts we can receive (and 
give) comfort, strength, inspiration, encourage- 
ment, and fellowship. 

Rom. 14:10-13, 19-21; 15:1. Differing Christian 
groups should emphasize their agreements rather 
than their disagreements. Differences should not 
hinder the work of God. 

Eph. 4:23-29. Christianity is not necessarily a part 
of ethics, but ethics is a necessary part of Christi- 
anity. We should talk and act like Christians. 

Heb. 13:1-3, 15-16. Showing hospitality and 
sharing possessions have God's approval. "No 
man can sincerely try to help another without 
helping himself" (Emerson). 




Feb. 28-Mar. 6 

James 2:14-20. Beliefs determine actions. If our 
faith is genuine and alive, we will "get involved" 
in missions, service, civil rights, temperance, fight- 
ing pornography, etc. 

Gal. 3:26-29; Rev. 7:9-10. Do these verses sound 
as though the facilities of heaven will be "separate 
but equal" or integrated? "God so loved the 
world. " Do we? 

Luke 6:31-38. Before we talk about how our 
neighbors smell, we had better shovel the garbage 
from our own back door! Some people are 
difficult to love. You may be one of them. 

James 2:1-10. Snobbery is sin. As Christians we 
should number among our friends both the rich 
and the poor, the white and the black, the intelli- 
gent and the slow-to-learn. 

1 John 4:19 — 5:2. A newsman observing a Catho- 
lic nun cleansing the wounds of Chinese soldiers 
remarked, "I wouldn't do that for a million 
dollars." She replied, "Neither would I." 

Psalm 133. Although the violin, clarinet, and 
piccolo play different parts, under a single con- 
ductor they can produce harmony. We have a 
single master, Christ. 

Rom. 2:1-11. Pride of race, place, face, and grace, 
are all equally obnoxious to God who has no 
"pets" or favorites. 


2-18-65 MESSENGER 23 

Day by DaycoNTNUEo 

What others are doing 

Current newspaper headlines blaze crime, 
riots, and juvenile delinquency. Lost in this 
miasma are the kind and unselfish deeds being 
performed by the majority of American citizens. 

Keep the "bulletin board" from last week, and 
ask each family member to bring and post daily 
a news article telling of some efi^ort made for 
another's behalf. Smaller children who cannot 
read could bring pictures illustrating kindness to 

What you can do 

Since "the smallest deed is better than the 
grandest good intention,"' your family should 
practice its love and concern for others. 

Think together of some of the poorest (and 
perhaps hardest to love) families of your church 
or school, and plan to go as a family to take them 
a gift. . . . Carry a plant to a shut-in and perhaps 
sing a few songs for him as a family. . . . Gather 
together any "outgrown toys" lying about your 
house and share them with some less privileged 
children. . . . Invite new residents in the com- 
munity, lonely people, or a family of another race 
to your home for a meal and an evening of fellow- 

During these bleak and frigid wintry days, 
your concern for others could be extended also 
to birds. Spread peanut butter or bacon grease 
on pine cones or put in small paper cups, and 

wire or hang these from the naked tree limbs in 
your yard. As you watch the birds enjoying this 
feast, read Matt. 6:26 with your children. 

Resources to use 

In Christ and the Fine Arts is a chapter en- 
titled "Jesus Is Here in the 'Inasmuch' of Serving." 
Sacred art, inspiring poetry, challenging stories, 
and hymn interpretations are included. Excellent 
poems concerning "Others" can be found on pages 
139 to 180 of His Pen in Her Hand, compiled by 
Anetta Mow. 

Stressing this theme are the following songs 
which can be sung or read as meditations: "I 
Would Be True" ( No. 308, The Brethren Hymnal), 
"Lord, I Want to Be a Christian" (No. 486), "O 
God, Within Whose Sight" (No. 503), "Because 
I Have Been Given Much" (No. 340), "In Christ 
There Is No East or West" (No. 388), and "Jesus 
Loves the Little Children." 

Questions for discussion 

What are the causes of prejudice? How does 
the philosophy of "keeping the Negroes (or 
Indians or Mexicans or Puerto Ricans) in their 
place" affect our freedom? How can broken rela- 
tionships be restored? How can we help our 
brothers who have special needs, for example, 
alcoholics, the mentally ill, those in prison, one- 
parent families, etc.? What responsibility do 
Christians have to speak out against moral wrongs? 

From the book Color, by Countee Cullen. Copyright 
1925 by Harper & Brothers. Copyright renewed © 1953 
by Ida M. Cullen. Reprinted by permission of Harper & 

A picture of the Eairl Ziegler 

family will help to explain 

why the warship suggestions on 

this page have a family setting. 

Gathered around the organ, while 

mother plays, are Karen, 12, 

Randy, 10, Dareen, 8, and 

Michael, S'L Both Earl and 

Vivian are graduates of 

Elizahethtown College. After 

seminary work at Bethany, the 

Zieglers served the Woodbury 

congregation in Pennsylvania. 

They have been at the Black 

Rock church near Brodbecks, Pa., 

since 1960. Both have directed 

family life institutes and camps. 

Vivian has written curricidum 

material and uniform lesson guides 

24 MESSENGER 2-18-65 



the church 
for mission 

GOD'S FROZEN PEOPLE, Mark Gibbs and T. Ralph Morton. 
Westminster Press, 1965. $1.65. 

Abingdon Press, 1965. $3.50. 

millan Company, 1963. $3.95. 

and Row, 1964. $3. 

How CAN the church of Jesus Christ best fulfill 
its mission in and to the world? This question 
has prompted a lively discussion among church- 
men and scholars and is the theme for a study of 
the "missionary structure of the congregation" 
which was launched by the Third Assembly of 
the World Council of Churches at New Delhi in 

A veritable flood of books has come off the 
presses, reflecting the vital interest which this 
study has inspired. The titles listed above are 
representative of the many significant works 
which have been published and which are cur- 
rently receiving the greatest attention. All are 
deserving of the careful study of concerned min- 
isters and laymen. 

The initial listing above, bearing the in- 
triguing title of God's Frozen People, is described 
by authors Gibbs and Morton as "a book for and 
about ordinary Christians." The title is drawn 
from Hendrick Kraemer's characterization of 
church members as "frozen credits and dead 
capital." The authors contend that the church 
today suffers from an attitude of professionalism 
which has given ministers first-class status, while 
relegating members of the laity to positions of 
lesser importance. This situation exists because 

of two factors: Ministers have conceived it to 
be their role to attempt to do all the work of the 
ministry by themselves, and laymen have abdi- 
cated their own responsibilities by delegating 
their ministry to the clergy. 

The current pattern of church life, which is 
of comparatively recent development (as Colin 
Williams points out most helpfully in the first 
chapter of Where in the World, National Council 
of Churches, 1963, 75c) emphasizes the im- 
portance of the minister. Gibbs and Morton 
contend that the change has been from a philan- 
thropic concern for those ouside the church to 
a concern for obedience and participation in 
"church activities." 

Can the church return to its true calling? The 
authors emphasize three necessary lines of activity 
in social life: (1) personal participation in politi- 
cal life ("sometimes it is only through political 
action that we can prove that we are neighbors" ) ; 

(2) sharing in common corporate neighborhood 
social activities ("witness is effective only when 
the part a Christian plays in the neighborhood is 
seen to be a part of the life of the church"); and 

(3) personal concern in all forms of expression 
through which human values are handed on and 
developed. The church must come to see these 
activities as of value in themselves. 

George Webber's most recent contribution to 
the restructuring study. The Congregation in 
Mission, has as its subtitle, "Emerging Structures 
for the Church in the Urban World." In the 
introduction, he refers to an undeniable restless- 
ness and uncertainty which pervades much of 

by Carl E. Myers 

2-18-65 MESSENGER 25 

contemporary Protestant church 
life. "At precisely the time when 
churches have achieved quite 
startling institutional success, all 
sorts of prophetic voices, both 
within and without the church en- 
terprise, are challenging the valid- 
ity and meaning of much of what 
the churches are doing." He pro- 
ceeds, then, to make suggestions 
for developing new structures 
within the congregation which 
would enable it to exist in mission. 
He draws upon his own experience 
in the East Harlem Protestant Par- 
ish but is candid enough to admit 
that the experiences of the parish 
are often uncritically evaluated by 
persons who "have never set foot 
in East Harlem, and are only able 
to speak of its importance second- 
hand. I suspect that they would 
not dare to visit the parish for fear 
they would not then be able to 
point even to this place as a be- 
ginning of renewal." 

The chapters on congregational 
life emphasize Bible study, wor- 
ship, and small groups. Although 
aimed at "equipping the saints" for 
ministry in the world, the activities 
described and prescribed are al- 
most entirely "church directed" 
rather than "world directed" in 
content. They appear to be devel- 
oped from an understanding that 
God reveals himself in the church 
in ways that can be taken from 
the church and projected into a 
godless world rather than that the 
biblical revelation is one which 
opens up God's revelation of him- 
self in contemporary history. 

One of the most valuable contri- 
butions of this book is its rather 
extensive bibliography, which in- 
cludes materials which are signif- 
icantly relevant to the restructur- 
ing study. 

Gibson Winter states as his basic 
thesis in 'New Creation As Metrop- 
olis that the church cannot carry 
out its mission by "doing business 
as usual." He contends that the 
church must discover new forms 

if there is to be an effective mission 
to the metropolitan world. The 
preservation of the institution is 
the demonic threat that hangs over 
the church. He poses the disturb- 
ing question, "Can new wine be 
put in old wineskins?" 

Metropolis is the form of the 
new society. This fact presses con- 
gregations toward a reconsidera- 
tion of their nature and task. In 
fact, Winter points out, we are 
even now experiencing an institu- 
tional crisis in American Christi- 
anity. As evidences of this fact, 
he reminds us that more and more 
pastors are raising probing ques- 
tions about their pastorates. He 
holds that the churches are isolated 
from the mainstream of American 
life. The emergence of the laity 
as the ministering center of Chris- 
tianity must be the creative re- 
sponse to this social and cultural 
estrangement. The institutional 
crisis may, he submits, be the mo- 
ment of birth for a new form of 
Western Christianity, the servant- 
hood of the laitij. 

That sociologist-theologian Win- 
ter despairs of the present forms 
of church life and calls for radical 
new forms is clear from this quote: 
"The institutional crisis arises from 
the preoccupation of the religious 
community with private concerns 
while the forces that are shaping 
human destiny dominate the public 
realm. Pastors feel this estrange- 
ment in their own isolation from 
the processes of society — their 
sense of working in a hothouse 
atmosphere of women's emotional 
difficulties and children's programs. 
Laity experience this crisis in a 
search for a significant ministry in 
place of the organizational activ- 
ities to which the churches usually 
consign their efforts. The in- 
stitutional crisis of contemporary 
Christianity is manifest in the 
simultaneous appearance of spirit- 
ual emptiness and intense religious 
activity. Tapping the great re- 
source of lay manpower has proved 

again and again since World War 
II to be a way of siphoning off 
the servanthood of the laity into 
irrelevant activities around the reli- 
gious establishment." 

Robert Raines reflects a major 
change in personal thinking in his 
new book. Reshaping the Christian 
Life. "My thought and concern 
have shifted somewhat in emphasis 
from the life together of Christians 
to Christian mission in the world," 
he admits. He has sought to por- 
tray from his o\vn experience with- 
in the conventional congregation 
"what the coming reformation 
means for the ordinary church and 
the ordinary Christian." 

To those who have already be- 
come acquainted with Raines 
through his earlier book, New Life 
in the Church, this new book will 
be a thrilling adventure in explor- 
ing the implications of participat- 
ing in God's mission in and to the 

man. United Church Press, 1964. 223 
pages, $2 

The author reports on a pilot 
project of the Greater Minneapolis 
Interfaith Fair Housing Program. 
From his experience he distills ef- 
fective social engineering tech- 
niques for bringing religion's high- 
est insights to bear upon our 
prejudice and segregation. 

Both those who are theoretically 
oriented and the do-it-yourselvers 
will find valuable helps in this 
three-part book to explode some 
of our housing myths and help us 
rid ourselves and our communities 
of the prejudice our culture instills 
in us all. Jacob T. Dick, Fresno, 


Eduard Schweizer. John Knox Press, 1964. 
78 pages, $1 

In this book the author applies 
the word-study method to the 
Greek word for "body " to come 
to his conclusion regarding the 
church. He shows how Greek 
thinking provides the framework 

26 MESSENGER 2-18-65 

for expressing the Hebrew idea 
that man finds his humanity within 

This study adds content to con- 
temporary thought on the impor- 
tance of relationships in our 
churches. This content is biblical 
rather than sociological. It must 
include man in relationship to man. 

Persons interested in the nature 
of the church and in the biblical 
background for the relationships 
found in the church will find this 
book helpful. Wayne L. Miller, 
McPherson, Kansas 

OBEDIENT REBELS, Jfiroslav Pelikan. Har- 
per & Row, 1964. 212 pages, $5 

The first part of the book is 
valuable for its insightful analysis 
of Luther's doctrine of the church. 
The author documents well the 
thesis that Luther maintained a 
reverence for the past at the same 
time that he was critical of Roman 
Catholicism. Luther is presented 
as one who combined Catholic sub- 
stance and the Protestant principle 
against the extremes of the Roman- 
ists on the one hand and the radical 
Anabaptists on the other. The 
scheme is neat, but too neat since 
it overlooks the catholic substance 
of the churchly Anabaptists. 

The second part of the book 
deals with Luther's ecumenical 
ventures with Eastern European 
Protestants. Here again the author 
has to be selective in order to 
present Luther as an irenic ecu- 
menist instead of the polemical re- 
former he is so often pictured to 

The third part interrelates the 
historical background with the con- 
temporary Protestant-Catholic dia- 
logue. This is very good and points 
out anew the current Roman Cath- 
olic interest in biblical authority 
and the Protestant Reformation 
and the Protestant recognition of 
the necessity of the place of tradi- 
tion. Dale W. Brown, Oak Brook, 



Calolog on request 

Box 85 New London, Ohio 


NURSES. R.N.s needed for hospital being 
reorganized under Protestant Evangelical 
Christian direction. Now 180 beds with 
capacity of 800 beds eventually. Starting 
salary for general duty $447.19, 10% 
difFerential for evening and night shifts. 
Merit increases each six months. Oppor- 
tunities for advancement to supervisory 
positions. Dormitory rooms available. 
Write Miss Grace L. Eshelman, Director, 
Nursing Service, Michigan Avenue Hos- 
pital, 1439 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, III. 

BRETHREN TRAVEL. Reservations are now 
being accepted for Bible Study Tour of 
the Holy Lands, June 14 -July 7, 1965. 
Bible study and worship services led by 
Rev. Murray L. Wagner, pastor. Mechanic 
Grove Church of the Brethren, Quarryville, 
Pa. Reservations also being accepted for 
Round the World tour, visiting Brethren 
missions in India. For information on both 
tours write: J. Kenneth Kreider, 306 
Cherry St., Elizabethtown, Pa. 17022. 

What Biblical Archaeology 
Is and Does . . . 


Walter C. Williams. Orienta- 
tion in the fields of general and 
biblical archaeology with spe- 
cific application of archaeology 
to Bible study. The world in 
which the Bible was written 
is presented in a straightfor- 
ward and systematic organiza- 
tion of content. 244 pages. 

Illustrated, $4.75 
Order horn your bookstore 


Publisher of The Interpreter's 
Dictionary of (he Bible 




July 8-20, 1965 

. . a firsthand experience of the overseas church 

. . an unforgettable Latin-American vacation 

. . a 12-day tour all at a cost of $425 

Complete and mail this coupon to 

Foreign Mission Commission 


Please send additional Infonnation on the BRETHREN TOUR to ECUADOR. 


Name of local congregation 

2-18-65 MESSENGER 27 



Bible Guides 

General Editors: William Barclay 
and F. F. Bruce. Paper covers. 
96 pages. $1 each 


No. 12 Tracts for the Times by Williarr, 
McKane. Esther, Ruth, Ecclesiastes. 
Lamentations, and the Song of Solomon. 
No. 14 The World of St. John by Earle 
Ellis. The "Fourth Gospel" and the 
Letters of John. 

No. 16 Freedom of the Christian by 
Brian S. Mackay. Romans and Gala- 

No. 20 Epistle to the Hebrews by Wil- 
liam Barclay. Presents the inner glory 
of this book. 

No. 21 General Epistles by George R. 
Beasley-Murray. Jude, James, and 


No. 1 The Making of the Bible by Wil- 
liam Barclay. Defines the Bible. 
No. 2 The Beginning of History by 
Bernhard Anderson. Genesis. 
No. 3 The Law Givers by Robert Ander- 
son Barclay. A study of the Old Testa- 
ment's sense of law. 
No. 4 Nation Making by Lawrence E. 
Toombs. Exodus, Numbers, Joshua and 

No. 5 Historians of Israel (1 ) by Gordon 
Robinson. Samuel and Kings. 
No. 6 Historians of Israel (2) by Hugh 
Anderson. C/ironicIes, Ezra, and Nehe- 

No. 7 Prophets of Israel (1) Isaiah by 
George Knight. 

No. 8 Prophets of Israel (2) Jeremiah 
and Ezekiel by William Neil. 
No. 9 Prophets of Israel (3) The Twelve 
by John Mauchline. 
No. 10 Singers of Israel by George S. 
Gunn. The Psalms. 

No. 11 The Wisdom of Israel by John 
Paterson. Job and Proverbs. 
No. 13 The Good News by C. L. Mitton. 
Matthew, Mark and Luke. 
No. 15 The Young Church by George 
Ladd. Acts of the Apostles. 
No. 17 Paul and His Converts by F. F. 
Bruce. Thessalonians and Corinthians. 
No. 18 Letters to the Churches by Mor- 
ton Enslin. Timothy and Titus. 
No. 19 Epistles from Prison by Donald 
Guthrie. St. Paul's Letters to the 
Phiiippians, EpHesians. Colossians, and 

No. 22 Dreams of the Future by Thomas 
Kepler. Daniel and Reuelafion. 

Order from your Bookstore 

Abingdon Press 



Zorba the Greek 

NiKos Kazantzakis, the writer who was ex- 
communicated by the Greek Orthodox Church 
for his unorthodox views, is a giant of 20th 
century literature, who underwent a widely en- 
compassing spiritual pilgrimage throughout his 
life. Although he enjoyed a life of contemplation, 
he had a great reverence for the man of action 
and freedom. Michael Cacoyannis has gained a 
deserved reputation as probably the greatest 
living Greek film director. Anthony Quinn has 
passed through his "mumbling" stage to become 
a highly skilled actor. The combination of these 
three talents gives us a movie which has its faults 
but which presents the unforgettable character of 
Zorba, the Greek. 

Zorba's creed, as he tells it near the end of the 
movie, is, "A man needs a little madness or else 
he never dares cut the rope and be free." Anthony 
Quinn, as Zorba, exults in this freedom and in 
his fire inside which drives him to glory in life 
as few men are able to. He is placed in contrast 
to Basil, the Englishman for whom Zorba comes 
to work at his father's mine on Crete. Basil is 
the passionless, book-centered contemplative — 
and as such is almost a stereotyped character, 
although Alan Bates plays him with sensitivity. 
The basic conflict in the plot is Zorba's attempts 
to awaken Basil to the passions of living. 

To this end Zorba insists that Basil could have 
the young widow (Irene Papas) of the village, 
whom all the men desire but none can touch. 
When Basil finally gives in to his one moment 
of passion, the result is disastrous. A villager sees 
Basil going into the widow's home. He tells a 
young man who is foolishly in love with the 
widow and who then kills himself. At his funeral 
the men encircle the widow to kill her (in the 
most dramatic scene of the movie ) . Basil watches 
in disbelief and horror; Zorba tries to stop them, 
but the dead boy's father succeeds. Then, this 
dialogue takes place, pinpointing the difference 
between the two main characters: Zorba: "Why 
do men die?" Basil: "I don't know." Zorba: 
"What good are your books if they can't tell you 
that? What do they tell you?" Basil: "They tell 

by Dave Fomeroy 

me about the agony of men who can't answer 
questions Hke yours." Zorba: "I spit on this 

For the Christian observer the framework of 
the drama is significant. The bulk of the story 
takes place in events between Christmas and 
Easter. Christmas Eve marks the awakening of 
passion in Basil, even as the birth of Christ really 
is the beginning of his passion. The culmination 
of this awakening for Basil leads directly to the 
death ( or crucifixion ) of the widow around Good 
Friday. Madame Hortense (Lila Kedrova), 
Zorba's mistress-wife, also dies, and the villagers, 
enacting the mass of humanity, here act as vul- 
tures ransacking her possessions as soon as she is 

Resurrection comes as Basil is about to leave, 

the prospects for the mine having failed. In an 
earlier scene Zorba had danced wildly because 
of the joy he felt, and Basil had yelled at him to 
stop because of his fear of life. Now, Basil says 
to Zorba, "Teach me to dance," and the possibili- 
ties of renewed life finally come through Basil. 
As a movie "Zorba the Greek" suffers from a 
slow tempo in too many spots. There are only 
a few scenes of heightened tension in which the 
audience can become really involved. But the 
movie is a paean to life in the interaction of 
Zorba and Basil — life as it is meant to be lived 
to the fullest in spite of the finality of death. 
What makes it especially fascinating is the 
Christian framework which is Kazantzakis' — a 
man whose life and books deserve consideration 
by all people concerned with living this life. 


Profiles in courage 

The new series, "Profiles in Cour- 
age," based on the late President 
Kennedy's Pulitzer prize-winning 
collection of biographies of Amer- 
icans who have displayed unusual 
personal courage, is good television 
fare for the conditioned viewer. 

Among the Americans so far de- 
lineated are U.S. Senator Oscar W. 
Underwood of Alabama, who 
fought the Ku Klux Klan; Gov- 
ernor Peter Altgeld of Illinois, who 
pardoned three unpopular de- 
fendants whose guilt he doubted; 
General Alexander Wilson Doni- 
phan, who refused to carry out a 
military order to execute a group 
of Mormon leaders; and U.S. Sen- 
ator Robert A. Taft, who opposed 
the Nuremberg war crimes trials. 

To the well-read, it will soon be 
apparent that the network has 
added biographies of other Amer- 
icans who, it thinks, meet the lofty 
standards of Kennedy's book. All 
are records of Americans who re- 
mained true to themselves and 
their country under stress and who 
will "inspire the living generation," 
says the executive producer, Rob- 

ert Saudek, "to a ne\\' pride in 
our nation's traditions." 

Producers and viewers of the 
series take their places beside men 
like Winston Churchill, who be- 
lieved in the heroic interpretation 
of history: that the course of his- 
tory can be hastened, delayed, or 
even diverted by the will power 
and vision of resolute and gifted 
individuals (little do they know 
that it is God who is working 
through them ) . 

Even this idea is a welcome in- 
trusion in a society whose chief 
characteristic (in church and out) 
is a lost sense of self-direction, as 
in the tendency to escape from 
leadership responsibility. This new 
series, providing you believe that 
the heroic in TV can bring out 
the heroic in the viewer, should 
help to revive in the individual 
an aspiration toward uniqueness. 
Perhaps it could even challenge 
him to assume and sustain great 

The program has some hurdles 
for this viewer. First, it all but 
destroys my impression, gained 

from long nights of TV watching, 
that American history was made 
up mostly of Matt Dillon, the Vir- 
ginian, the Lawman, and other cur- 
rent heroes. Secondly, it comes on 
opposite "Lassie." Finally, if the 
church you attend has evening 
services, as it happened on the oc- 
casion of my first viewing, it would 
present a third hurdle. I had to 
miss the last five minutes in order 
that the family could get me to 
the church on time. Perhaps that 
is our own little "profile of 


A complete selection; 
all colors and shades. 
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catalog: C-18 (Choir 
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by Richard N. Miller 

2-18-65 MESSENGER 29 




There is a sixth man, hid- JACOB 

ing among the five Bible men H S E A 

Look closely below to see 

listed below, who prayed for a r m i? -p 
three days and three nights h t P A ^ 
while in the stomach of a HIRAM 

if you can find the hidden 

musical instrument which you 

great fish. Can you find his NOAH 

boys and girls play in your 


school orchestra. 

A L V I N 





In what part of your 

■ - .*v '/i.-'..M,r,r-^iJ 

Complete these words by 


house would you most likely 

printing over the dashes the 


find the items listed below? 

name of a fruit or a color (from 




^^Ba c r _ s s W 



^^B S P I _ A L W. 


^^■r E P _ I r 

aoNvao v 


^^Bp l a _ e t 

N3HDli>l 'uMop 6u! 


^^■m e a _ e r 

-peaj jausj Mi-ino^ 'moj doj^ -9 


^^K C A M _ R A^^^ 

HVNOr '/^|puo6e!p 

6u!peaj Jau3| +sji; 'moj doj^ -g 
NHOIA 'uMop 6u! 

^^^^K ^^^^H 

-^'^^K 1 

-pesj J8ua| P-i!H^ '^°-' ^°1. ' I 


Look at that skinny tree in your backyard. ^^% ^""^iJ^W^^T 
Last summer it was so thick with leaves it shaded your lawn. ^^^^ t ^r 
Last autumn it turned to gold, x^^^^M M ' ^ ^ 
And then all the yellow leaves covered the grass. Vk A^^^m 1 ^^^ -^ 

But now its bony branches wave in the wind \^r ^^^B^ I M^!^^ 

Like the limbs of a skeleton, J^ v^'IIT ^^^^^ % 
They are black and barren. ,^Sfo^W ^m B S^ ^^^ 
They are crooked and ugly. S^ ^^^ ^^3^r^^^^ 

It looks as if the tree is dead on its feet. ^^ ^^^^^^ -^'^^..^^ 
Will it come alive again ^ ^^^^^ 
When the snow melts and the spring rains fall? ^m 

Yes, there is hope for a tree, H 

That its branches will bud and burst with new life. H 

When you look beyond winter, what do you see? H 



Jefferson H. Mathis, former executive secre- 
tary for the Pacific Coast Region, will work 
part time for La Verne College in the interest 
of estate planning .... Roy K. Miller, a 
minister who served several churches before 
turning to teaching, died Jan. 6, at the age 
of sixty-three. He was a member of Im- 
manuel church, Elkton, Md., and a minister 
of music at the church. 

Allen C. Deeter, religion professor at Man- 
chester College, has been named director of 
Brethren Year Abroad for 1965-66. . . . 
Earl S. Garver, dean of Manchester College, 
recently made an administrative visit to 
Brethren Year Abroad units at the University 
of Marburg, Germany, and Strasbourg Urw- 
versity, France. Six Church of the Brethren 
colleges cooperate to provide a junior year 
of overseas study at these universities for 
thirty interested students. 

lloyd StaufFer, pastor of the First Church 
of the Brethren in Detroit, Mich., participated 
in an experimental conference for the con- 
tinuing education of the ministry at New 
Haven, Conn. Thirty ministers each year, 
chosen from ten denominations, take part 
in these small group conversations with 
members of the faculty of Yale Divinity 
School. . . . Paul W. Keller, head of the 
Manchester College department of speech 
and dramatics and chairman of the division 
of humanities, was appointed an associate 
editor to the staff of the Journal of Commu- 
nication for a three-year period. He has been 
associated with the journal since 1959. 

Archpriest Juvenalls, until recently head of 
the Russian Orthodox Mission in Jerusalem, 
has been appointed a deputy to Metropolitan 
NIcodim, who heads the church's information 
section and department of foreign affairs. 
Father Juvenalis was head of the six-member 
Orthodox delegation which visited the 
Church of the Brethren in the United States 
in 1963. 

Forest Orland Wells, pastor of the Newport 
News congregation in Eastern Virginia, was 
elected president of the Peninsula Ministers 
Association for 1965. The association serves 
pastors and denominational leaders of more 
than 200 churches in Newport News, Hamp- 
ton, and York County, Va., and a score of 
military and institutional chaplains. . . . 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Feldman of Sabetha, 
Kansas, observed their fifty-ninth wedding 
anniversary, and Mr. and Mrs. John Beer 
of the same place, their sixtieth. 


A series of TV discussions of the thought 
of Pierre Tielhard de Chardin (see book 
review in Feb. 4 issue) is scheduled for 
station WBKB in Chicago, on Saturday after- 
noons at 1:30. The series continues through 
March 13. . . . The time for Frontiers of 
Faith (described on page 20) is 1:30 p.m. 
(EST) on Sundays. 


Copies of the 1965 Yearbook have been 
mailed to pastors, field secretaries, overseas 
personnel, and district officers. Other minis- 
ters may receive a free copy by writing 
to the Ministry and Home Ministry Commis- 
sion, Church of the Brethren General Offices, 
Elgin, Ml. 60120. Others may obtain copies 
at $1.00 each by writing to the merchandis- 
ing department at the same address. 

Two new books are now available: Vol- 
ume 2 of the Minutes of Annual Conference 
(1955-1965) may be purchased for $5.00; and 
Part 3 of the teacher's and pupil's books 
for the Senior High Curriculum, In His Hand. 

New printings have been issued of If Two 
Are to Become One in the Faith for Life 
series; Granddaughter's Inglenook Cookbook 
(twelfth printing); and The Brethren Hymnal 

(thirteenth printing). 

The office of ministry is making available 
Sydney Pierau's booklet. Minister's Guide for 
1964 Income Tax, one copy free to any 
minister writing to the commission office in 


A fire at Lybrook Navajo mission in New 
Mexico on Jan. 7 destroyed a woman's resi- 
dence building, a 1964 panel truck, a garage, 
tools, and the personal effects of three mis- 
sion workers, Edith Merkey, Mrs. Rose Ham- 
ilton, and Thelma Martin. No one was in- 
jured in the fire which began while repairs 
were being made on the truck. The loss was 
estimated at $11,000, of which $3,000 was 
covered by insurance. 

To help replace the facilities the General 
Brotherhood has allocated $5,000 from the 
Emergency Disaster Fund, at the same time 
inviting churches and individuals to contrib- 
ute to the fund. Send to Church of the 
Brethren General Offices, Elgin, 111. 60120. 


Belzer, Leota M., Albia, Iowa, on Dec. 25, 

1964, aged 60 
Bender, Samuel N., East Petersburg, Pa., on 

Nov. 2, 1964, aged 73 
Bowman, E. F., Calloway, Va., on Oct. 15, 

1964, aged 82 
Buch, Anna D., Ephrata, Pa., on Nov. 18, 

1964, aged 84 
Clark, Sallie M., Boonsboro, Md., on Dec. 8, 

1964, aged 82 
Coffman, Mary D., Dayton, Va., on Oct. 31, 

1964, aged 65 
Cooper, Anna M., Kansas City, Kansas, on 

Dec. 8, 1964, aged 64 
Cordier, W. J., North Canton, Ohio, aged 

Cramer, Pauline L., Elkhart, Ind., on Dec. 

24, 1964, aged 55 
Douple, Sallie H., West Lawn, Pa., on Nov. 

13, 1964, aged 69 
Edmiston, Lewis C, Maitland, Pa., on Dec. 

12, 1964, aged 80 
Fenninger, Fred R., Ephrata, Pa., on Nov. 

16, 1964, aged 81 
Fox, Bryan D., Lebanon, Pa., on Dec. 12, 

1964, aged 5 
Gaston, John R., Hiawatha, Kansas, on Dec. 

30, 1964, aged 85 
Gilbert, Charles T., Lewistown, Pa., on Dec. 

9, 1964, aged 61 

Glessner, Jennie Belle, Sheldon, Iowa, on 

Dec. 30, 1964, aged 81 
Click, Ida, Empire, Calif., on Oct. 9, 1964, 

aged 90 
Guffy, Roscoe G., Granada, Kansas, on Dec. 

10, 1964, aged 84 

Heaston, Wilbert, Huntington, Ind., on Dec. 

2, 1964, aged 71 
Hertzog, Joseph M., Lincoln, Pa., on Oct. 19, 

1964, aged 85 
Hodges, James V., Franklin County, Va., on 

June 18, 1964, aged 76 
Hoffman, Wayne W., Lakeland, Fla., on Nov. 

18, 1964, aged 84 
Hunt, Charles E., Columbus, Ohio, on Nov. 

15, 1964, aged 62 

Feb. 21-28 Brotherhood Week 

Feb. 28 Brotherhood Interpretation Sunday 

Feb. 28 — March 5 Brethren Adult Seminar 

March 3 Ash Wednesday, beginning of Lent 

March 5 World Day of Prayer 

March 7 Girl Scout Sunday 

March 16-19 General Brotherhood Board meeting, Elgin, III. 

March 21 Camp Fire Girls Sunday 

March 28 One Great Hour of Sharing 

April 11 Palm Sunday 

April 16 Good Friday 

April 18 Easter 

April 25 National Christian College Day 

April 25 -May 1 Mental Health Week 


Must the fish come to us? 

Electronics are now at the service of fish- 
ermen. A newly patented device will enable 
you to call fish to your exact fishing spot. For 
$14.95 you can purchase a compact "fish 
call," by means of which you can dial any 
one of seven different variants of sound waves. 
These waves will travel up to 300 yards through 
the water and will attract fish to the source of 
the sound. So with a new electronic transis- 
torized device you can now invite fish to come 
to you. Then it is up to your skill to get them 
to bite. 

While this electronic device is new, it de- 
scribes an attitude toward fishing that has been 
prevalent in the church for years. It is true, of 
course, that when Jesus called disciples and 
commissioned them to be fishers of men, they 
knew that they had been "sent" out to win men 
to Christ. There is no evidence that they sat 
down where they were, expecting the world to 
come to them and ask for the gospel with 
which they were entrusted. Jesus reminded 
them that they must laundh out into the deep. 

and he asked them to go into all the world. 

But in later years Christians operated as if 
they had a patented "fish call." They seemed 
to think that if they would just build an attrac- 
tive place to worship, put on a stimulating pro- 
gram, and raise up a steeple that could be 
seen for miles, the needy world would gather 
round, eager to bite. But it has not worked 
that way. The fish for whom the church is re- 
sponsible know about programs and steeples 
— and they could not care less. And the 
church, hugging its comfortable shores, seems 
little inclined to launch out into any deeps. 

Yet there are some signs, in the Church of 
the Brethren as elsewhere, that the church may 
be depending less on its mechanical fish calls 
and may be ready to move out into the world 
of need where most men live. It may encounter 
storms at sea. The ship may even capsize. But 
in such turbulence the church may come face 
to face with its Lord, whom God has already 
sent to the stormy world because he so loved 
that world. — K.M. 

For those who begin at the bacic 

lake any assorted group of ten or more per- 
sons. Put one question to everyone present. 
Ask each person to tell you how he reads a 
magazine or newspaper. You may be sur- 
prised to learn that many readers start at the 
back and move from the last page or last 
feature to the front. We predict, on the basis 
of our own quite unscientific polls, that you 
will find three or four out of ten reading from 
the back forward. 

Most magazines, however, are organized 
for the benefit of the majority who read from 
front to back. Indeed, editors frequently put 
nearly all of their most readable features in 
the front half of the book, letting the runovers, 
the advertisements, and the lesser departments 
spill over into the small type at the back. 

In planning for each issue of Messenger 
the editors have tried to keep the minority of 

back-to-front readers also in mind. We do 
give prominence to our most interesting 
features in the early pages, but we have also 
deliberately planned to entice the curious 
reader who starts at the back. For his benefit 
we outline our contents on the back cover. 
The editorial is on page 32. Our page for brief 
items, which we expect will become newsier 
as time goes on, is nearby, as is a page for 
children and childlike adults. So are other 
departments of more than limited interest. 

All of this is by way of saying that we 
always want to edit Messenger from the 
reader's point of view. Whether you are left- 
or right-handed, old or young, male or female, 
married or single, old-fashioned or up to the 
minute, and whether you leaf through our 
pages from front to back or back to front, 
welcome aboard! — K.M. 

32 MESSENGER 2-18-65 

BOOKS on family living 




A Manual for Parents 


This book lays emphasis upon the par- 
ents' own faith and life rather than upon 
cut-and-dried answers to children's ques- 
tions. Many concrete and practical sug- 
gestions are made as to how parents may 
guide their children into Christian faith 
and hfe and a knowledge of God, Christ, 
and the Bible. 


SARA B. TAUBIN. $4.95 

Contents: I. What Is a Good Family? 
II. Husbands and Wives in a Changing 
Society III. Sex Ways in the Family 
IV. Ways of the Family as a Going 
Concern V. Ways With Children VI. 
Ways of Handling Stress and Conflict 
VII. Ways of Relating to Kin and Com- 
munity VIII. Leisure and Retirement 
IX. Key Emerging Issues. To be pub- 
lished in March. 


ROBERT H. LOEB, Jr. $3.95 

Here's another foray into the matter of 
manners fom the lighthearted pen of the 
man whose humorous touch and "eti- 
quattitude " approach have convinced 
thousands of sophisticated teen-agers 
that it can be fun to get along with 
people. Now, Mr. Loeb ventures to lead 
4th to 6th graders into the ways of 
civilized society. 



Divided into three main sections, this 
book includes general games, games es- 
pecially designed for traveling, and a 
varied assortment of intriguing puzzles. 





Man y^ith a mission. The man is Pete Contreras, a Cheyenne 
Indian, member of an Ohio church. His mission: to help the mountain 
people he met while in army service in Vietnam, by Lois Teach Paul, 
page 1 

Holders of ttie dream. The prophets looked for a day when war 
and injustice would be no more. Today Christians support the dream. 
Others are enemies of the dream, by Wayne Zunkel. page 7 

What the National Council means to us. Few persons 

realize to what extent interchurch cooperation through the ecumenical 
movement enables their owa church to be more effective, by Norman J. 
Baugher. page 10 





The church structures for mission, it the church of christ 

is to become a "servant church," it must examine its own life in the light 
of its mission. Recent books on this theme are reviewed by Carl Myers. 
page 25 

OTHER FEATURES include two pages of inspirational poetry; a special 
report on the concerns of Christians about open housing; an appeal to 
clergymen to refuse special exemptions; and a review of actions taken 
regarding the situation in Vietnam. 


Christian Art in Africa, illustrated by examples, discussed by Kermon 
Thomason ... An introduction to study of the Sermon on the Mount, by 
George A. Buttrick . . . The personal story of one governor's faith and 
testimony . . . God and Satan in the Suburbs, as seen in recent books . . . 
A report from Washington on issues before Congress ... A listing of 
summer service opportunities . . . and a story for children. 

VOL 114 NO 






African Christian Art 

God and Satan in the Suburbs 

The Faith of a Governor 



The reply to the question about un- 
baptized children participating in the 
Lord's Supper or partaking of the 
holy communion (Questions Yovi Ask, 
Jan. 7) is rather startling to one who 
has tried to do something about the 
declining interest in these symbols in 
the Church of the Brethren. Would 
not the theological reason given for 
eliminating children from participa- 
tion, "Because they do not understand 
its meaning," justify many of the rest 
of us in absenting ourselves? Confer- 
ence emphasis last summer would en- 
courage increased participation as 
well as a better understanding of the 
symbols . . . 

When the presence and participa- 
tion of children is not encouraged, 
parents are sensitive about bringing 
them. So they do not come. Rules 
and laws can hardly solve these prob- 
lems. We need to apply the inclusive 
attitude of our Lord to situations in 
the twentieth century. 

John B. Wie.\nd 
Cabool, Mo. 


It is generous of the Messenger to 
publish letters critical of the paper 
and Its editors. But there should be 
a limit. To disagree with the editors 
or some of the writers is one thing. 
To say that the Word of God, in 
any of its translations, is "the devil's 
antichrist Bible," as Stanley M. Kirk 
did (Dec. 19) is something else. . . . 

The Bible has been translated more 
than a thousand times in order to 
bring it within the reach of people 
of various languages. What a debt 
we common people owe to scholar- 
ship! Without it the Bible would 

have become extinct. For not one 
fragment of an original manuscript is 
now in existence. Scholars copied the 
.scriptures in the days before the in- 
vention of printing. Scholars have 
given us the Bible in our own tongue, 
whether it be English, Spanish, 
Gujarati, or Congolese. Without the 
work of the translators not one in a 
thousand of us would be able to read 
the Word. 

The copyists sometimes made mis- 
takes, hence, the variant readings of 
the ancient manuscripts. Translators 
face real problems in the work of 
transcribing thought ( the profound 
thought of the Word of God) from 
one language to another. Who am 
I, in my ignorance respecting Greek 
and Hebrew, to denounce the trans- 
lators because the phaseology of the 
various English translations is not the 
same? Who am I to sit in judgment 
on the correct rendering of a Greek 
or Hebrew passage? 

Ira H. Frantz 
Delphi, Ind. 


This is to protest against the 
book review regarding Dr. Albert 
Schweitzer, appearing in the Jan. 7 
Messenger. . . . 

According to my understanding he 
was a doctor of philosophy, and one 
of the best, and might have spent 
his useful years teaching philosophy 
in one of the great u.niversities. 

He turned to organ music, and 
mastered that art. He might have 
made a milhon dollars or more if he 
had elected to follow that profession. 

He then studied medicine, and spe- 
cialized in tropical or African diseases, 
and is rated as one of the tops in 
that field. . . . 

In my book he is and has been 
for probably thirty years the world's 
greatest humanitarian. His life has 
been an open book, and has produced 
much good. Why should any poison- 

pen artist at this late date impugn 
his motives and downgrade his world- 
recognized greatness? The review 
suggests that his theology is not 
sound. I had never heard of him 
being considered a great theologian. 
The fruits of his theology have not 
been equaled in this time. 

Ernest A. See 
Keyser, W. Va. 


Stanley M. Kirk's letter (Dec. 19) 
reminds me of my Civil War grand- 
father who sort of fell away from 
the Church of the Brethren in his 
later days because he claimed the 
church was getting too worldly. He 
told me he was not leaving the 
church; the church was leaving him. 
It is not a matter of the younger 
generation of Brethren getting away 
from the faith of the founding fathers 
but rather a different approach in 
manifesting the faith. Our little 
Brethren church located south of 
Stanley, Wis., no longer has hitching 
posts for the horses. Gone are the long 
beards of yesteryear and the noise 
of smacking lips as the holy kiss 
was exchanged by those venerable 

Faith! they surely had it and no 
criticism. But should I criticize the 
present-day minister standing behind 
the pulpit adorned in a business suit 
and of all things a tie attached to 
his shirt? No! This minister has faith 
in God and immortality and the sav- 
ing grace of Jesus Christ just as 
much as did his grandfather; only 
he expresses it differently. The mod- 
ern minister in his sermon generally 
attempts to bring the lesson of the 
text into the present tense by attack- 
ing the problems of the day. This is 
much more helpful to the congrega- 
tion than the sermons I was used to 
sixty years ago. 

V. P. Mock 
Chippewa Falls, Wis. 

MESSENGER, Vol. 114, No. 5. March 4, 1965, publi- 
cation of the Church of the Brethren continuing "The 
Gospei Messenger" 

Editor: Kenneth I. Morse 
Managing Editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh 
Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Weigle 
Director of News Service: Howard E. Royer 

MESSENGER, official publication of the Church of the Brethren, is 
owned and published every other week by the General Brotherhood 
Board -Church of the Brethren, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120, 
Norman J. Baugher, general secretary. Editor, Kenneth I. Morse; 
managing editor, Wilbur E. Brumbaugh; editorial assistant, Elizabeth 
Weigle. Filing date, Oct. 1, 1963. Entered as second-class matter Aug. 
20, 1918, under Act of Congress of Oct. 17, 1917. Second-class postage 
paid at Elgin, 111. 

MESSENGER is copyright 1965 by the General Brotherhood Board, 
Church of the Brethren. 


"Jonah Swallowed by a Whale" 

N ARTIST without a faith is like a hoe without a handle. 
What can he do? He can only scratch the surface of the 
soil. True art draws from the soil and the community in which 
we live. None of us can pretend to be more ahead of our time 
than Christ. We must never escape the call to live more fully 
and truly in our surroundings, always with our eyes focused 
on God's call to all the true children of Africa. — Elimo Njau 

See story of AFRICAN CHRISTIAN ART next page 



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subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 
Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are 
from the Revised Standard Version. 

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COVER: The nearly rejected sun mirrors in the mist a faintly defined 
cabin, some fog-shrouded trees, and a few rugged reeds and rocks on 
the unrippled water of a pond. Grant Heilman of Lititz, Pennsylvania, 
has caught a scene on film which most of us will rarely have chance 
to see, especially in our urban orb of life. 

PHOTO CREDITS: 1 Richard Harrington; 2 Religious News Service; 6, 7 
Three Lions; 9 House of Lee; 11 Bill Newrock; 15 Sockman photo by 
Peter Berkeley's Lainson Studio; 17 Authenticated News; 19 Religious 
News Service 

1 ■ 

1 1 

This small statue was 
carved from a mutsatsati 
log by Francis Chingono in 
his workshop in Southern 
Rhodesia, Africa 

"Christ Carrying the Cross," 
sculptured in baked clay 
by Omari, exemplifies the 
vitality of contemporary 
African art 

African art has been "discovered" for some fifty 
years now, but only recently has the Western 
world begun to appreciate it. Here is an art form, 
at last, that has not been content to copy nature 
but in which forms have been and are being 
invented freely. Creation, not representation, has 
been the function of this art — an art that is 
unself-conscious and uninhibited by irrelevant 
theories about techniques and perspective and 

Some alarmists are certain that African art has 
been corrupted in the last generation's upheaval 
of old traditions. Most critics of African art follow 
a simple formula that old African art is good and 
the new is bad; that Africa produced interesting 
art as long as the tribal organization was intact, 
but that, since Christian missions have under- 
mined the ancient institutions, art has rapidly 
declined. Modern African artists, the formula 
goes on, are European trained and bad, because 
they are merely copying Europe instead of going 
back to their own traditions. 

Actually, the situation is much more compli- 
cated than that — in Africa new art forms have 
been evolved independently of European teaching 
and influence; traditional art is not as dead as 
most people think; the intellectual African artist 

cannot simply be asked to go back to his tradi- 
tions; and there are the beginnings of a new 
Christian art in Africa. 

The first impact of Christianity on African art 
was destructive. The early missionaries associated 
African wood carving with what they called "idol 
worship," and sometimes burnt the "fetishes," not 
realizing that they were destroying a great cul- 
tural heritage. Today the churches are less openly 
iconoclast, but the majority of them still frown on 
traditional art, and their attitude and influence 
have greatly contributed to the decline of African 
wood carving and bronze casting. 

One criticism hurled at African art by its Chris- 
tian critics, aside from the charge that it is all 
"pagan," is that it is so ugly and grotesque. Here 
on the desk in front of me is one of my favorite 
pieces of African art — a wooden crucifix carved 
by a Christian artist of Ghana. Few people share 
my appreciation for its expression of sorrow and 
suffering, which, though clearly visible, does not 
obscure the suggestion of triumph in the tilt of the 
thorn-crowned head. My friends are held at bay 
by what they consider the crudeness of the carving 
— the arms without elbows, the straight torso, the 
feet that fit flat, one over the other. 


3-4-65 MESSENGER 3 

AFRICAN ART continued 

Upper left: "The Manger," by Tanganyika-born Njau, 
depicts the nativity in a typical East African setting. 
Upper right: "Baptism," by Njau, exposes the diversity 
of his talent in this oil interpretation which takes form 
in a junglelike setting. Above: "Wise Man Bearing 
Gifts to the Christ Child," by Lamine Fakeye, is one of 
a series of panels carved into the doors of University 
College, Ibadan, Nigeria. Right: "Hunger," by Njau, 
arouses a desire to respond to the outstretched hands 

4 MESSENGER 3-4-65 

The African preserves the child's initial impulse of self-expression 

I would like to point out just one thing about 
African art which I consider basic to an under- 
standing and appreciation of it, and when I talk 
here of African art I am referring primarily to 
wood and stone carving, and bronze casting, be- 
cause easel painting is an art form introduced by 
Europeans. The point is that the African artist 
treats the form nonrealistically. He derives all his 
forms from a close study of nature, but he ab- 
stracts the forms of nature beyond an immediate 
or direct comparison with her models. 

The African artist preserves the child's initial 
impulse of self-expression. They share a freedom 
from self-consciousness, though neither the African 
artist nor the child thinks the sensible world sur- 
rounding him looks like his representations. A 
child, drawing a man, concentrates on a simplified 
head, arms and legs. The torso interests him only 
as a link between these. The African's treatment 
of the torso is as direct as the child's drawing, but 
not so simple and crude. He is interested in those 
features of the torso giving expression to his be- 
lief: the navel — the cord of life; the mother's out- 
thrusting breasts — the sustainer of infant life; the 
pubis — the portal of life; and the cicatrices and 
tribal markings on the body — his passport to join 
the spirits of his tribal companions in the life 
after death. 

When the African artist has turned his efforts 
to Christian art, he has also carried his treatment 
of form with him — happily for the results, I 
would say. So if we wish to encourage and ap- 
preciate the new Christian art of Africa, let us 
agree to allow it to take a form uniquely African. 


"Christ Carrying the Cross," by Fakeye, is another 
example of his panel carvings. Below: "Prayer," 
by Njau, born in the foothills of Kilimanjaro 


*«^ >>■ 


3-4-65 MESSENGER 5 

Sermon on the Mount: 


Seeing the crowds, he went up on the 

mountain, and when he sat down his 

disciples came to him. And he opened 

his mouth and taught them . . . 

by Greorge A. Butt rick 

Directive for Discipleship 

The Sermon on the Mount now towers over the world. Books 
written about it, if they could all be gathered, would make a massive 
library. Why? Others spoke the Golden Rule (in negative form) 
before Christ, yet millions of people think of Christ when they think 
of the rule, because Christ now towers above the mountain. 

The supremacy of the Sermon is not focused in the admitted 
fact that it provides the summary of a disciple's conduct but in its 
searchingness. It lays bare our secret heart. It wrings from us cry 
after cry: "This is how men should live! But I for one have not so 
lived! Can any man, with any man's legacy of failure and any 
man's feeble powers, ever hope to fulfill such stern demands?" 

The protests provoked by the Sermon, that it is impractical or 
impossible or "meaningless in our tumultuous and mass-communica- 
tion world," only testify the more to its power to probe. We cannot 
let it go, because it will not let us go. Besides, it wins us even as it 
convicts us. We understand the joy of the child who, hearing from 
her mother for the first time this great proclamation, exclaimed: "O 
mother, now we can begin to live this way!" Can we? If only we 


We should mark the setting of the Sermon in the total Gospel. 
Scholars speak of "The Five Books of Matthew." The Gospel consists 
of a wonderful sunrise (the account of the birth of Christ and a 
wonderful sunset of which the early church said, "Our sun is risen 
in the West" (the account of the resurrection of Christ) and in be- 
tween five narratives which reverent study now traces to the material 
in Mark's Gospel, each narrative being followed by an appropriate 
collection of "the sayings of Jesus. " These five narrative-teaching 
units conclude in each instance with a repeated formula: "And when 
Jesus had finished these sayings ..." 

Perhaps the author of the Gospel had in mind the five books of 

6 MESSENGER 3-4-65 

Moses which we now call the "Pentateuch"; per- 
haps he was intent to set forth the "new law" in 
Christ. The Sermon is the first of those collections 
of "the sayings of Jesus." The other four, if you 
wish to find them, are about apostleship (9:36 — 
10:42), about the secrecy of the message of Christ 
(13:1-53), about the beginnings of the church (17: 
22-18:35), and about the last judgment (23- 

We need not shrink from the proposal that the 
Sermon is in part Matthew's mosaic of Christ's 
sayings. Compare the similar material in Luke's 
"Sermon on the Plain" (6:20-49), and you will see 
that each writer has chosen the material (probably 
from a common source which the scholars call Q) 
which best suited his purpose as he proclaimed 
the word. Nor does such a proposal nullify our 
conviction that both men wrote under the guid- 
ance and power of the Holy Spirit, for the Spirit 
gives disciplines and artistry as well as sudden 

The first three Gospels, called the Synoptic 
Gospels, because they see "the old, old story" 
under one optic or eye, are like three pictures of 
the same entrancing landscape, while the fourth 
Gospel holds the landscape in supernatural light 
as it says to us: "These [things] are written that 
you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son 
of God, and that believing you may have life in 
his name." 


We now turn from this necessary biblical in- 
troduction to the question. How shall the Sermon 
be interpreted for our time? Nietzsche called it 
"slave morality, " having in mind such sayings as 
that about "the meek" or about "turning the other 
cheek." We shall not sidestep such teachings 
when we reach them. But it is here worth noting 
that a contemporary psychiatrist. Dr. Smiley H. 
Blanton, has written a book entitled Love or 

The Marxist claims that the Sermon is simply 
irrelevant in our highly complex economic and 
technological society. That charge also we will 
not evade, but we may here remember that 
Marxism regards personhood as being derived 
from matter and sees man as a throw-off from the 
economic vortex. Suppose that theory to be false 
(it can easily be riddled) and suppose man to be 
amphibian — a dweller in two worlds of time and 
eternity — suppose him to be "that strange creature 

who can view his own life " and who must, there- 
fore, regard his neighbor also' as being uniquely 
precious, then the Sermon on the Mount returns 
with keener surgical probe and double healing. 

But Nietzsche and Marx aside, have we not all 
feared that the Sermon is "a counsel of perfec- 
tion," "a heaven too high for our upreaching"? 
How have the scholars interpreted this portion of 
the teachings of Jesus? 

Martin Dibelius, the great German theologian, 
refuses to temper the outright claim of these 
commands. Other scholars have proposed that 
Jesus spoke "impossibilities" to show us our human 
helplessness and thus to drive us to the cross for 
pardon, but Dibelius flatly disagrees. He claims 
rightly that the disciples of Christ had as yet no 
clear sight and even less understanding of the 
cross. Besides, it is not in the judgment-compas- 
sion of Christ to leave men in baffled dismay by 
offering the "impossibilities." 

We may wonder if Dibelius has fully con- 
fronted the ambiguities of our modern world (for 
example, the ethic of occupation forces, not to 
mention the dilemma of nuclear power), but surely 
we must agree with him against those who would 
dilute the outright challenge of Christ. Do we 
deeply ' wish it diluted, however rigorous its 

Albert Schweitzer, the Alsatian musician, doc- 
tor, and theologian, honored for his work in the 
Lambarene Forest hospital in Africa, has advanced 
the theory that the Sermon is "interim ethic." He 
means that Jesus believed that "the kingdom was 
imminent" in the sense that history would soon 
end and that the rules laid down were, therefore, 
only for his disciples as they looked to "the climax 
of the age." 

Schweitzer's sweeping contentions are no long- 
er widely held among scholars, at least not in their 
iconoclastic thoroughness, but it is agreed that 
they have this value: Jesus did believe that his 
coming marked the end of an age and the be- 
ginning of a new age, and the Sermon is, there- 
fore, in some deep sense a kingdom ethic. 

The issue as it concerns us can be simply stated: 
Do we think the Sermon is related only to A.D. 30 
or is addressed also to us in inescapable challenge? 

Many writers have contended that the Sermon 
consists of principles aimed more at inward dis- 
position than at specific fulfillment. We agree and 
disagree. We agree that it goes below the outward 

8 MESSENGER 3-4-65 


when he campaigns 

he focuses attention on the people 

not on politicians 

The Faith of a Governor 

by Evelyn Bauer 

Eleven years ago Mark Hatfield, young and hand- 
some, appeared to be a prime example of a man 
making strides up the ladder of success. Against 
a strong majority of the opposing party, he had 
won membership in the state legislature. After 
serving two terms, he stepped up to senator of 
the state of Oregon. 

These political posts were part-time jobs; so 
Hatfield continued teaching political science at 
Willamette University. As dean of men, he learned 
to know many students personally. Those who had 
special problems came to him for advice. Some of 
the students' problems were spiritual ones for 
which Hatfield had no answer. He began to ask 
himself how he could expect to help the state of 
the nation, and the world, when he could not 
give real help to individuals. 

More questions bothered him. His outward 
successes served to accentuate the disturbing inner 
vacuum in his life. What was his purpose for 

When a number of students decided to start 
a Bible study group and asked Hatfield to be 
their faculty adviser, he accepted. Their earnest- 
ness in seeking God's will for their lives touched 
him deeply. He did not really share the dedica- 
tion of these students. He saw that his goals 
were self-made and self-centered. 

He had a Christian background. He was con- 
sidered an active member of and contributor to 
the Baptist church which he attended regularly. 
But now he had to admit to himself that his 
Christianity was pretty much a- Sunday affair. 

Concerning this, he wrote: "ReUgion came 
very naturally to me. This was just the trouble; 
it was a religion of habit, not of commitment." 

Mark Hatfield, governor 
of the state of Oregon 

'Either Christ was Lord or he wasn't 

One night he was sitting alone in his room 
at his parents' home. For months his words in 
the classroom had echoed back in his ears to 
mock him. He had been urging his students to 
stand up for their beliefs, and he realized that in 
the most important area of his life — the spiritual 
— he himself remained strangely quiet. 

Hatfield describes his crisis: "That night in 
the quiet of my room, the choice was suddenly 
clear. I could not continue to drift along as I 
had been doing — going to church because I had 
always gone, because everyone else went, because 
there wasn't any particular reason not to go. 
Either Christ was God and Savior and Lord, or 
he wasn't; and if he were, then he had to have 
all of my time, all my devotion, and all of my 

Me made the choice that night. He saw that for 
thirty-one years he had lived for self. He de- 
cided to live the rest of his life for Christ. He 
asked God to forgive his self-centered life and 
make it his own. Then he realized that he would 
need to make some changes. 

First, he decided it was not enough just to 
pray at eleven o'clock Sunday mornings. He must 
pray "first thing every morning, last thing every 
night, and many, many times in between." 

Secondly, he saw his need to study the Bible 
personally. As he did, the truths of the gospel 
message came alive and made sense. 

Thirdly, he pondered how he dare be silent 
about the gospel. If its life-giving message is true, 
he must not just soak up its inspiration for him- 
self but must pass it on to others at every oppor- 

That week he began teaching a Sunday school 
class at his church. He saw the need to live what 
he taught. 

In 1957 he became Secretary of State of 
Oregon. This was the last stepping-stone before 
he was elected governor in 1958. He had not 
planned to run for governor, but because of his 
wide popularity he was persuaded to enter the 
campaign. He became the second youngest 
governor in the country. In 1962 he was re- 
elected by a landslide. 

Billy Graham has said, "I predict that, if Mark 
Hatfield stays humble before the Lord, he will 
hold positions of national responsibility." 

Mark's political interest began early. From his 
parents he caught an abhorrence for corruption 
in government and also admiration for those 
leaders who upheld the most noble precepts of 
the nation. His boyhood heroes included political 
figures. He read books about the great leaders 
of the past and present. He found that those 
who served best had dedicated themselves to the 
highest ideals and worked unstintingly for their 

A bachelor until thirty-six, his marriage to a 
twenty-nine-year-old counselor for women at 
Portland State College, the daughter of a Yugo- 
slavian immigrant, made a stir. The most un- 
usual thing about the wedding seemed to be 
that the bride promised to "obey." Fifty years 
ago a bride who did not promise to "love, honor, 
and obey" would have made news. 

Antoinette wanted the "obey" in her vows. 
"Just as two people may ride together in one car 
but only one can do the driving," she says, "I 
don't think there can be two drivers in a marriage 
either. One person must be at the wheel, and 
when it's the woman, I don't like what it does 
to her. Or to him. But it hurts her most." 

Today, Governor Hatfield works hard for the 
good of his state. He tries to promote economic 
development and more jobs for his people. He 
regards no person insignificant. When he cam- 
paigns, he focuses attention on the people and 
not on politicians. 

With his busy schedule he does not refuse 
to serve as a lay minister. In his position as head 
of the state, his words and fife influence many. 
He is a nonsmoker. He serves on the boards of 
International Church Leadership, World Vision, 
and Willamette Theological Seminary. 

Governor Hatfield considers following Christ 
the most important thing. He wrote in a tract 
pubhshed by the American Tract Society: "I can 
say with all sincerity that living a committed 
Christian life is truly satisfying because it has 
given me true purpose and direction by serving 
not myself but Jesus Christ." D 

10 MESSENGER 3-4-65 

Guidance for 
Problem Children 


'HEN your pastor makes out his annual re- 
port, there are a number of statistics he will not 
include. Statistics like the following: two preg- 
nant teen-age brides, one unwed mother who left 
town, three school dropouts, two fifth grade shop- 
lifters (girls), five windows broken maliciously, 
one small fire started by boy smoking in a rest 
room, three mutilated hymnals — and more than 
a hundred counseling sessions with parents of 
troubled children. 

The listing is fictitious but surprisingly 
realistic. In almost every church there are prob- 
lem children who come from the homes of active 
members. Even while we wonder how this can 
be, we recall that most of the "tad" boys and 
girls we knew in the past grew up to be fairly 
responsible citizens. Something happened in 
their lives to turn the tide. What was it? 

Dr. William Glasser points out that every 
person has two basic needs: to love and be loved, 
and to feel worthwhile and be worthwhile. Prob- 
lems develop and suffering results when these 
needs are not met. 

Every Christian who takes his religion serious- 
ly knows that love is at the very heart of Jesus' 
teachings. Yet it is often difficult for us to say, 
"I love you." And translating love into action is 
almost impossible when we do not understand 
the reasons for antisocial behavior. 

Too often well-meaning persons spend their 
time probing into a child's background in the 
belief that if they know why a child has mis- 
behaved, they can then do something to change 

his behavior. But such speculation may do little 
for the child. For example, some of the time 
spent in quizzing Randy about why he delights 
in running with the motorcycle crowd could be 
used instead in an attempt to build a meaningful 
relationship with him. 

This is not to say that a psychiatrist, working 
in depth with a grossly disturbed patient, does 
not need to delve into the past. An emerging 
trend, however, is that of dealing with the 
patient in the here and now, where he is. 

Mary Anne repeatedly came to her counseling 
sessions stating defensively, "I am the way I am 
because my parents made me this way!" If the 
counselor had not come to the place of saying, 
"So what?" she would have continued to use this 
as an excuse for her bad behavior. Nothing in 
all the world can change the past for anyone. 
Each person must come to terms with those 
elements of his background that are unpleasant 
and then rise above them. A repetition of excuses 
only serves to strengthen the conviction of futihty, 
with the excuses becoming crutches for crippled 

Does Helen feel guilty about her behavior? 
If so, this is good. A parent or counselor must not 
try to lighten this guilt too easily. This is a 
powerful resource. Young people have little 
enough of this essential civilizing emotion. 

Of course, guilt is not to become lifelong re- 
morse. We want instead a change in attitude and 
motivation. When twelve-year-old John asks, 
"What can I do?" after a particularly bad episode 
at school, one clear answer is, "I don't know just 
exactly what you can do, but I know you can 
do better than you have been doing." Often you 
can add, "I can tell you what some others have 
been able to do." In the sure knowledge of our 
love and concern he will hopefully go on to find 
ways of feeling and being worthwhile. We want 
him to face reality, to see his error honestly, to 

by Glen and Florence Crago 

3-4-65 MESSENGER 11 

make amends wherever possible, to seek forgive- 
ness of whomever he has wronged and of God, 
and to indicate his change of attitude by the way 
in which he operates from now on. This is the 
Christian concept of forgiveness. 

We must avoid, with younger children 
especially, the pattern of behavior which can 
transform an unhealthy burden of guilt into a 
neurotic trait which hampers the child's function- 
ing. An illustration may help: five-year-old 
Tommy, visiting the home of a wealthy middle- 
aged maiden lady who lived alone, took from 
her bookshelf a very valuable but fragile heir- 
loom. The pretty china vase appealed to the boy, 
and he ran toward his mother to show it to her. 
At the edge of the carpet the child slipped and 
fell, and the vase crashed into dozens of pieces. 
The irreplaceable heirloom was gone forever. 

Mrs. Benson, a good parent, certainly had 
something to say to Tommy about bothering other 
people's things, but she did not expect the im- 
possible: the replacement of the heirloom or 
compensation for its loss. Instead, she took a 
part of the "sin" upon herself, forgave Tommy 
far beyond his capacity to be worthy of forgive- 
ness, and reestablished their relationship. 

If Tommy were allowed to carry with him 
from day to day the burden of his accumulated 
guilts, it probably would be reflected in his poor 
functioning. The loving parent does not expect 
his child to achieve success in every effort. He 
works and prays for an attitude in his child that 
says in one way or another, "I didn't get it right 
that time, but I did it better than last time, and 
tomorrow I'll do it even better." 

There can be no doubt that prayer and church 
school attendance are important influences in 
guiding the growth of children. But experience 
has shown that the Christian parent must have 
work as well as faith if he is to do his best possible 
job. He must learn to love, to pray, to work, and 
to play with his child. 

To achieve this goal requires the use of every 
spiritual and human resource. It does little good 
to pray about Johnny's behavior if the prayer 
does not open the way to help Johnny feel our 
love, especially when he is behaving badly. 
Many a child has become the victim of a family 
so focused on service to the church that there 
was little time for the child to feel the love which 

motivates his parents to service. He may even 
feel in the way. If we hope for balance in our 
children, our lives must reflect balance. 

The principal task of Christian parents is not 
to make their children "happy" or to indulge 
them or to make them uncritical conformists. 
Trite as it may sound, the prime task is to guide 
children in their spiritual development so that 
they have a personal experience of God and come 
to understand that his purpose for them promises 
that life can be an exhilarating adventure. 

We should be taught in our society that we 
cannot make people happy. Unhappiness is the 
result, not the cause of, irresponsibility. Con- 
versely, happiness is the result of responsible be- 
havior. It seems wise, therefore, to ignore the 
unhappy past and provide children with oppor- 
tunities to benefit themselves in a responsible 
Christian way, with God as their partner. As 
they become more responsible, they will be in 
a position to enjoy and understand the basis for 
lasting happiness. 

I HE degree of responsibility in a person's life 
may be an index to the kind of prognosis we can 
make about his ultimate level of performance. 
It may be that it would be easier to rehabilitate 
David, who has stolen a car, if that is the sole 
irresponsible act in David's life, than it would 
be to rehabilitate Don, whose life is filled with 
many minor acts of irresponsibility. 

Most of all, children need to have meaningful 
relationships with real people. It is better for 
them to know that you are capable of crying than 
never to cry in their presence and give them the 
impression that all adults are impervious to 
trouble. It is important to convey to the child 
that you care enough to be hurt, but it is impera- 
tive that he understand that in the end it is he 
who will suffer the most. 

The key words for parents should be "I care" 
or "I love you." The child needs to feel this no 
matter how bad his behavior may become. A 
parent should not approve his bad behavior but 
must be clear in his own mind that he is con- 
veying to the child the fact that the child is still 
loved. Wise parents will help their children be- 
come involved in whatever is healthy and ignore 
the sick past. D 

12 MESSENGER 3-4-65 


you ask 

Is there a scriptural teaching re- 
garding cremation? Is this means 
of disposal of a dead body con- 
sistent with the Christian faith? 

Cremation as a means of dis- 
posing of the bodies of the dead 
was quite common among the 
peoples of the ancient world 
with the important exceptions of 
Egypt, where bodies were em- 
balmed and often entombed, 
China, where they were buried 
in the earth, and Palestine, 
where the Jews placed their dead 
in sepulchers or tombs. 

The practice of cremation in 
modern Europe was undoubted- 
ly at first stopped and thereafter 
prevented in great measure by 
the Christian doctrine of the 
resurrection of the body. Strong- 
ly influenced by the Hebrew 
concept of the unity of the 
whole man — body and soul — as 
against the strong duality of flesh 
and spirit in Greek thought, 
Christians regarded the body, 
even in death, as redeemed and 
purified. Therefore, cremation 
was regarded as an unnecessary 
desecration of that which was 
believed to be holy. 

In the Roman Catholic 
Church, cremation is strictly 
forbidden. Rather, the body is 
to be buried out of reverence for 
that which was in life the temple 
of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 6:19). 
Moreover, Catholics have op- 
posed it because, as one Catho- 
lic encyclopedia states, "its prac- 
tice has become associated 
with atheists and materialists 
who use it as a manifestation of 

their disbelief in human immor- 
tality and resurrection and be- 
cause it is a custom repugnant to 
Christian tradition and to the 
universal mind and practice of 
Christian people." 

While cremation may be op- 
posed by some because of its 
association with certain non- 
Christian religious cultures, it 
can certainly be said that the 
attitude toward this means of 
disposal of dead bodies has 
changed greatly in this cen- 
tury. Even the Roman Catholic 
Church admits that cremation is 
not intrinsically wrong and may 
be allowed by ecclesiastical 
authority for sufficient reason, 
such as public health in the 
event of an epidemic. The 
scarcity and high cost of burial 
grounds in many places also 
favors cremation as a means of 
economic disposition of the 

There is no specific teaching 
in the scriptures concerning the 
disposition of the bodies of the 
dead. In spite of the strong 
Jewish emphasis upon the sa- 
credness of the body, both He- 
brew and Christian doctrine 
have looked beyond death to the 
life everlasting and the resurrec- 
tion of the body. In the Chris- 
tian faith, death, the last great 
enemy of man, has been con- 
quered by Christ, who himself 
rose from the dead (1 Cor. 15: 
25-26), and all who sleep in him 
shall be raised again to eternal 
life (1 Cor. 15: 20-21, John 11: 

Cremation would certainly do 
no violence to the Christian doc- 
trine of the resurrection of the 
body. Whether the body be 
buried at sea, interred in the 
ground or in a mausoleum, or 
cremated, God will certainly 
create from it another body suit- 
able for the life to come, which 
the Apostle Paul calls a spiritual 
body (1 Cor. 15:35-50). Whether 
the dead body will slowly decay 
in the grave or speedily be dis- 
integrated in cremation is of lit- 
tle real difference. Dust we are, 
and to dust we shall return 
(Genesis 3:19). 

Why do Christians observe Sun- 
day as their day of worship in- 
stead of Saturday? 

It is clear that the day for syna- 
gogue worship among the Jews 
was the seventh day of the week, 
Saturday. However, the apos- 
tolic Christian community from 
the beginning held assemblages 
for worship on the first day of 
the week. For evidence turn to 
Acts 20:7, where a service of 
preaching and the Lord's Supper 
were referred to, and 1 Cor. 16:2, 
where Paul probably intended 
that weekly collections for the 
Jerusalem church be taken at this 
time of the observance of the 
Lord's Supper. 

It is quite likely that in the 
early days of the church both 
Saturday and Sunday were 
celebrated for worship. Paul 
frequently attended synagogue 
worship and preached there 
on his missionary journeys. 
As Christianity spread in the 
Gentile circles, however, the 
sabbath observance was soon 
dropped and the "Lord's Day" 
or the first day of the week be- 
came the day for Christian wor- 

If you have a question you would like to have answered 
on this page, send it to Questions You Ask, Messenger, 
Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 
Replies to questions are written by Dr. Paul M. Robinson 

Faith Looks Up 


TO LIVE by rules may seem to be legalistic, the very thing that our 
Lord condemned. But no life can reach the fullness that God 
expects without a belief in basic principles. We should make 
our decisions in harmony with those principles. 

Paul's admonition was "not to neglect the gift that you have." 
God has been good to me in many ways. In return I owe God a 
full commitment of all of my life. My time, my abilities, and my 
possessions belong to him. This basic rule does not mean that 
only a tenth belongs to God but rather that ten tenths is to be 
used in witnessing for him. 

The power of one's witness is in ideas, not in wealth. 

I believe that Phil. 4:8 gives us a very basic rule to live by: 
"Finally, brethren, whatever is true, whatever is honorable, what- 
ever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is 
gracious, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of 
praise, think of these things." 

We become in time like the object of our thinking and reach 
a high state of spiritual living when we reach the place where 
God takes over. 

Another basic rule to live by is that man does not live for 
himself alone. We are in the world to live a useful life. Our 
actions must approach our beliefs and be of benefit to our 

No matter how strenuous our efforts and how little the praise, 
one must not become cynical and distrustful. Right may not 
always triumph in ways that we are accustomed to expect, but 
there is no uncertainty about the reward if the reward that we 
expect is the satisfaction of a task completed to the best of our 

Grateful memories can ease the saddest outlook and unlock 
the ceil of one's disappointments. Life is a race and we run the 
course one day at a time. To the extent that we cooperate with 
God's plan our lives will be filled with peace and fulfillment. I 
believe in these rules and know that they are the foundation of 
an effective witness. 

JOSEPH W. KETTERING is a general 

partner in Main, Lafrantz, and Company, 

certified public accountants. A resident of 

Elizabethtown, Pa., and a graduate of 

Elizabethtown College, he carries numerous 

responsibilities in the local church and 

has been chairman of the college board 

of tru-itees since 195.3. He was appointed 

last year to the Pennsylvania state board 

for the examination of public accountants. 

He is a former member of the General 

Brotherhood Board. 


ship. This was undoubtedly in 
celebration of the resurrection 
of Jesus from the dead on the 
first day of the week and was re- 
garded as a further break with 
Jewish law and tradition. 

Christians, therefore, should 
realize that in worship every 
Sunday they are actually cele- 
brating the resurrection of the 

What do the initials B.D. really 
stand for? Among other things 
they may mean: 

to a married man who has 
experienced anew his humanness 
through the struggle for an ad- 
vanced degree! 

"BIG DEAL" to the young sem- 
inarian who does not fully realize 
its implication and needed appli- 
cation. If he has just gone into 
pastoral work for the first time he 
may yet be searching for the pur- 
pose of Christian service as God 
has led him into it. 

the church which does not want 
its pastor to speak the truth as 
he is guided to preach it, a church 
which wants to hear only "the gos- 
pel" and none of this stuff about 
"loving our enemies" and "feeding 
the poor" — which is itself one 
facet of the "gospel." 

Christians who feel a seminary ed- 
ucation is unnecessary for one 
"called" to be a minister but who 
unconsciously, deep down, covet 
the opportunity themselves to in- 
crease their understanding of the 
Christian faith. 

the man who has received a 
double portion of God's grace by 
his sincere effort to train his mind 
to think as well as to let his spirit 
be open to the inflowing of the 
Holy Spirit! 

Daniel C. Flory 


Ocean Grove to host '65 Conference 

Annual Conference along the At- 
lantic this June promises to offer a 
broad svv^ep of program and busi- 
ness items. 

For the sixth time the seaboard 
community of Ocean Grove, N. J., 
will be host to the June 22-27 event. 
It was nearly 100 years ago that 
religious gatherings first began at the 
camp meeting grounds, which its ar- 
dent backers like to refer to as "one 
place set apart as God's square mile." 
What the boardwalk community lacks 
in up-to-date convention facilities it 
seeks to make up in a charm uniquely 
its own. 

Among the major sessions speakers 
for the Conference will be A. Stauffer 
Curry, moderator, Elgin, 111,; Colin 
Williams, associate secretary. Division 
of Christian Life and Mission, 
National Council of Churches, New 
York; C. Wayne Zunkel, pastor, Har- 
risburg, Pa.; Dr. Ralph W. Sockman, 

Methodist minister and National Ra- 
dio Pulpit preacher, New York; 
Curtis W. Dubble, pastor, Westmin- 
ster, Md.; J. Benton Rhoades, execu- 
tive secretary. Agricultural Missions, 
New York; and Merlin E. Garber, 
pastor, Frederick, Md. 

Also planned is a drama relating 
to the proposed Brotherhood em- 
phasis for the last half of the decade, 
an emphasis to be introduced at the 
Conference. The Conference theme, 
"In Loving Obedience, " is related to 
the emphasis. 

Bible hour presentations will be 
given by Mrs. Lucile Long Strayer, 
Milford, Ind.; R. W. Schlosser and 
Carl W. Zeigler, Elizabeth town. Pa.; 
Homer N. Kiracofe, Plymouth, Ind.; 
and Chalmer E. Faw, Oak Brook, 111. 

Items of business carried over from 
former Conferences include; district 
organization and relationships; a new 
basis of eldership; the theological 

basis of personal ethics; child conse- 
cration services; status and direction 
of men's and women's fellowships; 
reading of Conference business; reli- 
gious exercises in the public schools 
and the secularization of modern cul- 
ture; mental health care facilities; 
foreign mission nomenclature; and 
updating of the statement of the 
church on economic problems. 

New queries to date include a 
study of participation in the Lord's 
Supper and Eucharist, from Eastern 
Maryland; study of responsibilities of 
Brethren churches located in college 
and university towns, from First West 
Virginia; registration as a peace 
church in Canada, from the Canada 
district; a new dimension of Brethren 
Volunteer Service, from Second Vir- 
ginia; study of frequency and organ- 
ization of Annual Conference, from 
Washington; and study of church 
school curriculum, from Oregon. 

Addressing major Conference sessions: Williams, Curry, Zunkel, Sockman, Dubble, Rhoades, Garber 

3-4-65 MESSENGER 15 


Coming of age 

FiLiBERTO Navarro once worked for 
a priest in an Ecuadorian village. He 
swept the church, dusted off the 
statues of the saints, and made prepa- 
rations for religious processions. On 
the pretext of worshiping the saints, 
the Indians of the area rented the 
statues for use in their drunken 
fiestas. The priest profited nicely, 
and Navarro received his share. 

One day Navarro read some mate- 
rial from a Protestant mission. The 
literature spoke of the Bible as reveal- 
ing God's word to man. Navarro 
went to the Bible (until recently a 
closed book to the Catholic laymen 
of Latin America) and sensed a con- 
tradiction in the commandment, 
"Thou shall have no other gods be- 
fore me," and his own job as keeper 
of the saints. 

Navarro spoke of his concern to 
the priest, who contended that only 
a priest could interpret God's Word. 
But the assistant was not convinced. 
He bought a Bible and began reading 
it zealously. As a matter of con- 
science he quit his job. 

In his next job as baker in Quito, 
he- was fired because of his beliefs. 
With a wife and two children to sup- 
port, he needed steady work and so 
he opened a bakery in the country. 
At the same time he told his neigh- 
bors of his new insight into the word 
of God as revealed through Jesus 
Christ in the Bible. 

Still he needed more income, and 
he sought work at the home of Merle 
Grouse, a Brethren missionary. Al- 
though unable to offer him a job, 
Grouse invited him to Bible study in 
his home. That was in 1959. Since 
then, Filiberto Navarro, sometimes 
beaten and stoned because of his wit- 
ness, has been responsible for twenty- 
four baptisms in the Church of the 

More recently, the forty-five-year- 
old baker was licensed to the min- 
istry, the first Ecuadorian to so serve 

Navarro . . . "no other gods" 

the church. The missionaries had 
longed for the day when an Ecua- 
dorian leader could perform the pas- 
toral functions. 

"The Ecuadorians know the inti- 
mate problems in a way the mission- 
aries can seldom know," confided 
Navarro. "When missionaries get in 
the middle of community problems, 
their lack of understanding can make 
people mad and resentful. Nationals 
may have less education, but they 
can often better apply what little 
they do know to a specific problem." 

At the same time Navarro was 
licensed, four Ecuadorians and three 
missionaries were elected to a district 
board, set up to coordinate the 
church program. 

This emergence of indigenous lead- 
ership represents a turning point for 
Brethren in Ecuador, a mark of ma- 
turity for a growing church. To the 
missionaries, it is a sign of a mission 
church coming of age. 

End of a trend 

In membership, the Church of the 
Brethren in the past year saw the 
meager but consistent gains of pre- 
ceding years reversed. 

According to the 1965 Yearbook, 
the church in 1963-64 experienced a 
net loss of approximately 1,000 mem- 
bers. The actual stateside net loss 
was 2,190 members, partly offset on 
the global scene by a net gain of 
1,208 members overseas. 

Two factors were seen as operative 
on the domestic side. The first was a 
forty-five percent increase in one year 
in the number of inactives dropped by 
congregations. The second was a six 
percent decrease over the former year 
in the number of baptisms, down 
340, for a year's total of 5,559. 
Twenty-seven out of thirty-nine dis- 
tricts registered net losses. 

As reported in the 1965 Yearbook, 
the membership stands at 200,067 for 
the United States and Canada and 
at 20,117 for overseas. The total is 
220,184 as against 221,166 a year 

The decline is not without prece- 
dent among sister churches. An An- 
glican bishop from England recently 
chided the Episcopal Church in the 
United States for having shown no 
increase in membership in twenty-five 
years. The Disciples of Christ re- 
portedly have lost 50,000 members 
in the past decade. On the other 
hand, the Church of the Nazarene 
has doubled its global membership in 
the past twenty years. 

For the country as a whole, 1963 
was the first year in three years in 
which church and synagogue mem- 
bership increased faster than the pop- 
ulation increase, according to the 
1965 Yearbook of American Churches. 

Serialized sex 

PEYTON PLACE, ABC's nighttime 
soap opera, has received hot ratings 
but even hotter criticism. 

Typical of its critics is the Minis- 
terial Alliance of Roswell, N. Mex., 
which said the show "lives solely on 
the sex theme . . . not just sex, but 
illicit sex." 

"I'm not against sex," said a Meth- 
odist minister in Roswell. "But Pey- 
ton Place makes it evil. It uses sex 
in a way that is not wholesome . . . 
and that's an understatement." 

New York columnist Bob Williams 
reported that some broadcasters are 
fearful that Peyton Place may touch 
off a round of Washington hearings 
on TV sex. He also divulged that 
ABC is considering launching a sep- 
arate "spin-off" series on the amours 
of Peyton Placer Betty Anderson in 
New York and developing still an 
additional series from the "fertile 
Freudian elements" of "The Long 
Hot Summer." 

16 MESSENGER 3-4-65 


Religion tools up to wage peace 

Perhaps in this hour, people of all lands can enter into 
a dialogue one with the other. Ordy so con conflict be 
eliminated from the world. — Martin Buber, Jewish scholar 

There is a difference between those 
who wish for peace and those who 
will it with determination. The vari- 
ous faiths, it would appear, are be- 
ginning to move in the vanguard of 
those who will it. 

As seen in perspective, the faiths 
ought to feel at home in this move- 
ment, for it was religion that gave 
the world the very concept of peace. 

"The greatest philosophers "of an- 
cient Greece failed to rise above the 
nanow concept of their own city 
states and believed that war, though 
regrettable, was inevitable," said key- 
note speaker John J. Wright, a Cath- 
olic bishop, at a recent Religious 
Leaders' Conference on Peace. 

"It took the Hebrew prophets to 
first speak of dissatisfaction with limi- 
tation of tribe and nation and to extol 
the concept of the universal unity of 
Jerusalem. The mystical concept of 
the brotherhood of man in the Fa- 
therhood of God became the basis 
of the Judeo-Christian tradition. 

"If the blueprint of the world soci- 
ety is to become a reality today," 
the bishop added, "we must respark 
religion's contribution." 

That spark was rekindled at the 
convocation Bishop Wright ad- 
dressed, a gathering of 100 religious 
leaders at the Church Center for the 
United Nations. One of the outcomes 
was the call for the multifaith Con- 
ference on Religion and Peace in 
Washington, D.C., a year from now, 
paralleling the pattern of the Con- 
ference on Rehgion and Race in Chi- 
cago in 1963. The latter was the 
springboard to unprecedented in- 
volvement by the major faiths in race 

At the heart of the interreligious 
drive for peace, according to Rabbi 
Maurice N. Eisendrath, is the phrase, 
"God wills it — thus saith the Lord." 

"The most important mandate, 
even in this age of nuclear terror, 
remains the commandment to love 
thy neighbor," Dr. Eisendrath urged. 

"We religionists should not be sat- 
isfied that peace is seemingly being 
kept by a balance of terror. This is 
far too tenuous a base upon which 
to build the very survival of the hu- 
man race. We must activate our will 
to peace." 

Methodist Bishop John Wesley 
Lord cautioned that individuals and 
nations must be ready to pay the 
price demanded by peace, even at 
the sacrifice of such cherished con- 
cepts as "the American way of life," 
if a greater good is at stake. 

On the changing nature of relations 
between the United States and the 
communist nations. Dr. John C. Ben- 
nett, president of Union Theological 
Seminary, urged that Americans be 
"unconditioned" from "their longtime 
fear of communist military might and 
aggressive tactics." According to Dr. 
Bennett, no longer do such teirns as 
"better red than dead" and "a world 
divided into slave and free" have 
validity in view of the great social, 
political, and economic upheavals un- 
der way not only in eastern Europe, 
including the USSR itself, but also 
to some extent in Red China. 

Dr. Charles West of Princeton The- 
ological Seminary commented: "We 
must think in terms of Christians on 
both sides of the so-called Iron Cur- 
tain. Every breach in the barrier en- 
ables us to reach our hands to clasp 
those of our brethren so long isolated 
from us." 

Mobilization for peace gained fur- 
ther impetus last month in another 
New York conference, one growing 
out of the late Pope John's peace 
encyclical, Pacem in Terris. 

The hour is here. Dialogue is in 
the offing. 

"Swords into plowshares" 

Decisive summer 

Dramatic opportunities have been 
opened to youth this summer to en- 
gage decisively at some of the points 
most urgently in need of the Christian 
witness. Under auspices of the Breth- 
ren Service Commission, the proposed 
programs will penetrate frontiers 
ranging from inner city ghettoes to 
countries behind the Iron Curtain. 

In essence, the church through a 
variety of work camp and seminar 
experiences will bring the participat- 
ing youth to see some crucial needs 
for Christian sei"vice not from afar 
off but from within the midst of 
them, right at the heart of humanity. 

Below is the schedule of service 


Theological peace seminar. Aug. 
1-13. Theological students, age: 20- 
30. Language: German. Theme: 
The reconciling word of God. Ex- 
ploration of the implications of the 
Christian faith for war and peace, 
violence and nonviolence, injustice 
and justice. Cost; approximately $.50 
plus travel. 


Ecumenical seminar. Dates to be 
announced. Sponsored by World 
Council of Churches. Age: 19-30. 
Language: English and Polish. One- 
week study tour, two-week seminar. 
Cost: approximately $100 plus travel. 


International work camp (tenta- 
tive). Aug. 1-28. Age; 20-30. Lan- 
guage: English. Construction work, 
study of peace issues, reconciliation. 
Cost: approximately $.50 plus travel. 


Social service work camps. July 
2 — Aug. 2; Aug. 2-30. In coopera- 
tion with World Council of Churches. 
Location: Salzerbad. Age: 20-30. 
Language: German. Recreational 

leadership for 200 undeiprivileged 
children. Cost; approximately $.50 
plus travel. 


Community reliahilitation program 
(tentative ) . July and August. Oppor- 
tunities to meet, work with Mexicans. 
Cost: approximately $50 plus travel. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

Inner citij work camp (tentative). 
July 31 — Aug. 28. Locale: Imperial 
Heights Church of the Brethren. 
Age: high school seniors and up to 
30. Teaching skills, practicing de- 
mocracy, bridging racial and cultural 
barriers. Craft and recreational lead- 
ership. Study, worship experiences. 
Cost: unit fee of $40, travel. Main- 
tenance provided. 

South Bend, Ind. 

Inner city. June 30 — July 28; 
July 31 — Aug. 28. Locale: Christian 
Service Center. Age: senior high 
youth, 16-19. Urban renewal, recrea- 
tion, preschool nursery, tutoring in 
inner city. Study, worship experi- 
ences. Cost: unit fee of $40, travel. 
Maintenance provided. 

New Windsor, Md. 

Work camps. June 30 — July 28; 
July 31 - Aug. 28. Locale: Brethren 
Service Center. Age: senior high 
youth, 16-19. Processing material aid 
for overseas. Study, worship experi- 
ences. Cost: unit fee of $40, travel. 
Maintenance provided. 

Baltimore, Md. 

Inner city. July 31 — Aug. 28. Lo- 

cale: Brotherhood Pilot House. Age: 
18-25. Urban renewal, youth recrea- 
tional leadership, house repair in in- 
ner city. Study, worship experiences. 
Cost: unit fee of $40, travel. Main- 
tenance provided. 

Explorations are under way for a 
race relations work camp for college- 
age students in July and August. De- 
tails will be announced. 

For information on any of the 
above programs, write Brethren Serv- 
ice Commission, Church of the Breth- 
ren General Offices, Elgin, 111. 60120. 
Because of visas required for some 
overseas projects, applications should 
be made very soon. 


The Lords Supper was the final 
act of congregational worship ob- 
served by the Allentown Church of 
the Brethren. From their "upper 
room" experience on Dec. 27, the 
members of the Eastern Pennsylvania 
congregation went out to regroup in 
other churches. 

For twenty-six years the members 
had striven to build a strong congre- 
gation in downtown Allentown. Sev- 
eral factors were behind their deci- 
sion to discontinue the effort. 

With twelve congregations in a six- 
block radius, their present locale was 
overchurched. Their archaic building T 
would be costly to remodel. Some 
years ago the congregation began to 
look to the suburbs for their future. 
With district help, a site was pur- 
chased for possible relocation. 

Several months ago an intensive 
study was launched to discover the 
potential in the new area for a grow- 

ls MESSENGER 3-4-65 

ing church. The congregation, which 
numbered fifty-seven, found it could 
Hkely expect an increase of only ten 
or twelve members each year for the 
immediate future. At this pace, in- 
stead of becoming self-supporting, the 
congregation would require more 
financial assistance from the district. 

Against these circumstances, the 
members of the Allentown board and 
later the church council demonstrated 
a Christian statesmanship which, as 
put by one member, said, "It would 
be better stewardship for us to give 
our building funds to the district to 
be used in some location more favor- 
able to growth and witness." The 
district conference supported the con- 
gregation's decision to close. 

In the final weeks, the pastor, Ellis 
W. Powell, assisted many of the mem- 
bers in finding new church homes. 

In a statement at the closing serv- 
ice, he said, "There are moments when 
God calls us to give life. There are 
other moments when he calls us to 
give up our lives. This congregation 
has felt called by God to give up 
their group life so that they may be 
reborn into other groups. In these 
other groups we are being called to 
give and share what God has given 
us over the years." 

Onward soldiers 

This year the Salvation Army — the 
"army without swords" — observes the 
100th anniversary of its founding in 
London. Though its fundamentalist, 
Methodist-derived gospel is still 
preached as soup and soap are served 
in the slums, the Army has dis- 
patched new brigades to man class- 
rooms and clinics in seventy-one areas 
of the world. In its command are 
more than 2.5,000 highly disciplined 
commissioned officers and a million 
lasses and laddies. 

Issues before Congress 

WASHINGTON - Around 2,500 bills were dumped into the 
legislative hoppers of Congress in the first week of the 89th session. 
Many of these bills were leftovers from the last session and had to 
be reintroduced as new measures. Many of them are special bills 
for individual or private purposes. Few new or big legislative 
proposals are e.xpected during this coming session, but this does 
not mean that 1965 will be free of crucial issues that must be 
faced by the U. S. government. One might suggest some of these 
issues through these questions: 

• Is a nuclear war more or less imminent now? 

• Will Red China be seated in the United Nations? 

• What are the chances for repeal of compulsory conscription? 

• Is the present level of prosperity stable? 

• Are Negro demands being met justly? 

Peace and world order are undoubtedly the most urgent con- 
cerns of national governments throughout the world as well as of 
our own. International relations are beset with mistrust, and 
dangerous tension spots exist where serious wars could erupt 
anytime. These spots are in Southeast Asia and the Congo. Situa- 
tions are a little less tense in eastern Europe, the Middle East, and 
in our near Caribbean community. The national policy of the 
United States in these areas has serious implications for the peace 
of the world. 

Equally important to the peace of the world is our support 
and attitude toward the United Nations. Of the 122 separate na- 
tion states of the world, 112 are now members of the United 
Nations. At no time in the history of the UN has it faced more 
difficult problems than now, problems that not only threaten its 
effectiveness in helping to preserve peace but its very existence. 
The policies of the U.S. government toward the UN now are 
most crucial. 

Important issues face our nation at home. Many people have 
been saying that we cannot ignore our own problems while trying 
to help solve the problems of the rest of the world. Much of the 
work of the government now is aimed toward the solving of do- 
mestic problems. 

There are the urban problems centered around housing, trans- 
portation, and education. Words more forcibly describing these are 
slums, poverty, and crime. One expert recently said that the rising 
metropolis presents some aspects as fearful as the bomb. The rate 
of population, we are told, is just ready to spiral upward in an 
acceleration that is frightening. One of the fastest growing sub- 
urban areas of Washington last year required an equal of two new 
classrooms per day for each school day. 

The domestic problems in the United States are by no means 
confined to the cities. Crime, slums, and poverty have reached the 
towns and the countryside. The leaders of government believe that 
much can be done to relieve these conditions by an improved edu- 
cational program, better health provisions, and better planned con- 
servation of our total national resources, both human and material. 
Laws to accomplish these improvements may be expected in an 
increasing number. 

The President believes a "great society" is possible and he is 
asking government to help achieve it. — John H. Eberly 


Global education 

A KEVOLUTiONARY conccpt of a col- 
lege — with study centers in seven 
countries and studies abroad for thir- 
ty months of the four-year under- 
graduate course — is being projected 
by the New York Yearly Meeting of 

The coeducational, liberal arts 
school will be known as Friends 
World College. The base campus will 
be near New York City and other 
centers will be in Mexico, Sweden, 
Russia, East Africa, and South Asia. 

In a sense, the approach is a varia- 
tion and amplification of the Brethren 
Colleges Abroad program launched in 
1962, in which participants take their 
junior year at universities in Germany 
or France. Explorations are now un- 
der way to extend the Brethren pro- 
gram to South America and to 
bring foreign students to Brethren 

Reshaping rejects 

In charge of the nation's 22,000 fed- 
eral prisoners is Myrl E. Alexander, 
a speaker at the 1963 Annual Con- 
ference and current president of the 
Manchester College Alumni Asso- 

A 1930 graduate of Manchester, he 
returned recently to the Federal 
Bureau of Prisons to become its direc- 
tor after an earlier association of 
thirty years. 

Alexander sees the task as helping 
reshape the rejects of society. "What 
do we do?" he asked. "We attempt 
to intervene in their careers, restimu- 

behind bars 

late them, and develop growth. It's 
more than just transplanting public 
schools into the prison block. These 
guys hated public schools, and they 
hate teachers just as they hate cops. 
"So how do you remotivate them 
and open to them the wonders of 
man's knowledge? They have no 
sense of the interdependence of man 
in a civilized society. They never 
wonder at the meaning of life. They 
have never sat at the feet of a good 
teacher and heard the wonders of a 
simple poem unfolded to them. 
They've never felt the joy of having 
created something. This is our 

Filing date set 

Clergymen who have not yet chosen 
to participate in Social Security 
have until April 1.5 to file application. 

An amendment to the law opens 
Social Security to all clergymen who 
by April 15 file Form 2031 with the 
District Director of Internal Revenue. 

Since 1954 when Social Security 
became available to clergymen, about 
140,000 of them have chosen to be 
covered, including most Brethren 

The oldest clergyman now receiv- 
ing benefits is former Methodist 
Bishop Herbert Welch of New York, 
who qualified when he was ninety- 
five. He now is 102. 

Focus on renewal 

A YOUNG Pennsylvania minister has 
been selected to participate in a pro- 
gram focused on the renewal of the 
church and its ministry at Harvard 
Divinity School. 

He is W. Clemens Rosenberger, 
thirty-three, pastor of Johnstown's 
Westmont Church of the Brethren for 
the past six years. He presently is 
on leave for thirteen weeks in order 
to accept the $2,500 Merrill Fellow- 
ship at Harvard. 

. Through the Charles E. Merrill 
Trust, he and four other ministers 
were selected to enroll this quarter 
in three courses of their choice, par- 
ticipate in seminars, observe leading 
churches in New York and Washing- 
ton, D.C., and attend the theater in 

order to gain insight into the prob- 
lems of the world as expressed 
through contemporary drama. 

They also will attend a retreat on 
Cape Cod with the internationally 
known churchman, D. T. Niles. 

Pastor Rosenberger is a graduate 
of Bethany Theological Seminary and 
Juniata College. 

Growing edges 

Baltimore, Md. A pilot project has 
been launched in the rehabilitation 
of juveniles who have served prison 
terms for minor crimes. Four out of 
five of the youth at the prison farm 
are confined for the second or third 
time. The majority have no adequate 
homes to return to upon parole. To 
assist such youth, the Maryland 
Council of Churches has set up a 
program of counseling with those 
who are released. Representing the 
Church of the Brethren in the project 
is Thornton O. Black, pastor of the 
Woodberry church here. 

Empire, Calif. The book-reading 
campaign sparked by Church of the 
Brethren women in northern Cali- 
fornia has scored again. In their first 
year's tally the women reported read- 
ing, some 1,100 books. Last year 
the number passed the 3,000 mark. 

The chief crusader of the cam- 
paign, Mrs. Irene Fike, said among 
the reactions of participants were 
these: "I didn't know how much fun 
reading could be." "I feel I have 
gone back to school." "We know 
now what the radio and television 
are talking about when they mention 
certain books and writers." And in- 
evitably: "Even the men have joined 

20 MESSENGER 3-4-65 



act to the hidden motive, as when Jesus said that 
contempt or anger is incipient murder, but we 
disagree because command after command is so 
pointed as to leave no alternative except obedi- 
ence in the deed. 

It is easy to evade an onset by pleading "prin- 
ciples." The man who angrily declares that "I'm 
concerned about the principle of the thing! " is 
rarely convincing because he is concerned about 
a specific so sharp that it had pierced his skin. 
When was Jesus a peddler of principles? It would 
be truer to say that he spoke always of the actual 
occasion. The Sermon is sparks struck by a race- 
horse spirit from the contemporary road. 

Then is the Sermon an attempt to formulate a 
Christian code of conduct, a successor to the 
Torah? Scholars are now rather widely agreed 
that behind the Gospel of Matthew there are 
Christian rabbinic teachers intent to set forth a 
new regimen of morality. Perhaps in their minds 
the "Mount" was a new Mount Sinai. But this 
interpretation cannot be driven to a rigid conclu- 
sion, if only because there are also narrative por- 
tions in the Gospel, notably the stories of Bethle- 
hem, Calvary, and Easter. 

That is to say, Matthew was no legalist. Surely 
that verdict is also true of Christ himself. There 
is in the Sermon a questioning of motives that goes 
far deeper than any law. Besides, Jesus took issue 
with the law because men were prone to erect it 
as a barrier between them and God. The traitor, 
beating his breast as he confessed his sins and 
begged God's mercy, was "justified" (so Jesus said) 
rather than the man who meticulously kept the 
letter of the law. 

There are other difiBculties with the legalism 
theory; The Sermon itself includes far more than 
commands. There are aphorisms, prayers (such 
as the Lord's Prayer), poems (or at least lines in 
strophic form), warnings, and parables. 

Then what shall we say of the Sermon on the 
Mount, we who live today in our strange con- 
temporary world? Maybe that is precisely the 
question which Christ asks of us: "What do you 
think?" That again and again was his way with 
men. Shall we say that this directive is revela- 
tion? Men cannot climb to God, though God can 
descend to men. Human wisdom cannot "find out" 
God. All we know about God must come as he 

chooses to reveal himself — not through philosophy 
(its concepts are too thin and too much of man's 
mind), not through science (it uses only a part of 
the mind, the analytic mind, to examine only a 
part of the world, the measurable world), but 
through events and centrally through the total 
event of Christ — his teachings, life, death, and 
resurrection. So the Sermon, we may say, is the 
breakthrough of divine light for those who fain 
would be Christ's disciples. 

But what would such a conviction mean for 
us? We must not dilute the Sermon by making 
it either an outward legalism or an "inward dis- 
position," for it still searches us. But we must 
not pretend that we are capable of instant and 
perfect obedience. Pietistic groups in the Middle 
Ages did so pretend and were thus caught in 
the worse sin of spiritual pride. Who among us 
has not been guilty of anger or sexual imagi- 
nation? Nor should we propose that every com- 
mand can literally be applied to our modern 
world: there are no specifics in the Sermon about 
labor unions and the European Common Market. 
But, more urgently, we should not deny that here 
light shines on us searchingly in every modern 

Certain other remembrances should not be 
yielded as we study the Sermon. One is minor 
but important: Not all the teachings of Jesus, let 
alone all his witness among men, is in this col- 
lection of his sayings. Each word he spoke 
should be judged by all he said, yes, and by all 
he did and was and is today. 

The other remembrance is major, namely, that 
the Gospel of Matthew is gospel — the good news 
that all our failures are gathered into that mercy 
which prayed on the cross: " 'Father, forgive them; 
for they know not what they do.' " Nay, the good 
news is even better news: When we honor the 
Sermon on the Mount, not by diluting its sheer 
demand or evading its convincing light, the Holy 
Spirit promised by Christ shines on the page to 
illuminate it, showing us what to do — not under 
the bondage of some static "law" or "principle," 
but step by step of our earthly pilgrimage, until 
we reach that land of clearer seeing where "we 
shall know as we are known." We have it on 
Christ's own authority that "the letter kills," while 
"the spirit makes alive." D 

Copyright by General Commission on Chaplains to Armed 
Forces Personnel. Reprinted by permission of The Link 

3-4-65 MESSENGER 21 

■■■' i^' 




Howard W. Winger 

Now derelict, the country inn 

With windows smashed and doors ajar 

j^ Is haunted as such houses are — 

a A jaded citadel of sin. 

Once horse thieves plotted there in state 
(Or so it's said) while farmers slept. ^*« 

But villainy no records kept W^,- 

And no one even knows the date. 




The whisper runs of robber throng 
At secret golden gaming table 
In secret subterranean stable 
By secret racetrack five miles long. 

There secret life drew secret breath 
And, counting over secret treasure, 
Conspired to mix with secret pleasure 
Some murderously secret death. 

Adventurous boys have never found 
A bone nor coin nor sleighted jack 
Nor horse nor hoofprint of a track; 
Yet legend tells the tale around. 

For haunts, like fancy, never will 
Depend (I think) on facts alone. 
From dreams and secrets half our own 
Are haunted houses haunted still. 

a devotional guide for the family 

Even though the air may be chilly and the ground blanketed with snow, 
signs of spring are everywhere. Baseball lovers awake from hibernation 
and avidly read of the spring training of the major leagues in the South. 
Before games are played, the athletes go through a period of discipline, 
practice, and exercise. Any weaknesses are detected and corrected by 
constant, conscious effort. Advice, directions, criticisms must be received 
and absorbed. 

Cliiistians, likewise, need to stop, look, and listen to their head 
"coach." If we do not, we are Hkely to find ourselves losing skills, being 
advised by plavers on the bench, growing spiritually flabbv, playing by 
the wrong rules, or even playing so poorly that we aid the opposite side! 

During Lent Cliiistians are encouraged to make their annual 
spiritual checkup, replacing bad habits with good ones, healing broken 
relationships, and increasing Bible reading and prayer life. By these 
disciplines, we become more effective members of Christ's team. 

MARCH 7-13 

Ex. 34:1-4. If you were asked to "be ready . . . 
I to] present yourself to God in the morning," what 
would you do in preparation? 

MARCH 14-20 

^ Luke 9:22-26, 51. "Lord, when my hand is on the 
plough and the untilled earth lies ahead, keep me 
from turning back." 

Matt. 4:1-11. Before making major decisions, Jesus 
spent time alone with God. "Seven days without 
prayer make one weak." 

1 Peter 4:12-16; Matt. 5-10-12. 

w^\ i ferer ■i:iz-io; isian. o-iu-iz. j\ person who 
■ ' ' does not stand for something will fall for any- 
thing." "Beware if all men speak well of you!" 

Ps. 51:1-10. Before God, we are aware of our 
unworthiness. "O Lord, reform thy world — be- 
ginning with me" (a Chinese Christian). 

Jolm 15:4-8. To know Christ, we must be grafted 
to him. Without this close relationship, we are 
fruitless, powerless, lifeless, nothing. 

Rom. 7:14-25. Within each of us is a "Dr. Jekyll" 
and a "Mr. Hyde." We often ask, "Will the real 
me please stand up?" 

Rom. 6:1-11. In faith we identify with Christ. 
"We were there" when Christ died; so we died 
too — to fear and the power of sin. 

\akg ProD. 23:6-7; Phil. 4:8-9. Overt sins originate in 
the mind. By conscious effort we can free our- 
selves from the mire and "think lovely thoughts." 

^ Rom. 12:1-2, 17-21. God only uses us if we are 
* pliable enough to say, "Have thine own way. 
Lord! . . . thou art the Potter; I am the clay." 

Col. 3:1-11. Christians should "stand, stretch, and 
reach for the stars." Do not be satisfied with the 
good; strive for the best! 

■3 ]ohn 2-8, 11. John's praise is like that of a stage 
director in rehearsal: "Thanks, that was perfect, 
perfect! Now let's do it once more, better!" 

Heh. 12:1-4. Jesus never asks us to do anything 
which he did not do. He made the original tracks, 
and we are to walk in his footprints. 

Phil. 3:7-14. If you emphasize what you have 
given up for Christ, you will look back longingly, 
as did Lot's wife. Accentuate the positive! 

For your worship center 

Place a cross on your worship center. Make it 
of wood or styrofoam, or cover two cardboard 
tubes (from inside waxed paper or foil) with 
aluminum foil and fasten them together in the 
shape of a cross. You can make a stand by cutting 
an oatmeal box in half lengthwise, covering it 
with shelf paper or gift wrap, cutting an opening 
in the top and inserting the cross into it. In place 
of, or in addition to the cross, you can use a 
picture of Christ. 

Look in your spiritual mirror 

Since the time of Lent is appropriate for self- 
examination, each member of the family needs to 
look into his spiritual mirror. What do you see? 

Prayer? My prayers are "flash" prayers. Are 
they not enough? ("Could you not watch one 
hour?" ) 

Bible reading? I study my Sunday school 
lesson. ("Study to show thyself approved," KJV. ) 

Witnessing? I am so busy, Lord, and never 
know what to say. ( "Lo, I am with you always." ) 

Giving? We each give a dollar; we need the 
rest for ourselves. ("This poor widow . . . out of 
her poverty has put in everything she had.") 

Helping others? But some people are so dirty 
and hard to love. ("As you did it to one of the 
least . . . you did it to me.") 

Loving all men? Must I? They are different 
from me. I do not want to eat with them, sit be- 
side them, or live near them. ("Truly I perceive 
that God shows no partiality.") 

My use of time? You know I am too busy to 
teach a class, attend choir practice, or visit a sick 
person. Besides, sometimes choir practice is on 
the same night as a football game or an excellent 
TV show. ("Honor the Lord . . . with the first 
fruits." ) 

Opposing evil? I would lose all my friends if 
I spoke out about the movies shown at the drive- 
in ... or the new bar being built down the street. 
They would think I was a crackpot, a religious 
nut, a real square. ("You are the salt of the earth; 
but if salt has lost its taste ... It is no longer good 
for anything.") 

Church attendance. We usually go . . . but 
sometimes we do get to bed late and sleep in. 
("Not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit 
of some, but encouraging one another.") 

Thy light is too bright, Lord. Forgive me. 
With your power I am going to change this image, 
beginning now! 

Good resources are available 

Monotony is perhaps the greatest enemy of 
family worship efforts. By increasing your supply 
of resource books, as you are able, you will be 
enlisting aids for practicing creativity in worship. 
Some basics which every home should have in- 
clude: one or two modem versions of the New 
Testament, such as Phillips' translation or The 
Neiv English Bible (both available in inexpensive 
paperback editions). The Brethren Hymnal, and a 
book of sacred art, poetry, stories, and hymns, 
such as Christ and the Fine Arts, by Maus. In 
addition to these, every family has resources 
available in their children's Sunday school books, 
papers, and messages to parents. These contain 
stories, poems, songs, activity suggestions, and 
devotional thoughts that can be woven into your 

In connection with the emphasis upon self- 
examination and spiritual growth use hymns like 
the following: "Take My Life" (The Brethren 
Hymnal, 349), "Open My Eyes" (295), "More 
About Jesus" ( 455 ) , "Lord, I Want to Be a Chris- 
tian" (486), and the chorus, "Into My Heart." 




Is this a Fast, to keep 

Is it to fast an hour. 

It 'is to fast from strife. 

The larder lean, 

Or ragg'd to go. 

From old debate 

And clean 

Or show 

And hate; 

From fat of veals and sheep? 

A downcast look and sour? 

To circumcise thy life. 

Is it to quit the dish 

No: 'tis a Fast to dole 

To show a heart grief-rent; 

Of flesh, yet still 

Thy sheaf of wheat 

To starve thy sin. 

To fill 

And meat. 

Not bin: 

The platter high with fish? 

Unto the hungry soul. 

And that's to keep thy lent 

Robert Herrick, 1591- 







Grod and Satan in the suburbs 

Abingdon, 1964. 224 pages, $4.50 

The real estate man describes the suburbs as an 
Eden. His full-page ads portray a world of 
spotless white collars, shining white faces, and 
pure white consciences. 

Novelists, on the other hand, like Edmund 
Schiddel (The Devil in Bucks County) and Keith 
Wheeler (Peaceable Lane) portray suburbia as a 
sophisticated hell. They picture a confused jumble 
of liquor, lust, and lawn parties. 

Obviously, neither picture is completely true. 

Satan does stalk the suburbs. Frederick Ship- 
pey in Protestantism in Suburban Life describes 
"white-collar crime." It consists of padded ex- 
pense accounts, insurance fraud, and misappropri- 
ated funds and merchandise. It is big-time. The 
cost of white-collar crime is $4,000,000 per work- 
ing day. 

There is suburban delinquency. Few teen- 
agers from the ring of residential areas around 
the city have police records. But the problem is 
just as real. Carl Smucker, a Brethren minister 
who works as a probation counselor, offers an 
explanation: "The suburban kid gets a good law- 
yer; the kid from the slums gets a sentence." 

There are broken homes. Some are broken by 
separation and divorce. But many more are bro- 
ken by absentee fathers. The father who works 
in the city must leave home very early in the 
morning. He returns late in the evening. Often 

by Donald E. Fancher 

he may be working evenings or be away from 
home on business trips. 

It makes little difference to an adolescent boy 
whether his father is absent because of desertion 
or because of work. In either case, he must turn 
to the current movie idol or to one of his compan- 
ions for his model of mature manhood. 

Mothers, too, become overbusy. They are in- 
volved in the garden clubs, the PTA, and — let us 
be honest — in church activities. And so the task 
of raising the children is often turned over to the 

Satan works through the suburban climate: the 
continual tension, the overwork, the lack of ac- 
cepted standards, and the pressure to succeed. 

But suburbia is not an unrelieved picture of 
woe. God is at work in the suburbs too! 

The suburbs have become interracial. There 
are Negroes living in three fourths of our suburban 
areas. The outskirts of the city are often interfaith 
communities. One Roman Catholic in ten resides 
in the suburbs. The suburbs are no longer 
"upper-class ghettos." Ten million "blue-collar" 
workers live on the periphery of the city. 

And the suburban church is more vital than 
the novels suggest. Shippey mentions a study of 
one suburb which revealed that thirty to fifty 
percent of the residents attended church regularly. 
Some suburban churches are shallow. Some de- 
serve to be called "spiritual country clubs." But 
there are also suburban churches which are pace- 
setters for their denominations. Certainly, the fast 
growth in membership and the healthy budgets of 
these churches seem attractive to denominational 
leaders. And there is a continuing scramble to 

3-4-65 MESSENGER 25 

get a piece of this ecclesiastical 

The church faces some peculiar 
obstacles in the outlying parts of 
the city. There is the separation 
of life into "little boxes." The eth- 
ics which guide a man at home 
may be quite different from those 
which operate on the job. 

Family responsibility is easily 
handed over to the professionals. 
Shippey speaks of the "messiah 
complex in education." The public 
schools accept responsibility for 
moral training, social development, 
and job placement as well as for 
instruction. Little of a teen-ager's 
time is untouched by the school 

What is the church's responsi- 
bility? Shippey sees as the first 
and foremost task the reinforce- 
ment of the family. He suggests 
little that is novel. He wants the 
church to do what it is doing now, 
only better. 

There are other churchmen with 
more adventuresome suggestions. 
Colin Williams, in What in the 
World, says we cannot rely solely 
on the present pattern of congre- 
gations based upon residence. 
The work a man does and the 
recreation he enjoys are like sep- 
arate worlds. The church must 
penetrate these worlds, too. 

Therefore, the church must be 
open-minded and even experi- 
mental. One experiment is the 
ministry within the Oak Brook 
shopping center in suburban Chi- 
cago. Another is the work of 
Stanley Davis, a Brethren minister 
working with gangs of teen-agers. 

The suburb has been called 
"WASP territory": White, Anglo- 
Saxon, and Protestant. But this 
stereotype picture of the outskirts 
of the city is false. Now we are 
seeing that the stereotype picture 
of what the suburban church 
should be is also false. And unless 
we are bold, our conventional 
churches may prove of little use to 
God or man. 


John L. Sherrill. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
1964. 165 pages, $4.50 
If you are wondering what is hap- 
pening among the churches wath 
regard to the revival of speaking 
in tongues, this easy-to-read, fast- 
moving little book will tell you, 
as observed by a sophisticated re- 
ligious reporter who was assigned 
to "research" the movement by his 
publishers. With a fine mixture of 
skepticism, surprise, sympathy, 
and humor, this son of a well- 
known Union Seminary professor 
and Christian educator blends per- 
sonal experience with biblical, his- 
torical, and contemporary informa- 
tion. Taken seriously, this book 
will shatter many of the precon- 
ceptions of staid church members 
about the present work of the 

At the very least, the book will 
supply information not generally 
known and will present a challeng- 
ing portrait of the inside workings 
of the modern tongues movement 
that should make the reader more 
understanding of what is becoming 
a third great force in present-day 
Christianity. And, at the most, it 
may lead some readers to investi- 
gate or even open themselves to 
this startling, dynamic revival. Is 
this indeed a recovery of a legiti- 
mate legacy of Christianity now 
lost in our modern sophistication 
and intellectual reduction of hfe, 
or is it perchance a judgment of 
God upon us for the same? 
Chalmer E. Faw, Villa Park, III. 

OUR CHRISTIAN HOPE, Georgia Harkness. 
Abingdon, 1964. 176 pages, $3 

Perceptive, but not deep; 
pointed, but not thorough; chal- 
lenging, but not to the well-read; 
with answers, but not all the think- 
ing that should go into giving 
them — these seem to fit every 
chapter of this popular religious 
writer's newest book. She has an 
unncanny ability to make the con- 
tributions of theologians under- 
stood. Her summary statements on 

myth, millennialism, apocalypti- 
cism, and immortality /resurrection 
are especially helpful, but she too 
quickly jumps into an eclectic posi- 
tion that tries to make everybody 
happy but leaves the reader unsat- 
isfied most of the time. The length 
of the book is too brief to cover 
as wide a field as she has hoped 
to cover, though it can be a helpful 
introduction to the issues for begin- 
ners in theology and for laymen. 
Ronald K. Morgan, Hutchinson, 


Werner Keller. William Morrow Company, 
1964. 360 pages, $7.95 

This book is a sequel to the 
same author's The Bible As His- 
tory. It is as the author rightly 
calls it "a pictorial history of bibli- 
cal events in the light of archaeo- 
logical finds." Of course, the 
events themselves are not depicted 
but artifacts (objects) or pictures 
which illustrate those events and 
the persons involved in them. 

This is essentially a book of 329 
good-to-excellent black and white 
illustrations and 8 color plates illus- 
trating an accompanying biblical 
quotation and identified by a brief 

Although only thirty-two pages 
are devoted to the New Testament, 
this is an unusually good selection 
of pictures. One is amazed at how 
many illustrations of biblical activ- 
ities can be found on the walls 
of Egyptian temples and tombs. 

Here is a book highly informa- 
tive in character which can be used 
to advantage by persons of all ages 
and degree of education. The 
notes and bibliography w^ill give 
guidance for further reading. 
David J. Wieand, Oak Brook, 

THE GOSPEL OF LUKE, Bo Reicke. John 
Knox, 1964. 89 pages, $1.00 

This is a well-written, reverent, 
and thorough introduction to the 
Gospel of Luke. It is in two sec- 
tions: The Basic Features of the 

26 MESSENGER 3-4-65 

Gospel and The Basic Ideas of the 
Gospel. Dr. Reicke presents the 
purpose of this gospel to be the 
drama of redemption, anticipated 
in the Old Testament and exem- 
plified in Jesus. He identifies Luke 
with Lucius of Gyrene, a resident 
of Antioch (Acts 13:1). He de- 
clares that in Luke's gospel Jesus 
meant to emphasize the church in 
mission to the Gentiles. The author 
further concludes that interest in 
the past (Old Testament teaching) 
is responsible for the direction 
taken by early Ghristian thought 
and not the delay in the return 
of Jesus. He thinks Luke came 
to these conclusions when writing 
the gospel in Greece about 75 
A. D. 

Dr. Reicke's plea for the church 
in mission is timely, although his 
enthusiasm has included some alle- 
gorizing interpretations of Jesus' 
teachings. He thinks the sending 
out of the seventy was implied by 
the discussion of the nations in 
Genesis 10. Also Peter's call to 
be a fisher of men, as interpreted 
by him, seems a bit imaginative. 
Of course, the book is a translation 
and readers may get a wrong im- 
pression. Russell C. Wenger, North 
Manchester, Ind. 

ICALS, J. C. Pollock. McGraw-Hill, 1964. 
190 pages, $3.95 

This book gives the reader a true 
insight into the giant struggle now 
going on within the Soviet Union 
as it relates to the Ghristian 
church. Notable among the ideas 
presented is that of persecution 
and the resultant strengthening of 
the church. Those who believe 
that a beneficent democracy is 
necessary for the survival of the 
church will be reminded by Pol- 
lock that they are in error. Some 
modern-day Ghristians might even 
conclude that persecution, or its 
equivalent, would assist the church 
in discovering its mission for this 
age. A. G. Breidenstine, Lan- 
caster, Pa. 




AN INHERITANCE or endowment insurance benefit received 
in a lump sum is often gone in one to three years. A 
Brotherhood annuity pays you twice a year no matter how 
long you live. 

Sometimes cash received in a lump sum from matured 
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in an emergency. However, the additional assurance of an 
unfailing, generous income is vital to one's physical comfort 
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In addition to major economic benefits of the Brotherhood 
Annuity Plan there are the abiding spiritual satisfactions of 
having made certain in life that God's work through Brother- 
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you entrust to the Board for an annuity agreement. 

A Brotherhood annuity provides a safe, largely tax-free 
income which thousands have acclaimed (the Brotherhood 
has written annuity agreements since 1897). If you are one 
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you need only to remit a check or money order for another 

Harl L. Russell, Director of Special Gifts 

General Brotherhood Board 

1451 Dundee Avenue, Elgin, Illinois 60120 

Please send, without obligation, your folder on the Annuity Plan and 
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by William Robert Miller 


short works by Albeniz, Tarrega, Turina, 
Ponce, and Sagreras. John Williams, 
guitar. Columbia 6008 mono ($4.98) and 
6608 stereo ($5.98) 

Born in Australia, the twenty- 
four-year-old John Williams (like 
the young Englishman, Julian 
Bream) is among the top con- 
tenders for the mantle of the aging 
Andres Segovia, the world's great- 
est classical guitarist. Offered in 
evidence is a crisp, sensitive per- 
formance of Bach's difficult Fourth 
Lute Suite. Bream and others 
whose mastery of the lute is un- 
challengeable find it all but im- 
possible to get the necessary dex- 
terity from that instrument and so 
turn to the guitar for this music. 
The transcription Williams has 
prepared for the guitar is an oc- 
casion for virtuosity aplenty. Side 
two is an assortment of Spanish 
guitar pieces in turn-of-the-century 
idiom — an attractive bouquet for 
the instrument, colorfully dis- 

DAYS. Various orchestras, William Strick- 
land, cond. Composers Recordings, Inc. 
190 mono and stereo, $5.95 each 

The latest addition to the 
small but gradually growing leg- 
acy of America's great pioneer 
musician consists of four strikingly 
original evocations of American 
holidays, composed at intervals be- 
tween 1904 and 1913. Each was 
also recorded separately. Wash- 
ington's Birthday (1909) features 
the Imperial Philharmonic of 
Tokyo. Subtitled "Snow Bound," 
it is a montage of recollected folk 

and popular tunes together with 
Ives' own musical profile, evoking 
the spirit of an old-fashioned Con- 
necticut winter. It is the only 
"classical " music 1 know that in- 
cludes a pair of Jew's harps in its 
instrumentation — or that could do 
so and sound right. 

Decoration Day (1912), played 
by the Finnish Radio Symphony 
Orchestra, is a poignant memento 
of Abolitionists and Civil War vet- 
erans still very much alive when 
Ives (1874-1954) was a boy. The 
Fourth of Juhj (1913) is per- 
formed by the Goteborg (Sweden) 
Symphony Orchestra. Its music 
closely follows the program of 
Ives' own words: "It's a boy's 
Fourth. . . . His festivities start 
in the quiet of the midnight before 
and grow raucous with the sun. 
Everybody knows what it's like. 
The day ends with the rocket over 
the church steeple, just after the 
annual explosion sets the Town 
Hall on fire " — in a marvelous din 
centered on "Columbia, the Gem 
of the Ocean." 

Thanksgiving (1904), played by 
the Icelandic Symphony Orches- 
tra, is based on an earlier organ 
prelude and postlude which Ives 
wrote in 1897. It evokes the stern- 
ness and strength of the Puritan 
character in rugged dissonant 
chords and includes harvest tunes 
akin to Ives' Harvest Home Cho- 
rales. Toward the end, a chorus 
bursts forth with a stanza of the 
hymn, "God, Beneath Thy Guiding 
Hand." Of the four sections, this 
is the longest and most conserva- 
tive in idiom. All four seem uni- 
fied by little more than the force 

of Ives' rugged Yankee personal- 
ity; he himself said they were 
"lumped together" as a symphony. 
No matter — the lumping is that 
of four granite blocks that happen 
to form a great American monu- 
ment. Conceivably the perform- 
ances — all by non-Americans! — 
might be improved upon, but lack- 
ing comparisons except in the case 
of Decoration Day, in which the 
Finns prove a match for the Louis- 
\'ille Orchestra, this recording is 
so far the definitive one. Its acous- 
tics are not uniformly first-rate and 
the fuller passages are a bit edgy, 
but that can be borne. Stereo is 
a great boon for this music if you 
have the equipment. 


Claire Gordon, Richard Levitt, Keith 
Wyatt, vocal soloists; James Maclnnes and 
Lukas Foss, pianists; the Roger Wagner 
Chorale, Roger Wagner, cond. Composers 
Recordings, Inc., 123 mono and stereo, 
$5.95 each 

Born in Berlin in 1922, Lukas 
Foss is a binational composer who 
has written effective music for 
texts in both English and German. 
Stravinsky once described his lyri- 
cal setting of the Song of Songs 
as "beautiful." His choral versions 
of Psalms 23, 98, and 121, dating 
from 1956, also deserve the com- 
pliment, as does his 1950 work, 
Behold! I Build an House, from 
the Book of Chronicles. The 
Psalms can be regarded as a kind 
of concerto for two pianos and 
choir, varied in mood and hue but 
predominantly melodic and full of 
strongly syncopated rhythms. The 

28 MESSENGER 3-4-65 

earlier work is more developmen- 
tal, less rich in color and on the 
whole unexciting by comparison. 
The Shifrin serenade for oboe, 
clarinet, horn, viola, and piano is 
a deft but uninspired exercise in 


Soloists; King's Chapel Choir of Boston; 
Cambridge Festival Strings, Daniel Pink- 
ham, cond. Cambridge 416 mono ($4.98) 
and 1416 stereo ($5.98) 

A GRANT from the Ford Founda- 
tion enabled Daniel Pinkham to 
commission these four works in 
1962 by American composers 
ranging in age (then) from twenty- 
four to forty-five. Each is a man 
of established reputation, and this 
recording of settings of Old Testa- 
ment texts offers a good variety 
of styles. The Two Psalms and a 
Proverb, by Ned Borem (b. 1923), 
like much of his work, is derivative 
but pleasant and unabashedly lyri- 
cal; it is also better made than 
many of his earlier songs. Charles 
Wuorinen (b. 1938) in his Prayer 
of Jormh displays originality and 
resourcefulness in adapting avant- 
garde elements to traditional 
forms — the effect is like a mosaic 
rather than a painting, and if it 
seems somewhat jagged and "ab- 
stract" it nevertheless has a deep 
creative integrity that serves the 
text well. 

Ulysses Kay (b. 1917) is secure 
in a robust, mature style, basically 
conservative but seasoned with 
subtle dissonance and the tug of 
Stravinskyan staccato rhythms in 
the strings he pits against the flow- 
ing contours of the vocal parts in 
his Choral Tripiych. The first two 
sections are from Psalms 5 and 
13; the third is a spirited "Alle- 
luia" abounding in harmonic by- 
play among the voices of both 
choristers and strings. William 
Flanagan (b. 1926) has written 
music for some of Edward Albee's 
plays. His Chapters From Ec- 
clesiastes has the character of 
chamber music onto which voices 

have been overlaid and not too 
successfully — there is neither 
enough directness nor complexity 
to make the work go. Its simple 
melodic lines are inconclusive, its 
harmonies tame and tentative. 

MUSIC, CBC Symphony Orchestra and 
Festival Singers of Toronto, Igor Stra- 
vinsky, cond. Columbia 6047 mono, 
$4.98, and 6647 stereo, $5.98 

This release is one of the latest 
in a long-term series of definitive 
recordings of his own works by one 
of our country's great masters. The 
choral works include Zvezdoliki 
("Starryfaced"), a cantata of 1911 
to words by the poet Balmont, 
dedicated to Debussy; Anthem, to 
lines from T. S. Eliot's "Little 
Gidding" (1962); Babel, an inferi- 
or Holly\voodian setting of verses 
from Genesis 2 (1944); A Sermon, 
a Narrative and a Prayer to texts 
from Romans, Acts, and Thomas 
Dekker (1961); and Cliorale-Varia- 
tions on Bach: "Vom Himmel 
Hoch" (1956). The last two are 
the longest, and the Bach-based 
work, though written in only a few 

days, is a remarkable achievement 
that successfully blends Stravinsky's 
characteristic staccato use of wind 
instruments with Bach's canonic 
complexities. The only clinker. 
Babel, lasts only five minutes, leav- 
ing about thirty-four minutes of 
rich experience in a variety of texts 
and musical styles all unmistakably 


NURSES. R.N.s needed for hospital being 
reorganized under Protestant Evangelical 
Christian direction. Now/ 180 beds with 
capacity of 800 beds eventually. Starting 
salary for general duty $447.19, 10% 
differential for evening and night shifts. 
Merit increases each six months. Oppor- 
tunities for advancement to supervisory 
positions. Dormitory rooms available. 
Write Miss Grace L. Eshelman, Director, 
Nursing Service, Michigan Avenue Hos- 
pital, 1439 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, III. 



Catalog or, request 

Box 85 New London, Ohio 

CONTRIBUTORS to this issue include: George A. Buttrick, 
clergyman living at Evanston, III., author of many books, and 
general editor of The Interpreter's Bible; Evelyn Bauer, writer 
of sketches about Christians in "secular" vocations appearing 
originally in a Mennonite youth paper; Glen Crago, Brethren 
minister v/ho is a caseworker at the Methodist David and 
Margaret Home located at La Verne, Calif., and his wife 
Florence, secretary in the office of the Pacific Southwest Con- 
ference; free lance writer Betty Rahme of Toronto, Canada, 
whose interest is adapting for publication North American 
Indian legends; Donald E. Fancher, pastor. Sylvan church. Rock- 
ford, III.; Kermon Thomason, worker in Nigeria, who has done 
illustrations for Church of the Brethren publications 

3-4-65 MESSENGER 29 



Betty Rahme 

Based on an authentic 
Algonquin legend 

■ Many moons ago, Rabbit, Beaver, Raccoon, Bear, and Mink were all 
sitting around a council fire in their village, which was on the shore of 
the St. Lawrence River. They were all complaining about their clothes. 

"I don't like my clothes," screamed Mink angrily. "I don't think 
'The Great Spirit' gave me very good ones. He doesn't know what is 
best for me." 

All the animals then agreed they did not like their clothes and they 
all wanted new ones. 

"Let's play masquerade. We will play it tomorrow night," said 
Mink, "and everyone can wear the clothes he likes. " 

All the animals thought this was a wonderful idea, and they ran 
home. The next day they were all very busy as they began assembling 
their costumes. 

Then the following night they all danced in a round dark circle, and 
when the campfire was lighted they showed each other the new clothes 
they had chosen. 

Mink had big bulging eyes. Rabbit had long horns. Beaver had 
filmy wings. Raccoon had long legs like Deer, and Bear had a mask. 

The animals were all so happy and excited with their new clothes 
that they decided to keep them. For three days they did nothing but 
walk around and show them off. 

But on the third day they all started complaining louder than ever 
before. Mink said his eyes were so big he could see all the surprises his 
friends were planning. Rabbit said his horns were so big he could not 
even go backwards into his home. Beaver said his wings were too light 
to carry him in the air and every time he tried to fly they just dragged 
his nose all along the ground. Raccoon's legs were so long that if he 
got his legs into his home he could not get the rest of him in, and 
lumbering Bear could not see out of his mask and was always tripping 
over everybody. 

Then Mink sat down quietly and asked "The Great Spirit" to take 
away the new clothes which they had planned themselves and give them 
back the clothes "The Great Spirit" had planned for them. 

And a shining light shone down on them as they each stood in the 
old clothes "The Great Spirit " had planned for them, and they were 
happy once again. 


Among the twenty-four choral groups in 
the Los Angeles area invited to participate 
in the opening of the new Music Center of 
Los Angeles was the chancel choir of the 
Imperial Heights church, which presented a 
half-hour program on Dec. 26. William 
Reynolds, the minister of music, directed the 
choir, and Wayne Crist, the pastor, was the 

The RIdgeway church in Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania recently went on a self-support basis 
only two and a half years after its founding 
as a mission church. . . . New sanctuaries 
are now under construction at Black Rock 
and New Fairview in Southern Pennsylvania. 

Looking forward to its 100th anniversary, 
which will be observed on July 25, the 
Oakland church in Gettysburg, Ohio, is col- 
lecting historical items of interest. Raymond 
E. Eller is pastor. ... A voter's information 
forum, sponsored by the Mllledgeville church, 
III., gave an opportunity for members to 
explore issues faced in a recent election. 

Work is under way on an education addi- 
tion to the lafaycfte church, Ind. The new 
addition, located behind the present church 
building, will include a pastor's study and 
church office, nine classrooms, and a youth 
room. Most of the work in the new unit 
is being done with volunteer labor, . . . With 
increased attendance and a program of evan- 
gelism now under way, the Eaton church 
in Ohio is considering the purchase of land 
for a new church building. 

The Harrisonburg church, Va., recently saw 
six Boy Scouts receive Eagle Scout awards 
at one Sunday morning service. Three are 
members of the church. . . . The women's 
fellowship of the Linvllle Creek church in 
Virginia has adopted a ward of forty-eight 
women at the Western state hospital. They 
plan to visit the women monthly and to re- 
member them on special occasions. 

Special recognition was given to members 
of the Wakarusa church, Ind., who had not 
missed more than twelve worship services 
during the year. . . . The cenntennial year 
of the Barren Ridge church in Virginia will 
be marked by a full week of special services 
May 9 to 16. Early in January the church 
invited H. Austin Cooper, church historian 
and former pastor, to recount previously un- 
published stories of the church's growth. 
Various exhibits have been planned to be 
shown throughout the centennial year. 


A weekly series of thirteen conversations 
with college and university students, "The 
Campus and the Church, started on NBC 
radio on Feb. 7. The time is Sunday, 8:15- 
8:30 a.m. EST. 

The discussions are frank evaluations of 
subjects important to today's collegians, as 
well as examination of the church's relation 
to those subjects. Topics include campus 
morals, "religious experience" and conscious- 
ness-expanding chemicals (such as LSD), stu- 
dent social action, science and faith, religion 
and the arts, and ecumenical ministry on 
campus. At least two students and one 
clergyman will take part in each discussion. 





versary for the Arcadia church, 
Fla., was changed from Feb. 14 
to March 14. ... A music and 
worship institute, sponsored by 
the Central Region board, will 
be held July 27-30 at Manches- 
ter College. Dr. Austin Love- 
lace, a leading Protestant mu- E 
sician, will be one of the prin- r? 
cipal leaders. . . . The Bethany ^ 
extension school for ministers is e 
scheduled for Aug. 1-6, on the S 
Juniata College campus. ... c| 
The Central Region Men's Fel- ^ 
lowship retreat will be at :i 
Winona Lake, Ind., on Nov. 13 5 
and 14. The Greensburg con- (^ 
gregation. Pa., will dedicate g 
their new church, March 7. g 


Baker, Charles E., Jr., Morrill, Kansas, on 

Jan. 3, 1965 
Conway, Myrtle E., Salem, Ohio, on Dec. 19, 

1964, aged 79 
Cover, Ernest T., Winfield, Md., on Jan. 4, 

1964, aged 77 

Evans, Mrs. Paul, Sheldon, Iowa, on Jan. 3, 

1965, aged 81 

Frazier, Verna t^ae, Morrill, Kansas, on Dec. 

6, 1964, aged 62 
Frye, Kathryn T., Harrisonburg, Va., on Dec. 

20, 1964, aged 80 
Garber, Frank A., Leon, Iowa, on Nov. 26, 

1964, aged 100 
Heisel, Alva, Empire, Calif., on Sept. 18, 

1964, aged 71 
Jamison, John H., Quinter, Kansas, on Oct. 

24, 1964, aged 66 
Keisling, Warren S., Lewistown, Pa., on Aug. 

22, 1964, aged 3 months 
Kroneberger, Lydia R., North Linthicum, Md., 

on Dec. 6, 1964 
Kuhn, Perry, Stanley, Wis., on Nov. 29, 1964, 

aged 81 

Long, Minnie E., Sabetha, Kansas, on Dec. 25, 

1964, aged 74 
McClure, Lillian, Baltimore, Md., on Nov. 29, 

1963, aged 70 
Messer, Jennie M., Wooster, Ohio, on Nov. 

9, 1964, aged 85 
Menzies, Baltimore, Md., on Nov. 7, 1964, 

aged 77 
Miller, Harry, Empire, Calif., on Oct. 4, 1964, 

aged 85 
Miller, Sarah D., Boonsboro, Md., on Dec. 3, 

1963, aged 95 
Moore, Beda H., Sabetha, Kansas, on Nov. 

15, 1964, aged 91 

Morris, Sherman F., Baltimore, Md., on May 

16, 1963, aged 65 


Dr. John H. Provinse, who took office as 
executive director of International Voluntary 
Services, Inc., on Nov. I, 1964, died unex- 
pectedly from a heart attack on Thursday, 
Jan. 21. . . . Dr. Walter Eshelman, a member 
of the Ambler church. Pa., has been ap- 
pointed to the advisory board of the United 
States Air Force Academy at Colorado 
Springs, Colo. He is one of eight educators 
serving on the board. 

Two Iowa pastors are maintaining week- 
end ministries to their congregations while 
carrying other full-time jobs. They are John 
Thomas, Sr., now the full-time director of 
CROP in Iowa, and Dale Miller, currently 
teaching school. ... Ira Gibbel, pastor of 
the Messiah Church of the Brethren in Kansas 
City, Mo., resigned on Jan. 13, effective Aug. 
31. He has served the Messiah congregation 
for the past six years. 

After serving the Crest Manor congregation 
in South Bend, Ind., for seven years, Robert 
W. Knechel resigned on Jan. 13 and termi- 
nated his work there on March 1. . . . Paul 
Boll, who has been serving as supply pastor 
since September, has been unanimously 
elected pastor of the Shippensburg congrega- 
tion. Southern Pennsylvania. 

March 5 World Day of Prayer 

March 7 Girl Scout Sunday 

March 16-19 General Brotherhood Board meeting, Elgin, III. 

March 21 Camp Fire Girls Sunday 

March 28 One Great Hour of Sharing 

April 11 Palm Sunday 

April 16 Good Friday 

April 18 Easter 

April 25 National Christian College Day 

April 25 -May 1 Mental Health Week 

May 2-9 Christian Family Week 

May 3-5 District Leaders' Conference, Elgin, III. 

May 7 May Fellowship Day 

May 9 Festival of the Christian Home (Mother's Day) 


Reflections from a January storm 

The news reporters were not exaggerating 
when they called it the worst ice storm in 
northern Illinois history. So far as our town — 
Elgin — was concerned, W. O. Beckner, retired 
Brethren schoolteacher and veteran weather 
observer, described the situation well when he 
said, "I've never seen anything like it any- 
where, anytime." 

It was something to see. From one-half 
inch to an inch of ice covered everything in 
sight. Every tree took on a coating of glass 
and every exposed surface was made slick by 
the freezing rain. Each power line that 
stretched from pole to pole, if it could bear up 
under the strain, carried a ribbon of ice. 

It was something to hear, also. The trees 
groaned and cracked, and thousands of heavy 
branches broke loose to come crashing down 
upon sidewalks, tree banks, and streets. 

And then, while the ice was still heavy, the 
snow came down, and the temperature fell. 
Add five inches of snow to an already stricken 
area, and you have multiplied problems for 
overworked city employees and busy service- 
men. Yet they came from a distance to help 
us by the hundreds so that at one time 30 or 
more crews of workmen toiled around the 
clock to restore needed service to 12,000 

Within these homes families adjusted to 
abnormal conditions in a remarkable way. 
Christmas candles, recently stored away, were 
put to practical uses. Camp stoves and lan- 
terns were pumped into action. Flashlights 
guided the steps that went from one dark cold 
room to another. Forced to forego television, 
children dug out forgotten games or tried, like 
Abe Lincoln, to read by firelight. 

The fortunate family was the one with a 
fireplace — so long as the wood supply lasted 
— or a gas oven large enough to heat an extra 
room. Faced with loss of heat and light, some 
families moved in temporarily with friends and 
neighbors. In one home, for example, we 
shared a Sunday dinner with one family, the 
evening meal with another, and found room for 
thirteen to sleep overnight. But the next night. 

when our house was without heat, we sought 
refuge elsewhere. Despite all the inconveni- 
ence, despite our concern for neighbors who 
might suffer real hardship owing to prolonged 
lack of warmth, the total experience was good 
for us. Our children will have something to 
tell their grandchildren that can rival anything 
our grandparents could tell us. 

But what was most evident was a new 
sense of community. In urban neighborhoods 
we tend to be so self-sufficient that we ignore 
one another because we do not need one 
another. But during one week in January we 
did realize how much we depend on one an- 
other. It was not only the institutions — the 
police and fire departments, the Salvation 
Army, the Red Cross, the civic agencies — 
that stood by ready to help. Neighbors once 
again became neighbors and not simply peo- 
ple who live adjacent to one another. 

Why must it take a disaster, the threat of 
danger, or some common peril to show people 
how much they need one another? We spend 
so many of our energies trying to secure better 
conveniences and comforts, yet it happens 
that a time of inconvenience, rather than a time 
of security, is the occasion for us to become 
our best selves. In striving for safety and ease 
we seem to have missed life's bigger and 
better goals. 

Surely the purposes for which Jesus lived 
and died, the purposes that form the broad out- 
lines of the kingdom of God, such tremendous 
goals are worth our living for and dying for. 
It should not take an ice storm with its threat 
of personal harm, it should not require a first- 
hand experience of disaster or some obvious 
reminder that we live our days under the judg- 
ment of almighty God to shake us out of our 
complacency and our concern for comfort. 
Why must we wait for danger and disaster to 
knock our heads together before we under- 
stand that we are not made for selfishness but 
for sharing, not for safety but for service, not 
for our families alone but for all our brothers, 
not for self but for God? — K.M. 

32 MESSENGER 3-4-65 


The Meaning of 
Christian Values Today 

By William L. Bradley. Why is 
there such vast difference today 
between the values people pro- 
fess and those by which they 
actually live? Seeking an an- 
swer, the author examines con- 
temporary Christian ethics from 
the standpoint of the problem 
of communicability. $4.50 

War of Amazing Love 

By Frank C. Laubach. The 
author knows people the world 
over — the "haves" and the 
"have-nots." He earnestly pleads 
that the chasm separating the 
two be abolished and offers a 
plan of action to accomplish that 
end. $2.95 

I ,^^ 

Prayers of Women 

By Lisa Sergio, editor. A re- 
markable collection of prayers 
written by women in the course 
of twenty centuries of Chris- 
tianity. Presented in chronologi- 
cal order, there are 235 prayers 
from 212 women. $4.95 


Between Heaven and Earth 

By Helmut Thielicke. Recorded 
here are the religious and social 
concerns which lie closest to the 
heart and conscience of Ameri- 
can Christians, as shared with 
this German theologian when he 
toured the United States in 1963. 


Daily Life Devotions 
for Youth 

By Walter L. Cook. These de- 
votions encourage young people 
to bring before God not only the 
large decisions they must make 
but also the day-to-day events 
that often perplex them at home 
and school. $2.00 

The New Testament: 
Its History and Message 

By W. C. van Unnik. A clearly 
written introduction to the peo- 
ple, places, events, and ideas of 
the New Testament. Invaluable 
to the beginning student of the 
Bible. Twenty illustrations. $3.95 




AfnCSn ChnStlSn Art is uniquely African, even when it depicts 
biblical or churchly subjects. Nine striking illustrations of contemporary 
African art and text by Kermon Thomason. page 1 

Directive for Discipleship: an accurate phrase to describe the 
Sermon on the Mount, as introduced and interpreted by a noted preacher, 
teacher, and writer, Dr. George A. Buttrick. page 6 

T/ie Faith of a Go Vernor enters into the public as well as into 
the private life of Oregon's vigorous chief executive. Governor Mark Hat- 
field, by Evelyn Bauer, page 9 

Guidance for PrObiem Cflildren. parents and church lead- 
ers can follow a few simple guidelines to help children develop responsi- 
bility, by Florence and Glen Crago. page 11 

God and Satan in the Suburbs. They are both at work in 

ways described and assessed by a recent book. Reviewed by Donald E. 
Fancher. page 25 

OTHER FEATURES include a story for children, "How the Animals 
Changed Their Clothes," daily devotions related to the meaning of Lent, 
a report from Washington on issues before Congress, reviews of records, 
and answers to questions about cremation and Sunday observance. 


An English teacher tells how "We Can Teach the Bible in High School" 
. . . The story of J. Quinter Miller is the record of how one man has worked 
for Christian unity . . . Many Christians are puzzled as to how to face the 
fact that they are "Inheriting a Revolution," says Walter Bowman . . . 
Mission doctors report on the way church-related medical programs 
encourage family planning ... An editorial advocates "Missions in 

VOL. 114 N»i 

Missions and the 
population spiral 






I hold membership in the Amateur 
Radio Emergency Corps, a peacetime 
setup for emergency communications. 
This corps (AREC) oftentimes works 
in harmony with the Radio Ama- 
teur Civil Emergency Service 
(R.A.C.E.S.), which is an auxiliary 
emergency communication working 
hand in hand with civil defense in 
most states and counties. 

Both the AREC, and R.A.C.E.S. 
handle emergency messages having 
to do with life and death urgency to 
any person or groups of persons, which 
are transmitted by amateur radio in 
the absence of regular commercial 
facilities. This includes official mes- 
sages of welfare agencies during emer- 
gencies, requesting doctors, nurses, 
medical supplies, hospital supplies, 
and other supplies needed, including 
instructions to stricken populaces in 
emergency areas. . . . 

Civil defense is an organization 
which does not promote war, but does 
alleviate human suffering and saves 
people's lives on the home front as 
much as humanly possible in both 
peacetime and wartime. I cannot un- 
derstand why some Brethren are op- 
posed to CD. 

Paul F. Montgomery, W8ZHB 
Lewiston, Mich. 


I would like to answer the question 
asked by Mary Royer of us oldsters 
in the Jan. 7 Messenger about not 
voting. When I became twenty-one 
years old I became a citizen of voting 
age. For twenty-nine years I never 
missed a chance to vote, as I felt it 
was my duty to do so. When I was 
fifty years old God called me to be 
one of his sons. In becoming God's 
son I became a citizen of God's king- 
dom and a member of Christ's church; 
so I was no more a citizen of the 
world. We cannot be a citizen of 

both places. I prefer to be a citizen 
of God's kingdom and not a citizen 
of die world. So I am not eligible 
to vote. 


Laton, Calif. 


In our desire to cooperate with the 
other Christians, we want to remem- 
ber that our "founding fathers" 
searched the Bible for the teaching and 
examples of Jesus, in establishing their 
church. As a result of this, great men 
and women of God have been tower- 
ing lights in the developing of con- 
gregations of the Brethren across our 

The distinctive doctrines and ordi- 
nances which Jesus gave his disciples 
should be retained, as well as the 
ones that are commonly accepted by 
all Christians. 

I refer to such things as brother- 
hood, temperance, peace, baptism by 
trine immersion, the ordinances of 
feetwashing, the Lord's supper, and 
holy communion, divine healing 
through the anointing, and living 
the good life, which has been so dis- 
tinctive in past generations. 

W. J. Hamilton 
Cumberland, Md. 


It is not only right but essential 
that Christians should be concerned 
and express opinions about social is- 
sues. This is the burden of the mes- 
sage of most of the prophets in the 
Bible. It is in the affairs of life that 
we actually accept or reject God as 
revealed in Christ, not by simply say- 
ing we believe or by going to church 
on Sunday. God is at work in the 
affairs of the world, not just in the 
Sunday school classes. Therefore, it 
is unchristian not to take a position 
on social issues. 

Shouldn't we be willing to listen to 
views that differ from ours without 
condemning the persons who hold 
them or denying them the right to 
express them? This is the way we 

grow in our understanding. We are 
always free to accept or reject the ar- 
gument set forth as sound or unsound, 
and we should grant others the same 
right we ask for ourselves to hold 
and express their views. 

God does allow us to choose wrong- 
ly, even as people did in Jesus' day, 
and we are likely to see the error of 
our way only if we are willing to 
listen to ideas that are different from 

John W. Gosnell 
Elizabethtown, Fa. 


H. H. Helman says (Jan. 21) that 
perhaps no other minor church group 
in America faces so uncertain a 
future as does our Brotherhood. To 
this we can agree. But why? We are 
forsaking the scriptures to be like the 
majority. . . . 

Let us cling to the Bible, study 
and understand the prophecies of 
Daniel and Revelation. Let us get 
our representatives out of the ecumen- 
ical movement. 

Mary Wenger 
Lititz, Pa. 


I am convinced that the editorial 
opinions in the messenger are an at- 
tempt at Christian statement of princi- 
ple. I am not equally assured that 
requests to avoid delicate issues have 
their basis in Christian attitude. 

The sin of the church has never 
been its engagement with the problems 
of the time. The church does lose its 
salt and is ineffective when it fails to 
have adequate responses to major 
questions about life. 

Is it possible that there are corners 
of our minds that we do not want to 
have exposed to new ideas? Could 
these corners contain less than Chris- 
tian attitudes about great moral issues 
of our time? 

James White 

MESSENGER, Vol. 114, No. 6. March 18, 1965, publi- 
cation of the Church of the Brethren continuing "The 
Gospel Messenger" 

Editor: Kenneth I. Morse 
Managing Editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh 
Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Weigle 
Director of News Service: Howard E. Royer 

MESSENGER, official publication of the Church of the Brethren, is 
owned and published every other week by the General Brotherhood 
Board — Church of the Brethren, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120, 
Norman J. Baugher, general secretary. Editor, Kenneth I. Morse; 
managing editor, Wilbur E. Brumbaugh; editorial assistant, Elizabeth 
Weigle. Filing date, Oct. 1, 1963. Entered as second-class matter Aug. 
20, 1918, under Act of Congress of Oct. 17, 1917. Second-class postage 
paid at Elgin, III. 

MESSENGER is copyright 1965 by the General Brotherhood Board, 
Church of the Brethren. 





God walked the earth in joy when it was 

Anointed man with his own sacred brand. 
He scattered seeds across the virgin 

Then sent the rain, and trees and grasses 


When this was done he did not go 

away — 
He still is near as each one's heart and 

hand — 
A help in need, he walks the earth today. 

Enola Chamberlin 

AAESSENGER is a member of the Associated Church Press and 
subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 
Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are 
from the Revised Standard Version. 

Subscription rates: $3.75 per year for individual subscriptions; $3.00 
per year for church group plan; $2.50 per year for every home plan; 
ilife subscription, $60; husband and wife, $75. 

f you move, clip old address from MESSENGER and send with new 
fsaddress. Allow at least fifteen days for address change. 

CONTRIBUTORS: The teaching profession is represented in this issue 
by two writers: Thayer S. Warshaw, who teaches English at the Newton 
High School in Newtonville, Mass., and Dale W. Brown, associate pro- 
fessor of Christian theology at Bethany Theological Seminary, Oak 
Brook, III. Included are two pastors: Walter D. Bowman of the Wichita 
church, Kansas, and Floyd E. Banti of the Roaring Spring church. Pa. 
Ofa Lee Russell works in the department of stewardship and benevolence 
of the National Council of Churches. PHOTO CREDITS: Cover, 4 Eastern 
Photo, A. Devaney; 1 Grant Heilman; 2 Ed Wallowitch; 16, 17 A. De- 
vaney; 18 Religious News Service; 25 Authenticated News International 


Is IT possible in public schools to study the 
Bible not as a religious book or even as a 
literary work but as a source book for the 
humanities? In the clamor over whether Bible 
reading (as part of a religious service) is un- 
constitutional, I believe that the case for includ- 
ing it in the humanities has not been sufficiently 

The Bible is indeed a religious book, but it 
is also a part of our secular cultural heritage. A 
knowledge of the Bible is essential to the pupil's 
understanding of allusions in literature, in music, 
and in the fine arts; in news media, in entertain- 

ment, and in cultured conversation. Is he to 
study mythology and Shakespeare but not the 
Bible? Is it important for him to learn what it 
means when a man is called an Adonis or a Romeo, 
yet unimportant for him to be able to tell a Jonah 
from a Judas? 

Pity the English teacher who begins the study 
of Nobel Prize-winner John Steinbeck's The Pearl. 
How is he to explain the book's second paragraph, 
which begins, "If this story is a parable, perhaps 
everyone takes his own meaning from it . . ."? 
Nine tenths of his pupils will not know what a 
parable is, much less that in one parable a man 

"sold all that he had" for "one pearl of great price." 
Yet both understandings are necessary if the pupil 
is to appraise John Steinbeck's work intelligently. 

Or let a class in social studies or in English 
examine Alan Paton's great novel of South African 
apartheid. Cry, the Beloved Country, in which 
the main character, a religious leader, has a son 
named Absalom who rebels against him and dies 
by hanging. Again the pupils need a knowledge 
of the Bible to understand the allusions in the 
book. Should they be denied this part of our 
cultural background simply because the Bible is 

controversial or because of the fear that some 
teachers and students might lack judgment in 
using the Bible as a textbook in the humanities? 
The faculty of Newton High School decided that 
its pupils should not be so denied. 

We had evidence to support our belief that 
students were not informed on biblical back- 
grounds. I administered a test consisting of 112 
questions to five classes of our college-bound 
eleventh and twelfth graders in Newton — a 
community that is generally regarded as above 
average culturally. The test's purpose: to dis- 
cover whether these pupils were familiar with 


Several pupils thought that Sodom and Gomorrah 
were lovers; the four horsemen appeared on the 
Acropolis; the Gospels were written by Matthew, 
Mark, Luther, and John; Moses baptized Jesus 

at least the most commonly known biblical stories, 
names, and quotations. The results: seventy-nine 
percent could not supply the last word of the 
expression, "Many are called, but few are chosen"; 
eighty-four percent could not furnish the last 
word of the familiar "The truth shall make you 
free"; sixty-three percent did not know the last 
word in Isaiah's "They shall beat their swords 
into plowshares"; eighty-four percent were unable 
to say that "A soft answer tumeth away wrath"; 
eighty-eight percent did not know that "Pride 
goeth before ... a fall"; ninety-three percent could 
not complete the well-known "The love of money 
is the root of all evil." 

In addition, several pupils thought that Sodom 
and Gomorrah were lovers; the four horsemen 
appeared on the Acropolis; the Gospels were 
written by Matthew, Mark, Luther, and John; 
Eve was created from an apple; Jesus was bap- 
tized by Moses, Jezebel was Ahab's donkey; and 

the stories by which Jesus taught were called 

We introduced the Bible into our studies at 
Newton High School carefully. Because the Bible 
had not been in the curriculum for many years — 
not even for its great literary passages — we began 
by helping the pupils to feel their need of being 
informed in biblical backgrounds. I did this by 
reading several short stories with them, stories 
that they failed to understand because they did 
not understand the biblical allusions involved. 
They were further nonplused when they found 
they could not interpret some political cartoons 
I showed them from current newspapers. Their 
pathetic performance on the test I have described 
proved the clincher. The evidence that a knowl- 
edge of biblical allusions is imperative for under- 
standing in our society was conclusive. They 
wanted to learn. 

No Interpretation Allowed 

I started with two English classes. At the 
outset we agreed on two ground rules: 1. We 
would not discuss meaning or interpretation. 
Should Genesis be understood literally? Poet- 
ically? Take the questions to a religious authority. 
2. We should use the King James Version solely 
because most Bible quotations that the students 
would meet in their reading and everyday life 
would be from this version — as a look at Bartlett's 
Familiar Quotations proved. 

Both rules were invoked when a pupil quoted 
scholarly authority in questioning the correctness 
of the King James Version of Isa. 14:12: "How 
art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer." His Bible 
at home read, "How art thou fallen from heaven, 
O Day Star." Was not his translation more ac- 
curate? Could he memorize the correct version? 
The answer was obvious: We were not interested 
in that kind of correctness; we were interested 
in knowing the words that have influenced our 

It is only because the King James Version uses 
the name Lucifer in that passage and because 
Luke 10:18 says, "I beheld Satan as lightning 
fall from heaven," that Lucifer has become an- 
other name for the devil in our culture. For every 
person today who thinks of Lucifer as the Roman 
god of the morning star, a hundred think of 
Lucifer as the devil. 

4 MESSENGER 3-18-65 

Our procedure was simple. Three times a week 
the pupils had assignments in The Holy Bible in 
Brief (Mentor, 50 cents), which contains excerpts 
from the King James Version. Because some 
favorite stories (Cain and Abel, for example) and 
commonly used expressions ("Am I my brother's 
keeper?" are omitted, these regular textbook as- 
signments were supplemented by other passages. 
Pupils had the choice of looking them up in 
Bartlett ( for quotations ) and in any Sunday school 
book (for stories), or in the complete King James 

Linking Biblical Passages 

In these sessions I linked as many passages as 
I could with literature, music, and art. As we 
went along, the pupils heard about Melville's 
Moby Dick, with its Ishmael, Ahab, and EHjah; 
Thomas Mann's Joseph and His Brothers; Ros- 
sini's Moses in Egypt; Moussorgsky's Josua 
Navina; Michelangelo's Moses; Milton's Samson 
Agonistes; Saint-Saens' Samson and Delilah; Hon- 
egger's Le Roi David; Faulkner's Absalom, Ab- 
salom!; Bathsheba in Thomas Hardy's Far From 
the Madding Crowd; Gounod's Queen of Sheba; 
Marc Connelly's Green Pastures; the popular 
"Shadrach" and "Jezebel"; Verdi's Nabucco; Mac- 
Leish's J.B.; Massenet's Herodiade; and da Vinci's 
Last Supper. And they learned the origin of such 
expressions as the patience of Job, a doubting 
Thomas, a Nimrod, a Judas, a Jonah, a Lazarus, an 
Ananias, and Adam's apple. 

So much for the pupils' day-to-day acquaint- 
ance with the Bible through regular assignments. 
In a few special class periods they had other 
experiences, through audio-visual materials. One 
day we had a concert. First there was the re- 
corded voice of the city's supervisor of music 
singing Little David Play on Your Harp, as he 
enthusiastically cooperated in the project. Next, 
the pupils were able to recognize the voice of 
Sammy Davis, Jr., singing Ain't Necessarily So, 
with its "Little David was small, but oh, my!" 
Then, having heard the Negro spiritual and the 
song from the folk opera, we listened to Judith 
Anderson's dramatic reading of the story of David 
and Goliath. 

Thus we had three different forms of expres- 
sion based on the same biblical passage. A fourth 
medium rocked the room as Harry Belafonte 

shouted the gospel song Noah. Next, pupils sat 
enraptured as Joan Baez explained her folk song 
about Moses. A sixth genre using the Bible for 
text was represented by the opening aria of 
Handel's The Messiah. During this oratorio 
passage, as in the case of the Anderson reading, 
the pupils followed the words in their books. 

Two other periods were devoted to viewing 
slides, one set based on stories in the Old Testa- 
ment and one on episodes in the New Testament. 
Again the emphasis was on variety of forms of 
expression and excellence of performance, as we 
moved from the thirteenth century to the 
present. There were canvases by Titian, Rubens, 
Veronese, Tiepolo, Rembrandt, El Greco, Murillo, 
Brueghel, and Bosch; murals by Michelangelo, 
Donatello, Verrocchio, and Bernini; reliefs by 
Brunelleschi and Ghiberti; engravings by Diirer, 
Dore, and Lucas van Leyden; movie stills of a 
Hollywood biblical epic; and a three-in-one 
package — an Aubrey Beardsley print illustrating 
Oscar Wilde's Salome, a drama that was also the 
inspiration for Strauss' opera. 

Some of the pictures, which the city's super- 
visor of audio-visual instruction helped make into 
slides, and some of the recordings were brought 
in by pupils. In their enthusiasm they also brought 
materials from their reading. One student found 
in his United States history textbook an 1884 
political cartoon depicting James G. Blaine as 
Belshazzar at a feast with William Vanderbilt and 
Jay Gould, complete with the warning hand- 
writing on the wall, but with a word from the 
author explaining the allusion. 

"Render Unto Sid Caesar . . ." 

Other political cartoons came from today's 
newspapers and magazines. We found humorous 
cartoons and comic strips with biblical quotations 
or allusions, as well as news items about "good 
Samaritans" who picked up hitchhikers and about 
praise that should be rendered unto Sid Caesar. 
All these were made into transparencies that were 
thrown on the screen in front of the room — 
sometimes for discussion, sometimes for a quick 
laugh, but always as a reminder of the points at 
which the pupils come into contact with the Bible 
in daily life. 

What were the results? The 41 pupils in my 
two eleventh grade classes had scored 22 percent 


Inheriting c 

George Washington once wrote to Gouverneur 
Morris, his representative in France, asking for 
a frank evaluation of Louis XVI. He inquired, 
"How stable do you think his government is?" 
Morris' reply was disturbing. He wrote back, 
"Louis XVI is a good man. In another generation 
he would have made a good king. The trouble is 
that he has inherited a revolution." 

This is an observation we can well apply to 
our churches. There are many — and ours may 
be one of them — that would be good churches in 
ordinary times, but they too have inherited a 
revolution. And there are many persons in posi- 
tions of leadership who might be expected to do 
a pretty good job were it not that we have in- 
herited a revolution. 

Whether we like it or not, we are living in a 
revolutionary age. Some persons have confessed 
that they are glad they have almost finished this 
life and will not need to help youth find their 
way in a world which man has never lived in 
before. Yet others find it the most exciting time 
ever to be alive. 

Now our revolution is not primarily a political 
revolution as in the case of King Louis, although 
there are political revolutions aplenty across our 
globe. It is a revolution so vast in its proportions 
and so complex in its facets that merely to call 
attention to certain aspects is to do it injustice. 

One of the aspects of our revolutionary times 
is that of changing social structures and the move- 
ments of population. The former has at least 
touched us in some way, because throughout our 
nation we have been forced at long last to re- 
examine our patterns of behavior and to recognize 
the many injustices we have perpetuated. But al- 
though we have been touched at this point, we 
are not yet sure what the church ought to say to 
this explosive aspect of cultural change. And if 
recent discussions in some church groups are 

6 MESSENGER 3-18-65 

indicative, we are not too sure that we want 
to say anything at all. 

But more than this is the potential shift of 
power- coming with the increase of the world's 
population. Enough babies are bom every day 
to create a new city the size of Topeka, Kansas, 
or Ft. Wayne, Indiana, but we are told that 
roughly eighty-five percent of these are bom 
outside the western hemisphere, and three fourths 
of them are born colored. Seventy percent of 
them are bom in Africa and India and China, 
which means that again a very high percentage 
of them are bom in nations and cultures and re- 
ligions which are hostile to that for which 
Christianity has stood. 

We have listened but little to our missionaries 
who have been trying to tell us for sometime of 
the urgency of our witness in the face of militant 
revivals of Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism, and 
the fact that the Brotherhood Fund is still a "take 
it or leave it" item in many church budgets is 
indicative of the fact that we have not begun to 
feel the impact of this revolution which is hitting 
our world with such tremendous force. What then 
shall be our response? Throw in the towel? Eat, 
drink, and be merry? Or shall we become de- 
fensive over our threatened loss of power? 

Viewed from another angle, our life is being 
revolutionized by automation, considered by some 
as a good fairy and by others as a demonic power. 
This phenomenon of the advent of self-activating, 
self-controlling machines to do our work gives 
promise variously of an age of great plenty; of 
a common man university trained and world 
traveled; of reference libraries with no books, 
only computers; of driverless highways; and of 
leisure in abundance. And with plants already 
in operation, such as Ford's at Cleveland where 


raw engine blocks fed into the assembly line 
emerge 14/2 minutes and 530 automatic operations 
later completely finished, who is to say that in 
10 years half the nation's work force will not be 
taken over and 2- and 3-day work weeks the 
common thing? 

But our real concern is for the men who are 
involved in this revolution and what will happen 
to them. Will we be forced to revolutionize the 
way in which we evaluate ourselves? If man no 
longer works for his livelihood, but gets it merely 
because he is a member of society, what will 
replace work in the lives of people? How will 
we deal with man's feelings of inferiority to a 
very superior machine? But, most of all, will the 
advent of an era of maximum freedom for man 
result in a cavernous boredom or a vast release 
of creative energy? Will he work with as much 
zeal for the common good as for private gain? 

And the church, which is concerned about 
man as no other organization is — what will she 
say to his sense of worth and his ultimate destiny 
being worked out here? In a previous generation, 
confronted with the preliminary stages of this 
vast revolution which we call the industrial 
revolution, the church said man's worth and 
destiny depended on hard work, no frolicking, a 
straight-cut coat, and a plain dress. Yet with all 
our resistance, we did not repeal that revolution. 
What shall we say to its successor? 

But even more vast — at least in its dimen- 
sions — is the revolution in thought about the 
universe in which God has placed us. We have 
long since outgrown the neat little "three-decker 
universe" with the earth as a flat slab carefully 
but precariously sandwiched in between the 
waters above the heavens and the waters be- 
neath the earth. We have not so much outgrown 
the neat little townshiplike. Garden of Eden 
variety of world in which many of us grew up. 

That world was where we lived, and we affec- 
tionately called it "God's country." 

Well, when I left God's country and went 
away to college, one of the most devout men I 
have known stretched my imagination to the 
breaking point by informing me that when we 
peer out to the very edges of our universe, we 
see pinpoints of light from distant worlds which 
have been 500 million years in transit. Even with 
space travel in its initial stages we have little 
comprehension of the vastness involved. If we 
were able to step up the speed of our Model T 
space coupes from 25,000 miles per hour to a 
million miles an hour, it would still take 700 years 
to go one light year. Or if we were to start a 
baby out at that speed, it would be three times 
the age of Methuselah before arriving at the 
nearest star. 

But all that was twenty years ago and the 
leading astrophysicists tell us now that the edges 
are not 500 million light years, but 7 billion light 
years. This poses no little problem if your theory 
of biblical interpretation says the creation is as 
recent as 6,000 years ago. But in any case, these 
same leaders in scientific thought are confront- 
ing us with the idea that, released from our 
earthbound shackles, time and space are mean- 
ingless and up and down are irrelevant terms. 
Now if we cannot say "up to heaven" or "down 
to hell," what then? Do we throw these terms 
out? Or come at last to realize that they are 
religious and not geographic terms — speaking of 
estrangement and isolation over against acceptance 
and joy and reconciliation? 

And all this is but to hint at other revolutions 
which are upon us in our religious thought, as 
well as various other areas of life. 

But really, should this phenomenon of revolu- 

3-18-65 MESSENGER 7 

In response to a revolutionary 
idea we often shout, "Give me 
that old-time religion!" 

tion surprise us too much? For the church has 
been in the business of preaching revolution from 
its beginning — and before. John the Baptist pro- 
claimed with such forcefulness Isaiah's theme — 

"Every valley shall be filled, 
and every mountain and hill shall be brought low, 
and the crooked shall be made straight, 
and the rough ways shall be made smooth" 

— that Clarence Jordan says today he should 
surely be called John the Bulldozer. But his was 
no geography lesson. It was a lesson in the 
spiritual implications of human relationships. It 
had to do with the inequalities and injustices of 
tax collectors and soldiers. And as he warned, 
this was but a preview. For the One who was to 
come after was by comparison so far beyond this 
that John would appear completely unworthy. 
And where he baptized with water, that One who 
was to follow would by comparison baptize with 

This was but the beginning. And then came 
Paul. In a world rent asunder by artificial barriers 
of race and nation and status and sex, he pro- 
claimed the revolutionary doctrine that in Chris- 
tian terms there are no such distinctions — no 
Jew-Greek tension, no slave-free division, no male- 
female barrier. And so the church has dutifully 
preached this revolutionary doctrine, and valiant- 
ly brought up the rear. 

When for example, the genius Galileo ap- 
peared on the scene he said, in effect, "I've in- 
vented this little gadget I call the telescope, and 
between it and my math, I know that the world 
is round rather than flat and that it revolves 
around the sun rather than the sun going around 
us." And the church in fright said quite loudly, 
"Galileo, you can't say that. The church didn't 
tell you it's so. It's too upsetting, too revolutionary 

to believe. It's heresy and blasphemy. And be- 
sides, everybody just knows it can't be true." To 
which Galileo had the fortitude to reply, "You 
can call it revolutionary. You can imprison me 
or even kill me. It's still true." 

All too often our response to a revolution or 
a revolutionary idea is to shout, "Give me that 
old-time religion! Don't ask me to be radical. 
Don't even ask me to think deeply." We have 
proclaimed loudly, "Jesus Christ the same yester- 
day, today, and forever." But what we have 
meant is that we see no need to stretch back 
the horizons of our minds to modify our concept 
of the structure of God's universe or our relation 
to it. On grandpa's farm we had no worries about 
population growth or social revolution or auto- 
mation or an expanding universe, and we do not 
know why we should start now. 

But there are some who are already trying 
seriously to strike new trails across the changing 
terrain. There is a church that conducts regularly 
an open-air service in a drive-in theater during 
the summer months. In a sincere desire to minister 
to people caught in the industrial web, another 
church duplicates its Sunday service on Monday 
evening each week. Another owns several 
hundred acres of wooded hills outside a large 
city, land dedicated not only to Christian educa- 
tion, but to Christian recreation and leisure. 
Caught in the maelstrom of rapid urban change 
another now seeks to minister — not to a middle- 
class white congregation — but through a Negro 
pastor . to an interracial fellowship now white, 
Chinese, Negro, and Puerto Rican. 

I consider it a privilege to be part of a group 
with a tremendous potential which can be used 
creatively. Whether any of us is capable of in- 
heriting a revolution of this extent is yet un- 
certain. But of one thing I am sure. It has not 
yet been revealed to us how we can minister 
effectively the grace of God in an age where the 
horizons of truth about creation and about life 
are expanding so rapidly as to leave us staggering 
and gaping in awe and wonder at the infinite 
wisdom of the Creator. Nor will this be revealed 
to us painlessly in a bfinding flash. But as we 
seriously commit ourselves to him who "makes all 
things new," pioneering where his Spirit leads, we 
shall in some small measure be worthy of his 
calling. — Walter D. Bowman 

a MESSENGER 3-18-65 



A FIRST "dream" or aspiration for 
our church is that we might be able 
to live up to the definition of what 
Christians are. They are saintly, 
faithful, sanctified, slaves of Christ 
and servants of all. They are the 
people of God and are empowered 
by the Holy Spirit. They are be- 
lievers in Christ. They bring forth 
fruits in Christian living. They 
share the gospel. They change the 
world. We dream of the day when 
all will achieve, by God's grace, this 
high level of Christian experience. 

Second, we dream of the church 
as a place where men and women 
can find complete security in Christ. 
People generally are caught in 
status and power structures — in 
their professional, business, voca- 
tional, social, community, and eco- 
nomic life. Tensions develop and 
pressures result. But the church 
should be one place where all peo- 
ple regardless of status or class can 
find release from tensions and pres- 
sures and find security instead. 

However, security does not mean 
stagnation. Christians should be 
concerned about conditions of god- 
lessness, suffering, inequality, and 
evil. Security means strength and 
courage to go about fearlessly do- 
ing God's will. 

Third, we dream of a church 
which will find adequate ways of 
reaching more people. Space does 
not permit the statistics, but it 
seems clear that we are not even 
ministering to all our own offspring; 
much less are we winning a pro- 
portionate share of the unchurched. 
These facts seem to call for a 
revitalization of our present ap- 
proaches to reaching people. They 
also call for us to experiment with 

new methods of extending the 
church's ministry. Some have tried 
industrial missions, coffee houses 
for beatniks, inner city missions, 
consultations with the jobless, 
trouble teams, work with vocational 
groups, and the like. We should 
try many others. 

Fourth, we pray for more skill 
in working effectively in the caul- 
dron of world developments. 
Change is reflected daily in reports 
of revolutions, formation of new 
nations, training of the newly liter- 
ate, communist and nationalistic 
threats, withdrawals from the 
United Nations, and the like. Two 
thirds of the world is not Christian. 
James Reston reports two hundred 
fifty million children now under five 
will die of the effects of malnutri- 
tion before they reach five years of 

The church can find the way to 
minister in the midst of all this, 
but it will probably take new dar- 
ing, creativity, greater resources, 
and experimentation with new tech- 
niques as complex circumstances 

Fifth, we dream that the church 
will discover its most significant re- 
lationship to the ecumenical church. 
Three hundred to four hundred de- 
nominations, in the one third of the 
world which is Christian, are trying 
to minister to the two thirds which 
is not Christian. Many feel that 
Christianity can hardly expect to 
move foi-ward when so divided 
and that many denominations 
should join in a more unified min- 
istry. Many feel that this unified 
ministiy comes through organic 
merger; still others feel there can 
be a unified ministry even though 

groups remain separate. 

Sixth, we dream of expanding 
our emphasis on peace, the simple 
life, and the equality of all men. 
This sorely needs to be done within 
our own group. This emphasis 
should also be made as we try to 
work cooperatively with other de- 
nominations (always avoiding the 
appearance of self- righteousness). 
Especially if we should ever con- 
template organic union, it would be 
highly important that this empha- 
sis be infused into the new group. 

Even though we may not realize 
it, much of Christendom looks to us 
for leadership in these areas of 
church life. 

Seventh, we dream of a church 
in which clergymen and laymen 
will all be ministers. Often the 
clergymen are expected to have a 
degree of loyalty, devotion, and 
commitment not expected of the 

But our hopes are for a church 
where everyone will be a minister, 
whether he be of the full-time, 
specially trained, ordained variety; 
or the minister in the shop, beside 
the kitchen sink, at the desk, on 
the tractor, in the sales meeting, in 
the classroom, or in the professional 
man's office. 

An important aspect of this total 
ministry is that laymen ought to 
become more familiar wdth the con- 
tent of the Christian faith through 
study, prayer, and some special 

Finally, we dream of a church 
which will more fully penetrate 
our complex cultural patterns. To 
do this is difficult but necessary if 
the gospel is to be relevant. — A. 
Stauffer Curry 

3-18-65 MESSENGER 9 

the !PolisliL 

Name one of the great agricultural schools of the 
country, and it is likely you will find there one or 
more of the twenty Polish students whose exchange 
program is sponsored by the Church of the 

The students come not in academic pursuit, 
primarily, for many had earned master's degrees 
and some doctor's degrees back home. Occa- 
sionally they do not even enroll in classes. They 
have come basically to work as researchers, to 

learn from on-the-job experience, and to observe 
firsthand what American agricultural concepts — 
and Americans themselves — are like. 

At Michigan State University, East Lansing, 
Prof. Clifford Bedford of the food science depart- 
ment has had his fourth Polish student in five 
years. His reaction is: Send us more. 

Currently working under him is Witold 
Plocharski, twenty-four, an agriculturist interested 
in fruit processing and quality control. When he 
returns to Poland he will continue to work for 
the Institute of Pomology. 

Another of Michigan State's Polish students is 
Barbara Pinchinat, thirty-five, who earlier was at 
the University of Wisconsin. Her MSU adviser. 
Prof. C. D. Peterson, described her as conscien- 
tious, hardworking, and able to perform a real 
service to the world. 

10 MESSENGER 3-18-65 

Other Polish students having been at the MSU 
campus recently include Slawomir Pronczuk, 
twenty-seven, specializing in peas, lettuce, melons, 
and forage crops and planning to return to his 
work at the Polish Institute of Plant Improvement 
and Acclimatization, and Jan Caputa, thirty-two, 
who worked on advanced studies of fruit trees 
and who just recently returned to duties at the 
Institute of Pomology agricultural experiment 
station in southern Poland. 

Most of the 130 Polish exchangees thus far 
have been an exceedingly able lot. Usually they 
are on leave from fairly significant positions back 

University of Missouri research student Andrew 
Burkowicz was described by Prof. Robert N. 
Goodman, microbiologist, as "a most unusual 
personality, mature beyond his years, yet quite 

naive at times. There is no doubt in my mind 
that Andrew will be able to complete a rigorous 
curriculum for the Ph.D. degree." 

At Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., Prof. 
Robert H. Dunlop, pharmacologist, said of the 
Polish student assigned him: "Mrs. Barbara 
Stefaniak has settled into her new environment 
with remarkable adaptability. She has proved 
to be a very productive and careful scientist and 
a very popular and cheerful colleague." 

Dr. Michal Brzeski, an exchangee at the 
University of Massachusetts cranberry station at 
East Wareham, was commended by Prof. Bert M. 
Zuckerman for his valuable research contributions. 
"Brzeski's tenure here resulted in two tangible 
scientific achievements. One was the completion 
of a research project. The second was the trans- 
lation of fourteen Russian papers on nematology. 

^L** v?».-i*s-: - .- , , - , ^tf i£r &.■:■. ^ 

3-18-65 MESSENGER 11 

These will be reported in two pub- 
lications in the near future." 

Similar scientific advances were 
made by two other exchangees, also 
with the University of Massachu- 
setts, at the Waltham field station. 
They are Dr. Jan Kot and Dr. Jacek 
Dmoch. Their studies have cen- 
tered on the control and under- 
standing of resistance in the two- 
spotted spider mite, a serious pest 
of certain crops in Poland. 

On the various campuses the 
presence of the Polish students is 
felt personally as well as profession- 

Dr. G. F. Warren, professor of 
horticulture at Purdue University, 
Lafayette, Ind., speaks of past stu- 
dents and of the present exchangee. 
Tad Wojtaszek, when he says: 

"It is a real pleasure to see new 
fellows come from Poland with 
much apprehension and English 
that is not too good and watch them 
develop during their first few 
months in the United States. I am 
confident that they return home 
with a feeling of friendliness for 
the American people." 

When Dr. Z. Mirowski of north- 
ern Poland arrived in May 1962 at 
the Ohio agricultural experiment 
station at Wooster, the temperature 
went up to ninety and hovered 
there for three weeks, according to 
Prof. D. M. Van Doren, Jr., agron- 
omist. "Dr. Mirowski informed 
us later that if it had stayed hot he 
would have gone back to Poland. 

Joe Konopka (center) is the second Polish 
exchange student to be a guest of the 
Don Ullom family and to work in their 
feed mill at Wiley, Colo. The Ulloms 
visited a former student in Poland last 

We're glad he didn't." 

Since then the Wooster station 
has had two other exchangees, in- 
cluding Dr. Stanley Mercik, there 

The cultural adjustments of the 
Polish sometimes come at surprising 
points. Gerard Bakowski, who has 
been with Virginia Polytechnic In- 
stitute's fruit research laboratory at 
Winchester and its entomology de- 
partment at Blacksburg, has the 
highest praise for American fried 
chicken and frozen TV dinners. He 
takes different views, however, of 
the typical restaurant menu and the 
quality of bread in this country. 

Occasionally, matching the ex- 
changee to the task equal to his 
knowledge and experience is diffi- 
cult. In reference to Kazimierz 
Cebulak at the University of Illi- 
nois, Prof. B. A. Jones of agricul- 
tural engineering revealed that no 
staff vacancy was available for an 
engineer, and hence Mr. Cebulak 
was being used as a trained techni- 
cian. "We have been most happy 
with his work. . . . He has learned 
that we have the same basic desires 
and goals as anyone else, and no 
one has made a special point to 
convince him of this fact. In my 
opinion, this is the greatest contri- 
bution of the Church of the Breth- 
ren program." 

The other Polish visitors are 
widely scattered. At Iowa State 
University, Ames, Dr. Miroslaw 
Lapinski works on a com research 
program. A second student at 
Cornell, Mrs. Krystyna Karpowicz, 
determines the protein content of 
livestock feeds. At Muncie, Ind., 
Andrzej Pisula is assigned to the 
quality control department of the 
Marhoefer Packing Company, but 
has free range of the entire plant. 
At Westminster, Md., Kazimierz 
Zukowskv works with the Swissvale 
Dairy Farms. 

One Brethren family, the Ulloms 
of Wiley, Colo., have a second ex- 
changee living with them. He is 
"Little Joe" Konopka, a sturdy six- 

footer who works with the family's 
Valley Mill and Feed Company. 

The Ulloms endeavor to expose 
Konopka to as much of American 
life as possible. He was surprised, 
he said, on two counts — that 
Americans work so hard and that 
there was so much poverty in spite 
of the high standard of living. 

Konopka has much praise for the 
exchange program and for the 
church's sponsoring of it. His sepa- 
ration from his wife and two chil- 
dren, however, is much harder on 
him than he anticipated, and he 
feels the program should be for sin- 
gle students. 

Dr. Deran Makarian of the 
Michigan State faculty, feels that 
the program, dollar for dollar, is one 
of the best exchanges of its type. 
"Emerging nations do not need 
highly trained technical agricultur- 
ists — they need practical oriented 

The man responsible for keeping 
the program running effectively in 
Poland is Dr. S. A. Pieniazek, di- 
rector of the Institute of Pomology, 
former Cornell student who spent 
the war years in the United States 
and an ardent friend of Brethren 
since the church's relief work in 
Poland after World War II. 

Last summer D. L. Ullom visited 
a former exchangee whom his 
family had sponsored. In Poland 
the host, his wife, and two daugh- 
ters went all out to receive their 
American guests. "Everywhere 
Aleksander introduced us, the re- 
ception was the same: an over- 
whelming friendhness and gener- 
osity. Nothing was too good for 
us. We often had the impression 
that families were spending weeks 
of their salary just to be able to give 
us the kind of reception they 
thought was due." 

Purdue's Dr. G. F. Warren also 
visited some former exchangees in 
Poland. He said, "Certainly, this 
type of program is one of the finest 
ways of fostering international 
brotherhood." D 

12 MESSENGER 3-18-65 


you ask 

Did Jesus have brothers and sis- 

This question has been argued 
for centuries even though the 
scriptures seem rather clear in 
their references to other mem- 
bers of Jesus' family. When Jesus 
returned to his home country 
and began to teach in the syna- 
agogue, those who knew him 
were astonished at his wisdom 
and power and said, "Is not this 
the carpenter, the son of Mary 
and brother of James and Joses 
and Judas and Simon, and are 
not his sisters here with us?" 
(Mark 6:3. See also Matt. 13: 

The arguments about Jesus' 
brothers and sisters arise out of 
the Roman Catholic doctrine of 
the perpetual virginity of Mary. 
They hold that either the chil- 
dren named in the scriptures 
were the offspring of Joseph by 
a former marriage or were 
cousins of Jesus — the word 
brothers being used in a wide 
sense, meaning kinship. Al- 
though brother was occasionally 
used to refer to a more remote 
kinship than the literal meaning 
of the word, there is no real evi- 
dence that this is the case here. 
The word ordinarily used for 
cousin would certainly have been 
used if this were the intended 

The logical interpretation of 
the scripture is the simplest and 
most obvious. Jesus in his youth 
certainly must have lived in a 

normal family relationship with 
his brothers and sisters. There 
are no further references to 
Mary's husband, Joseph, after 
Jesus' childhood. 

James, the first named of the 
brothers, was probably the old- 
est, and became the leader of 
the church in Jerusalem (Gal. 
1:19; Acts 12:17; Acts 21:18). 
He is also believed to be the 
author of the epistle in the New 
Testament which bears his name. 

Should a pastor serve as the 
moderator of his own congrega- 

There is no definitive answer to 
this question because the circum- 
stances in each local church will 

In earlier years, when the pre- 
siding officer of the church had 
to be an ordained elder, it was 
quite common for churches to 
select their pastor, if he quali- 
fied, as their presiding elder. 
The total structure of congrega- 
tional organization was some- 
what different at that time, and 
it often suited the purposes of 
the church best to use the lead- 
ership of their own pastor in 
this role, rather than to call upon 
the services of an adjoining elder. 

Since the presiding officer of 
the congregation is now a mod- 
erator, and since this oflBce may 
be filled by an elder, a minister, 
or a layman, churches have in- 

creasingly tended to choose 
someone other than the pastor 
for this important role. There 
are many reasons for this. 

The Manual of Brotherhood 
Organization and Polity defines 
the duties of the moderator as 
follows. "The moderator of a 
local church should seek to be 
helpful to the pastor and to the 
church in every way he can. He 
should work cooperatively and 
carefully with the local church 
board in administering the 
church's program." 

It is obvious that a moderator 
can be of great assistance to the 
pastor in the work of the parish. 
This is especially true if the 
moderator is resident in the 

Many pastors are overbur- 
dened by the heavy administra- 
tive responsibility imposed by 
their parish duties. A resident 
moderator, who is capable and 
dedicated, can be of tremendous 
assistance to him in the organi- 
zational tasks of the church. He 
may also become an invaluable 
counselor and confidant for the 

Perhaps the best reason for 
choosing a moderator other than 
the pastor is so that the latter 
may be relieved from the neces- 
sity of presiding at congrega- 
tional meetings. The pastor is 
often freer to fulfill his role if he 
is not in the chair conducting the 
business of the church. 

There are undoubtedly some 
circumstances which still might 
clearly warrant the pastor's role 
as moderator as well. But, in- 
creasingly, churches are finding 
it helpful to choose a moderator 
who is not their pastor. 

5JC If you have a question you would like to have answered 
on this page, send it to Questions You Ask, Messenger, 
Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 
Replies to questions are written by Dr. Paul M. Robinson 

Are small children 

ready for baptism? 

INCREASINGLY, my conscience has been 
uneasy about the lowering of the age of 
baptism. In preaching missions I have often 
felt a part of a pressure complex designed to 
produce premature decision. 

In classes in Brethren thought on the 
college campus, I used to begin by requesting 
essays on personal history and religious ex- 
perience. To my chagrin, well over half of my 
students resented the time and circumstances 
of their own baptism. Some stated that they 
were baptized only because of the expecta- 
tions of and for the group. Others wrote that 
they affirmed a Christological faith which 
they no longer could accept. A few felt that 
it would have been better if their baptism 
could have come nearer to significant turning 
points in their lives at summer camps, con- 
ferences, and in the local church. 

There is a sizable minority, however, who 
defended their own baptism as authentic and 
an experience which pointed to a real change 
in their lives. Of this group there were some 
who acknowledged that their understanding 
was limited but who, nevertheless, regarded 
the beginning as significant. However, since 
nearly sixty percent resented their own bap- 
tism, I came to a new concern about our 

The early Brethren turned away from the 
pattern of Christianum Christi, the requirement 
that everyone in a political unit be a member 
of the same Christian church, and came to 
Corpus Christi, the principle that the body of 
Christ should be a gathering of those who 
voluntarily respond to the claims of Christ. 
In the first pattern, in which alt are baptized 
as infants and assumed to be Christian, there 
was not much incentive for evangelism and 
mission. But for those who felt that entry into 
the church followed belief and faith, tremen- 
dous impetus was given to the great com- 
mission. One was not born into the church 
but needed to be reborn. For this reason our 
fofefathers were forced to become mission- 
aries even to their own children. 

But in lowering the expectations for the 

age of baptism from the twenties of the early 
Brethren decades to the present junior high 
and even junior age group, we have psycho- 
logically moved toward infant baptism. The 
fear of some parents, that if their child does 
not join the church now he may not later, 
represents an evasion of the evangelistic task. 
We manipulate it to happen when it is the 
easiest. The anxiety of some of us may also 
stem from a belief that somehow the act of 
baptism will provide a magical insurance 
policy for those we love even apart from 
genuine faith. 

We move in this direction at the same time 
that many Christians in other communions are 
questioning the validity of infant baptism and 
are advocating an older age for confirmation. 
Many prophets are describing the church of 
the future as one which may be smaller in 
numbers but more committed. 

On the college campus I sometimes wished 
that many of our youth could be forced to 
decide whether they will spend their lives 
inside or outside of the Christian community 
apart from the security of a nominal member- 
ship status. Most of the live Christians I know 
are those who have experienced something 
vital as an adult, in many cases associated 
with their baptism. 

I do not propose to be legalistic about a 
specific age. It certainly may not be right to 
say no to a boy or girl who wants to say yes 
to Christ and his church. But I do feel we 
need to examine anew the ethos of expecta- 
tions which surround many parents, pastors, 
and our own church school curriculum. 

One of the interesting proposals I have 
encountered comes from my pastor. He sug- 
gests that it might be possible to have a special 
service for twelve- and thirteen-year-old youth, 
which would consist of an act of commitment 
to seriously examine the Christian faith and 
embark on a period of training. This might 
lead to Christian baptism at a later age. 

This entire matter deserves serious prayer 
and discussion as we consider anew ways for 
the Spirit to direct us to more meaningful 
membership in the body of Christ. We need 
a fresh examination of the text: "He who 
believes and is baptized will be saved ..." 

14 MESSENGER 3-18-65 


Children's TV fare: a meager diet 

In most American homes, television 
is a fact of life. In some, it is a way 
of life. What has the church to say on 
the quality of TV programs? 

Earlier this year in Toronto, seventy- 
five educators of Protestant, Catholic, 
Anglican, and Orthodox extraction 
came together with representatives of 
the television industry for religion's 
first Consultation on Children and 
Television. The group became most 
exercised about programing for this 
country's twenty-four million pre- 
schoolers, terming them television's 
most neglected audience. 

Behavioral psychologist Lester Beck 
of the Oregon state system of higher 
education declared that children in the 
one- to five-year-age bracket are far 
more receptive to factual knowledge 
than most grown-ups realize. And it 
is at this time that most ethical values 
must be inculcated. But, with a few 
notable exceptions, most child fare 
on TV represents a mishmash of non- 
sense programs, such as "crazy ani- 
mated cartoons." 

Watching "Bugs Bunny" is no way 
to acquaint children with rabbits, 
which in real life are far more exciting 
and interesting to a child. Dr. Beck 
said. "Captain Kangaroo" is a "pretty 
fair" program for children, but the 
huckstering commercials that usually 
go with it are something else again. 
Moreover, this character is far from 
the true image of the male adult that 

most little children seek to know. 

As to television's role in shaping a 
child's values. Dr. Eleanor Maccoby, 
director of Stanford University's Lab- 
oratory of Human Development, re- 
ported two research findings: 

• If a child becomes an addict to 
television, this is a dependable danger 
signal because there is a strong rela- 
tionship between such addiction and 
problems of interpersonal adjustment. 

• The effects of television in shap- 
ing values "are subject to be counter- 
acted and perhaps nullified altogether 
by teachings from the significant peo- 
ple in the child's life." 

In defense of the TV industry, Dr. 
F. B. Rainsberry of the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation quoted a 
British research group which asserted 
that TV does not induce anxiety pat- 
terns in children but may very well 
confirm some already established pat- 

He said the research indicated that 
it was not the violence or action which 
disturbs children but rather destructive 

aggression against characters for whom 
loyalty has been established. For ex- 
ample, threats to such figures as Lassie 
or fairy-tale heroes, he said, are po- 
tentially more disturbing than Western 
brawls, which the children see more as 
action than violence. 

One immediate outcome of the con- 
sultation was the lifting up of criteria 
for judging a good television program 
for children: 

1. It offers a rich variety of experi- 
ences that enable a child to see himself 
as a significant part of the total culture, 
the adult world. 

2. It transmits new, progressive 
ideas and prepares children to meet 
social change creatively. 

3. It helps children comprehend, 
assimilate, and respond positively to 
the world in which they live. 

4. It offers an opportunity for 
learning by discovery. 

Another recommendation was that 
the ethical implications of TV's pro- 
gram fare be regularly discussed by 
adult church school classes. 

R«al life 
is more 

3-18-65 MESSENGER 15 


Missions and the population spiral 

Mankind's greatest danger, next to nuclear war, 
may be the population explosion, Brethren have 
warned. What are their missions doing about it? 

In the clinic of Ecuadorian mission- 
ary Dr. John S. Horning waited three 
distressed women. They had come 
from the rural 'area and villages around 
Santo Domingo. Each was in her mid- 
thirties and had several living children 
— five, six, and seven, respectively. 
And each offered vague complaints of 
little energy, no appetite, occasional 

Dr. Horning could have guessed the 
diagnosis, but he proceeded with the 
examinations. What dismayed him 
most was the look of resignation, al- 
most despair, on the face of each 
woman as she learned of her condition. 
Each was again pregnant, two to three 
months. And each was still nursing 
her last baby. 

For one of the women, this was her 
twelfth pregnancy. "How can I go 
through this again?" she asked. One 
of the others said, "Doctor, isn't there 
something you can do? We don't have 
money or the energy to take care of 
another child," 

"What does one say," Dr. Homing 
thought to himself. "Tell them to come 
back when they are not pregnant and 
then I can help them?" 

Under the circumstances there was 
little more that the Church of the 
Brethren doctor could do. But to 
those who do seek guidance on family 
planning at the proper time, he can be 
helpful. And with "the arrival of 
Nurse Clara Rae Walters in Ecuador 

next month, family planning educa- 
tion will be stepped up. 

However, Ecuador is unique in one 
way: It does not yet suffer from over- 
population. This is true even though 
it and six other Latin American coun- 
tries registered more than four times 
the rate of the world population 
growth in 1950-62. In the long haul, 
of course, such a trend in a nation like 
Ecuador means that economic chaos 
inevitably will ensue as the population 
growth outstrips economic capabilities 
and development. 

IN INDIA, the situation is even 
more urgent. The rapid growth of 
population — likely to double the pres- 
ent 475 million by the end of the 
century — is perhaps the greatest prob- 
lem the country faces. Already the 
unchecked rate of growth has almost 
canceled out the progress achieved by 
a series of five-year plans. India's am- 
bassador to the United States, M. C. 
Chagla, a couple of years ago cited 
the population problem as "a more 
terrible sickness" than many of the 
ills with which science is presently 

"Cancer or malaria can only kill 
the body," he asserted. "When you 
have unwanted children . . . whom 
you cannot feed or clothe, you maim 
the soul. You leave a scar which . . . 
twists and distorts human personality." 

A concerned government in India 

has made genuine efforts to make fami- 
ly planning succeed. A typical mes- 
sage is found on a poster in a railway 
station. It depicts happy parents With 
two children and proclaims, "For a 
Happy and Prosperous Life: Family 
Planning." _ In December a Family 
Planning Week was heralded nation- 
ally. President Radhakrishnan then 
issued an appeal to recognize the 
"necessity" for birth control. Begin- 
ning next year the Indian government 
will treble its expeditures on birth 
control programs in a fourth five-year 
development plan. 

"But when one considers that the 
estimated number of couples who put 
into practice the advice given them is 
two percent, we see what we are up 
against," commented missionary Dr. 
Leonard E. Blickenstaff. 

One obstacle is the typical family 
image, which to the villager is five or 
six children and to the city resident, 
three or four, according to Dr. Blick- 
enstaff. "These ideas are in keeping 
with the traditional Hindu view of the 
ideal family in which the wife obeys 
implicitly every wish of her husband 
and bears him many sons." 

Aside from Roman Catholics there 
is no serious opposition to contra- 
ception on religious grounds in India, 
nor is there a false modesty on the 
matter, the missionary noted. But still, 
the results to date have been meager, 
and the population produces ten mil- 
lion new births a year. 

The Church of the Brethren Rural 
Service Center in India has trained its 
village workers in family planning 
theory and practice. The Brethren 
hospitals perform voluntary steriliza- 
tion operations on either men or 

16 MESSENGER 3-18-65 

women, though only after the entire 
family situation is assessed and the 
written consent of the marriage part- 
ner is obtained. The church organizes 
institutes and retreats for laymen at 
which family planning instruction is 
given. It also cooperates with the 
government and other family-related 
agencies in whatever ways possible. 

IN NIGERIA, Dr. Beryl R. McCann 
reports that in most of the Northern 
Region, where the Brethren serve, 
more work is done in helping couples 
have children than in helping to limit 
their families. 

"The infant and child mortality 
rates are still quite high, and the gen- 
eral populace has little interest in 
family planning," Dr. McCann indi- 
cated. "The regional government is 
Muslim and any type of contraceptive 
is foreign to their way of thinking so 
far as I can determine. 

"As the educational level rises, as 
more young mothers learn infant and 
child care, and as medical services 
improve, the present attitude will need 
to change. People living close to our 
hospitals are beginning to see difficulty 
in continuing to have child after child 
and then trying to see that each is 
educated. I think it will be the eco- 
nomic situation that will bring about 

A common problem everywhere has 
been the discovery of really accept- 
able birth control measures. Even the 
oral contraceptives require a degree of 
self-discipline, motivation, and sophis- 
tication which is not readily attained 
by the average villager. "What is 
needed," commented Dr. Blickenstaff, 
"is a simple, safe, inexpensive contra- 
ceptive that can be put into operation 
and thereafter needs no attention from 
either husband or wife." He sees the 
intrauterine device (I.U.D.) as being 
one such possibility. 

Since introducing it late in 1963, 
Dr. Horning has found the I.U.D. to 
be highly acceptable among Ecua- 
dorians. Earlier procedures were too 
cumbersome; time and again, he re- 
ported, couples would inquire and 
never return, finding the methods too 
complicated for the situation. 

The I.U.D. is a coil-like plastic ring 
inserted in the uterus by a physician 
and left in place until such a time as 
children are desired. It has been found 
to leave no ill effect upon health. It 
has had some use among Nigerians as 
in some thirty other countries. 

Another product is made available 
to medical missions through Inter- 
church Medical Assistance, a coopera- 
tive program of pharmaceutical houses 
and churches with its central depot at 
the Brethren Service Center at New 
Windsor, Md. The birth control prod- 
uct, an aerosol foam, has been ac- 
claimed by missionaries and others 
for its effective use even among the 
lowest income, least literate families. 

TION as carried out by Brethren mis- 
sionaries is consonant with a statement 
on Family Planning and Population 
Growth adopted last June by Annual 
Conference. "Parents in all lands 
need to have available the knowledge 
and means of planning the size of 
their families, of limiting the num- 
ber of children to those they can prop- 
erly care for, and of becoming more 
responsible parents," the statement 

The statement further urged action 
on a massive scale, pointing out that 
the greatest population increases gen- 
erally are occurring in developing 
countries least able to sustain them. 
"The greatest danger to mankind, next 
to nuclear war, may be the population 
explosion," the statement asserted. 

In almost the same tone and with 

similar words, a host of prominent 
persons in December sponsored an ad- 
vertisement in the New York Times, 
calling the population explosion as 
devastating a threat to world peace as 
nuclear warfare. 

Still more recently — late in Febru- 
ary — a new book, The Silent Explo- 
sion, by Philip Appleman, warned that 
the population threat is not a vague 
menace of the future; it is here and 

If the world continues to grow at 
the present rate for 600 years. Dr. 
Appleman maintains, there will be 
only one square yard of land per per- 
son, barring wholesale famine, disease, 
or war. He advances as the only posi- 
tive solution immediate action, without 
further hiding behind comforting illu- 
sions, be they religious, political, or 

President Johnson's brief referral 
to the population spiral in his State 
of the Union address — he said merely 
that it was the intention of the admin- 
istration "to seek new ways to use our 
knowledge to deal with the explosion 
in world population and the growing 
scarcity in world resources" — could 
turn out, in the view of the Washing- 
ton Post, to be "the single most im- 
portant passage in that fifty-minute 

How much Washington will apply 
itself to the world's population prob- 
lem is yet to be seen, but persons like 
Dr. Appleman see two good reasons 
for the United States leading out — 
on grounds of moral conscience as well 
as self-interest. 

Missionaries like Dr. Blickenstaff 
press particularly the point of moral 
conscience. "We cannot believe," he 
asserted, "that it is God's will that 
mankind overpopulate the earth and 
bring more suffering, which has al- 
ready reached alarming proportions, 
on his children." 


Hospital post 

John C. Eller, executive director of 
Bethany Brethren Hospitals, was in- 
stalled as president of the American 
Protestant Hospital 
Association at its 
forty-fourth annual 
convention in Chica- 

Eller began in 
1945 to serve Beth- 
any Hospital as 
chaplain. In 1952 
he was named administrator and in 
June 1964 executive director. 

The major portion of his responsi- 
bility now concerns the proposed new 
Bethany Brethren Hospital to be lo- 
cated at 39th and Highland in subur- 
ban Downers Grove. 

A native Virginian, Eller graduated 
from Bridgewater College, Bethany 
Theological Seminary, and North- 
western University. He and his wife 
and two sons are members of the York 
Center church. 

Eller also has been president of 
the Chicago Hospital Council, is one 
of its directors as well as a director of 
the Illinois Hospital Association, and 
serves on the Mayor's Committee on 
Human Rights, 

Workers together 

Collaboration between the World 
Council of Churches and the Roman 
Catholic Church will be studied by 
an unprecedented joint working group 
representing the two bodies. 

World Council policymakers — the 
100-member Central Committee — ap- 
proved the direction in January at 
their meeting in Nigeria. Parallel ac- 
tion is expected to follow from the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

Dr. Franklin Clark Fry, president 
of the Lutheran Church in America 
and Central Committee chairman, 
stopped short of calling the new joint 
group "a great milestone." 

"All of us are rather keeping our 
hopes in suspense," he said, calling 
attention to such still-pending de- 
cisions as religious liberty before the 
Vatican Council. 

What one newsmagazine termed the 
most critical decison to come before 
the sixteen-year-old WCC was the 
naming of a successor to Dr. Willem 
Visser 't Hooft, revered as the "omni- 
competent" general secretary and 
chief ecumenist. 

An earlier choice of the executive 
committee. Dr. Patrick C. Rodger, a 
Scottish Episcopal clergyman who 
heads the WCC's Faith and Order 
staff, was sidestepped by the Central 
Committee and a search begun for 
additional nominees. Reportedly, 
Rodger would have been a happy 

On choosing one's highest allegiance 

"I AM A Christian and I believe that Christ be- 
queathed to us the brotherhood of man and the 
Fatherhood of God. It is natural and good for man 
to belong to many groups, beginning with the family, 
the tribe, the region, the nation, and the international 
community. He owes allegiance to all. Nations, tribes, 
families, regions, the United Nations itself are good. 
"I am proud to be a Nigerian, proud of my fami- 
ly, tribe, region, and of my loyalty to the United 
Nations. There is, however, a much higher allegiance 
than all these — my allegiance as a Christian. None of 
these allegiances may be abused. A conflict with the 
highest allegiance — Christianity — must always be 
decided in favor of that." — Chief S. O. Adebo, Ni- 
geria's ambassador to United Nations. 

choice of Westerners but was less ac- 
ceptible to Orthodoxy and the younger 
churches of Asia and Africa, which re- 
sisted too hasty a change. 

Visser 't Hooft, sixty-four, willingly 
accepted extension of his term through 
next February's Central Committee 
session. In the meantime, a newly 
appointed nominating committee will 
check out new candidates for his 

Appropriately, the scripture, "Be- 
hold, I make all things new," was set 
as the theme of the fourth WCC As- 
sembly in 1968. The meeting place 
might possibly be "a city of Roman 
Catholic strength, of a distinctly 
friendly kind," Central Committee 
Chairman Fry noted. 

Growing edges 

Wenatchee, Wash. — Thirty - five 
years of regular radio broadcasting 
was marked here recently by the 
Wenatchee Valley Church of the 
Brethren. W. Earl Breon, who was 
pastor of the church when the broad- 
casts began, was guest speaker for the 

Dayton, Ohio — A second phase in 
a total commitment program has been 
launched by the Mack Memorial 
Church of the Brethren here. This 
phase, a financial one, proposes to 
raise $240,000 over the next three 
years in order to maintain the present 
operational budget, to make some 
improvements to present structures, 
and to enlarge the congregation's min- 
istry through increased benevolences. 

Elizabethtown, Pa. — Students from 
Elizabethtown College last month 
began to offer a training program for 
fourteen- to sixteen-year-olds in Har- 
risburg's inner city. Among the courses 
introduced: radio electronics, drama, 
wrestling, photography, music, and 
interpretive dance. 

New Windsor, Md. — The inter- 
national gift shop at the Brethren Serv- 
ice Center here soon will be duplicated 
in eight other Church World Service 
centers across the country. The shops 
market craft work from fifty church- 
related self-help projects overseas. 

18 MESSENGER 3-18-65 

Salk, service, 
shriek on Taiwan 

. . . to lessen 

the distresses 

of the 


In northern California, floods. In 
Ceylon, a cyclone. In Algeria, an 
earthquake. In all three scenes of dis- 
aster, Church World Service. 

Citizens of California towns, washed 
out by the worst floods in the state's 
history, had much in common with 
those made homeless in recent weeks 
in Ceylon and Algeria. To the Cali- 
fornia victims. Church World Service 
released 500 blankets from its stocks 
at the Brethren-operated CWS center 
in Modesto, for distribution through 
other agencies. 

To Ceylon was flown $50,000 worth 
of penicillin and other drugs. The 
cargo was taken in January from the 
stocks of International Medical As- 
sistance, the churches' centralized 
pool of medical supplies housed prin- 
cipally at the New Windsor, Md., 
Brethren Service Center. 

To M'Sila, Algeria, where quake 
victims were without housing, CWS 
in January flew in 138 tents, each to 
shelter twelve persons. 

These responses are typical of the 
yearlong assistance rendered by 
Church World Service, a vivid enact- 
ment of an aim once recorded by John 
Woolman in his Journal: 

... to make use of every opportuni- 
ty to lessen the distress of the af- 
flicted. . . . 

Ti Cong labors from early morning 
until sundown, carrying large rocks 

to build a dam and to wall up a canal. 
His is a full day of work. 

And his pay? Beans. Beans which 
Ti Cong looks upon as adequate com- 
pensation. For in his native Haiti, 
beans are a scarce and precious staple. 

The beans are provided by Protes- 
tant churches in the United States and 
distributed through Service Chretien 
d'Haiti as a food-for-work wage to 
those helping build an irrigation sys- 
tem. Ti Cong's own ten-acre plot in an 
arid section of Haiti, Cotes de Fer, will 
be watered by it. 

Generations of farmers like Ti Cong 
have fought a losing battle to grow 
maize, millet, beans, and sissal in low- 
yielding Cotes de Fer. The crushing 
blow came in 1963 when Hurricane 
Flora leveled homes and uprooted 
sparse crops in the area. 

With beans in the pot now and full 
crops in prospect for the future, Ti 
Cong does not see his rock-carrying 
task as work. It is a labor of love. 

A STITCH in time not only saves nine, 
according to an old adage; it also is 
one facet of a training program to 
which a Brethren minister, Theodore 
E. Kimmel, is related through Church 
World Service in Malagasy Republic, 
formerly the French overseas terri- 
tory of Madagascar. 

Teaching young girls to sew and 
preparing them for homemaking tasks 
are among programs offered by a "wel- 

come center" in Tananarive, the capi- 
tal city. Other projects include poul- 
try raising and gardening. 

On three recent occasions, Mr. Kim- 
mel channeled CWS materials to dis- 
aster scenes in the young republic. At 
Itamplo, several tons of shelled com 
were sent to combat a local famine; at 
Fort Camot, a village entirely de- 
stroyed by fire, rice and clothing were 
provided to 360 homeless persons; at 
Benamenvika, also struck by fire, 
CWS rushed in 100 tons of rice, coffee, 
and clothes. 

In Taiwan, where 171,000 children 
have been inoculated against polio 
... in Creece, where CWS tools 
ranging from hoes, rakes, and shovels 
to incubators, cattle sheds, and trac- 
tors, help villagers conquer a centuries- 
old battle for subsistence ... in 
Korea, where 334 refugee families 
built a dam and reservoir as a food- 
for-peace project and where they now 
plant CWS seeds ... in these and in 
some thirty other countries the Church 
of the Brethren, through Church 
World Service, engages in emergency 
relief and long-term rehabilitation. 

This is the why behind the churches' 
One Great Hour of Sharing appeal on 
Sunday, March 28, that together in 
the name of our Servant Lord we may 
seek — to make use of every opportu- 
nity to lessen the distresses of the 
afflicted. . . . 



3-18-65 MESSENGER 19 



on that initial test of 112 questions. At the half- 
way point — upon completion of the Old Testa- 
ment — and again at the end of the nine-week 
unit, we had full-period review tests. The test 
on the Old Testament consisted of 267 questions, 
of which some pupils got only 2 or 3 wrong. The 
average was 86.5 percent. 

Eleven weeks later, one class was given the 
same test again, without warning. The average 
performance showed only a sixteen percent loss 
in recall. For the 305 questions on the New Testa- 
ment, the average performance was 92.3 percent; 
2 pupils got them all — Cohen and O'Connell. 

Much to our satisfaction and surprise, not one 
complaint from a parent or other member of the 
public came to the school principal, the depart- 
ment head, or the teacher. It was surprising if 
only because ours is a large school that draws 
from widely differing backgrounds. A teacher 
comes to know his pupils fairly well in the course 
of a school year. I know that there were in my 
classes devout Catholics; Reform, Conservative, 
and Orthodox Jews; Protestants of several de- 
nominations; and nonbelievers from the listless 
to the atheistic. 

Those parents and clergymen from whom I 
heard, either directly or indirectly, were enthusi- 
astic about the children's new knowledge and 
their ability to use it. A few parents good- 
naturedly protested that they themselves were 
being forced to study the Bible more intensely 
than ever before; they either had to defend them- 
selves against the insufferable superiority of their 
more knowledgeable offspring or to help their 
children memorize what were becoming all-too- 
familiar quotations. 

The greatest source of satisfaction, of course, 
was the pupils themselves. Nearly every day some 
pupil made a discovery that he had to share with 
the teacher or the class. 

The Students' Views 

The pupils were given a chance to express 
themselves on paper. They wrote in class on 
the general topic, "Studying the Bible," though 
they were not limited to a discussion of our 

Wrote one: "I believe there is a difference 
between teaching and studying the Bible. To 
me, teaching the Bible means looking at it in a 
religious sense, while studying the Bible means 
looking at it as a part of literature. I feel that 
teaching the Bible should not be done in public 
schools, but studying the Bible should." The 
terms he uses are significant: He feels he is 
learning rather than being taught. 

And another: "Today especially, when the 
Bible — and whether to read it in schools — is 
seemingly forever in and out of courts in our 
country, how can a person form an intelligent 
opinion if he doesn't even know what is inside 
the covers? Since the laws of our land are based 
in part on those in scripture, doesn't it seem 
reasonable that it would profit a person to study 
the book (the Bible) that has had such an effect 
on our country?" 

Some told of their religious attitudes and initial 
reservations to our course on the Bible. "True, in 
class the principles of 'separation of church and 
state' and 'keep religion out of the public school' 
have been strictly adhered to. . . . Yet, in my 
biblical study, exposure of the pupil to theological 
doctrine is in my opinion both inevitable and 
valuable. . . . 

"Even the most unwilling student, having been 
thus exposed, would find it extremely difficult not 
to emerge with some idea of what the word 
Christian ideologically connotes. I do not con- 
demn this added knowledge; in fact, I greatly 
value it. I do not consider it necessary to discuss 
the merits for one living in the midst of a pre- 
dominantly Christian country to have some under- 
standing of Christianity. . . . Thus, this study for 
me has been two dimensional. It has helped me 
to feel at home both in and out of the library." 

Still others told stories that ranged widely in 
what they felt they had gained. "My mother is 
always quoting things she learned from her 
mother, and I can now answer her with one from 
the 'other side.' For instance, my sisters were 
quarreling; and my mother finally got mad when 
the fight came to blows, and she told the older 
one to 'turn the other cheek.' Immediately I 
jumped up and called out, 'An eye for an eye 
and a tooth for a tooth!" " D 

The article is adapted with permission from the English 
Journal, pubhshed by the National Council of Teachers 
of English, and Mr. Warshaw 

20 MESSENGER 3-18-65 

h Ota £,ee '^woeU 

5£e ^Work^ lor (^Uri^tlan ^^ity 

EARLY in the 1920s a young man confidently 
applied to a well-known university for a cur- 
riculum that would prepare him for church 
administration duties, only to be told that 
none existed. His counselors advised him to 
choose courses which together would give 
him what he needed. This J. Quinter Miller 
did, both at Boston University and Harvard. 

Although he might easily have become a 
college president or a dean, Quinter Miller, 
after he obtained his master's degree, ac- 
cepted an invitation to become city superin- 
tendent of religious education for the Cleve- 
land Church Federation. He felt that the Holy 
Spirit was leading him to this field. And thus 
began a unique contribution to the ecumenical 
movement in which Quinter Miller has served 
at local, state, and national levels. 

While in Cleveland, he helped in the 
merger of the city's federation of churches and 
its council of religious education, the first 
merger of its kind. 

In 1927 he was called back to Boston 
University as an assistant professor; he also 
served as a part-time teacher at Harvard. In 
1931 he received his Ph.D. in religious educa- 
tion at Yale University, writing his dissertation 
on the subject, "A Functional Theory of Com- 
munity Organization in Religious Education." 
This later appeared in book form, titled Com- 
munity Organization in Religious Education. 

Dr. Miller served for a year as executive 
secretary of the New Haven Council of 
Churches and from 1930 to 1940 was genePal 
secretary of the Connecticut Council of 

In 1940 he became associate general 
secretary of the Federal Council of Churches, 
with special concern for the Union churches 

J. Quinter Miller, associate general secre- 
tary for special services, National Council 
of Churches 

of the Canal Zone. The Federal Council of 
Churches was one of twelve interdenomina- 
tional agencies which merged in 1950 to form 
the National Council of Churches. 

Dr. Miller is now associate general secre- 
tary for special services. In this capacity he 
will act as executive secretary of the 1966 
General Assembly of the National Council of 
Churches. He is also interpreter of the 
National Council to its constituent communions 
through their judicatory meetings, and is 
executive officer of the British-American 
preachers exchange. He is a member of the 
National Board of the YMCA and a member of 
the board of governors of the USO. 

Dr. Miller is also president of the Church 
Executive Development Board, which is 
sponsoring an unusual three-week course for 
church executives, known as the Program on 
Church Executive Leadership, to be held 
August 15 to September 3, 1965, in coopera- 
tion with American University in Washington, 

The stated purpose of this course is "to 

provide opportunity for churcli executives to 
improve their ability to formulate goals and 
reach them, largely through the efforts of 
others; and satisfy the opinions of those whose 
judgments must be respected under condi- 
tions of stress." 

Dr. Miller adds: "The purpose of the pro- 
gram is to make available to the administrative 
leaders of the church the keenest insights 
which business and government, education 
and social workers, have discovered with 
regard to effective administration. All my life 
I have been aware of the lack of special 
preparation for church executive leaders, 
most of whom came into our field of service 
from other backgrounds. We now believe the 
executive skills widely understood in profes- 
sional and other related fields must be learned 
to strengthen the administrative leadership 
of the churches." 

In addition to the book on community 
organization. Dr. Miller is the author of Chris- 
tian Unity — Its Relevance to the Community, 
and editor of Growing Together — a Manual 
for Councils of Churches. 

Quinter Miller was born at Mt. Sidney, 
Virginia. He graduated from Bridgewater 
College in 1921. During his college years he 
was president of his senior class and a three- 
letter man in athletics. He was captain of the 
basketball team and college tennis champion. 

Miller stands among prized flowers in backyard garden 

While Dr. Miller has worked most of the 
time in interdenominational circles where 
there was no Church of the Brethren (except 
when he assisted as a founding member of a 
congregation in Cleveland), he has been a 
minister in the church for forty-four years, 
having been elected to the ministry by his 
home congregation. He is an elder in the 
Pleasant Valley Church of the Brethren at 
Weyers Cave, Virginia, carrying on a tradition 
which reaches back to his father, Samuel 
Daniel Miller; his grandfather, John Miller; 
great-grandfather, Peter Miller; and great- 
great-grandfather, Abraham Miller, all of whom 
were elders in the Church of the Brethren. 
He is the owner of the home farm, which has 
been in the Miller family since 1753. 

He was married in 1924 to Mae Hooker, 
who died November 19, 1945. They have a 
son, James Quinter, and a daughter, Lois 
Elaine. In 1947 he was married to Mrs. 
Maxine Semones, a former executive secre- 
tary of the Tulsa Council of Churches. Mrs. 
Miller is active in the work of councils of 
churches and councils of church women and 
the Disciples of Christ. 

Dr. Miller says that his and Mrs. Miller's 
twenty-five grandchildren are his chief hobby. 
He also enjoys playing golf, as well as working 
on a small farm which they own in Westchester 
County, New York, on which they grow their 
own fruit and vegetables. The people with 
whom he works are well acquainted with his 
ability as a gardener, judging from the mag- 
nificent flowers which he often brings to the 

When asked about his personal feelings 
about his work and the need for the kind of 
administrative role he carries, he expressed 
the belief that church administration is 
primarily concerned with human values. 

"All values center in persons," he stated. 
"The top criteria in administrative decision 
making must always be the effect the decision 
has on persons. Sensitivity training is, there- 
fore, an essential aspect of effective adminis- 
tration. Cooperative thinking, factual analysis, 
goal setting, periodic review and reevaluation, 
personnel standards, accounting — all these 
represent insights needful for effective church 
administration." n 

22 MESSENGER 3-18-65 

\v^ /J 

a devotional guide for the family 

IN SAM WALTER FOSS' poem, "How to Pray," several men were discussing 
positions for prayer. The deacon said the only proper way was to kneel. 
Pastor Wise favored standing straight, with outstretched arms and upturned 
eyes. Elder Shaw disagreed, preferring a bowed head and closed eyes. 
Dr. Hunt suggested hands clasped in front. A previously silent layman then 

"'Last year I fell in Hidgkin's well head 
first,' said Cyrus Brown. 
'With both my heels a-stickin' up, my 
head a-pinting down; 
An' I made a prayer right then an' there — 
best prayer I ever said. 
The prayingest prayer I ever prayed, 
A-standin' on my head!' " 
How should a finite being, man, approach the infinite God? What is 
prayer and why do men pray? Does God hear? 

MARCH 21-27 

Luke 11:1-10. We must take the initiative! God 
is "on call" night and day; never does he give us 
a "busy signal" (as we do to him!). 

Luke 18:9-14. "For every one who says: 'Speak, 
Lord, for thy servant heareth,' there are ten who 
say: 'Listen, Lord, for thy servant speaketh.' " 

Mark 11:22-26. The biggest obstacle to God's 
answering our prayers is our failure to pray with 
faith, believingly. 

Isa. 59:1-2; Ps. 139:23-24. "After sowing wild oats 
for six days, we go to church to pray for crop 
failure" ( Fred Allen ) . Sin separates us from God. 

Ps. 86:1-7. A helpful friend in need, God is more 
than a troubleshooter or a pinch hitter. God is 

Luke 1:46-55. Considering the blessings we re- 
ceive continually, we should pray, "Give us one 
thing more: a grateful heart." 


John 17:6-9, 13-21. "Prayer is a dialogue between 
two persons who love each other" (R. Rinker). 
God's love for us is beyond measure. 

Acts 12:5-17. God is able to do "far more abun- 
dantly than all that we ask or think" and often he 
does — to our skepticism and surprise! 

tMatt. 26:36-46. "The man who kneels to God 
can stand up to anything" (L. H. Evans). Is this 
a clue to the cause of our spiritual weakness? 

mmm John 14:13-15; 16:23-24. God answers every 
■■'' prayer by "Yes," "No," "Wait," or "Work." "With- 
out God, we cannot; without us, God will not" 
(St. Augustine). 

t James 5:13-18. Never underestimate the power 
of prayer! "I didn't see how on earth you could 
get well, but I prayed that you would." 

fHeb. 4:14-16; Phil. 4:6-7. God understands. Why 
struggle alone and worry when you can pray and 
have "peace beyond understanding"? 

1 Sam. 12:16-24. "Lord, help me live ... in such 
a self -forgetful way, that even when I kneel to 
pray, my prayer shall be for others." 

Ps. 55:16-17; 116:1-2. "Life is fragile; handle with 
prayer." To "pray without ceasing" is to permeate 
our moments from dawn to dusk with prayer. 


3-18-65 MESSENGER 23 

Planning for worship 

A picture, such as Durer's "Praying Hands," 
Enstrom's "Grace," Millet's "The Angelus," or 
one of many portraits of Christ in Gethsemane, 
could occupy center place on your worship 
center. If none of these is available, an older 
child could draw hands in prayer on black con- 
struction paper and paste this silhouette on a 
white or pastel-colored sheet. 

Practice variety in prayer, such as sentence 
prayers around the family circle, repeating prayers 
after a leader, memorized scripture prayers (such 
as Ps. 19:14 or Ps. 51:10), singing a prayer 
("Father, We Thank Thee," "Spirit of the Living 
God," "Lead Me, Lord," "For Health and 
Strength," etc.), using a litany from the hymnal 
or one someone in your family has written, unison 
prayers, silent meditations, and listening to re- 
corded hymns as calls to prayer. 

In the chapter entitled "In the Fellowship of 
Prayer," in Christ and the Fine Arts by Maus, 
there are pictures, poetry, stories, and hymns on 
prayer. Excellent prayers and prayer songs can 
be found in the booklets your children bring 
home from Sunday school. With teen-agers, 
Percy Hayward's Young People's Prayers (As- 
sociation Press, 1945) would be helpful. 

In addition to the wealth of hymns in the 
Prayer and Guidance section of The Brethren 
Hijmnal, you may wish to use "All Praise to Thee, 
My God, This Night" (49), "For the Beauty of 
the Earth" (92), "What a Friend We Have in 
Jesus" (483) and "I Would Be True" (308), 
stanza 3. 

Thinking together as families 

• Analyze familiar prayers. Give examples and 
discuss the purpose and importance of prayers of 
invocation, praise, thanksgiving, repentance, inter- 
cession, petition, consecration, and benediction. 

• Discover together the meaning of the Lord's 
Prayer, phrase by phrase. 

• Discuss how praying together strengthens ties 
among people. 

• Become aware of right and wrong ways to 
pray. For example, prayers to avoid would in- 
clude those that are: 

— Selfish ( "O Lord, give me more things" ) . 

— Self-centered ( "Bless me; make my side win" ) . 

— Indefinite ( "Heal all the sick, feed all the poor, 

bless everybody everywhere"). 

— Mechanical ( meaninglessly repeating words ) . 

— Ordering God ( "Do what I say; grant this 

request, as I know what's best for me"). 

— Lazy ( "You do it, Lord." "Help me pass this 

test without studying"). 

— Sermonizing ( said primarily to impress, inform, 

and to be heard by others). 

— Against nature's laws ( "Don't let this banana 

split make me fat"). 

— Involving God in your sin ( "Help me not to 

get caught"). 

— Empty promises ( "If you help me now, I'll obey 

and love you forever"). 

A Paeent's Prayer 
Our Father, 

We thank thee for the joys of being a family, 
For the love that binds us close, 
For healthy minds and bodies, 
For the understanding that exists when joys 
and troubles are shared. 

We know that we are not perfect parents, but 
we pray that we may be better parents. •'; 

Forgive Karen and Randy for the angry words 
they said this evening, and help them to for- 
give each other. 

Doreen is going to spend tomorrow night at 
Christy's house. May she be obedient to 
Christy's parents and not be selfish as they 
play or fearful at night, remembering you are 
with her wherever she is. 

Michael isn't feeling too well tonight. Lord, for 
his chicken pox are itchy. Help us to make 
him comfortable, so that he may rest well and 
recover more quickly. 

Tomorrow we shall be going to work, to school 
or remain at home. May we be kind, honest, 
and patient, striving to do our best, knowing 
that the only way some people learn to know 
Christ is by looking at the way we Hve. 

We thank you for your love and answered prayer. 
In Jesus' name, Amen. 

24 MESSENGER 3-18-65 


Christian faith 

meets the modern mind 

LITURGY COMING TO LIFE, by John A. T. Robinson. Westmin- 
ster, 1964. 109 pp., paper, $1.45 

CHRISTIAN MORALS TODAY, by John A. T. Robinson. Westmin- 
ster, 1964. 47 pp., paper, 65c 

THE MAN FOR OTHERS, by Erik Routley. Oxford, 1964. 128 
pp., paper, $1.50 

A TIME FOR CHRISTIAN CANDOR, by James A. Pike. Harper 
and Row, 1964. 160 pp., $3.50 

In the days when the New Testament was taking 
shape, the average person thought the world to 
be a three-story building. The lower floor was 
the abode of evil spirits. The middle floor was 
earth where people lived, and the top was heaven 
where the good spirits lived with God. The 
Christian concepts developed and taught reflected 
this world-view, which was the latest scientific 
knowledge available. 

The average high school student now knows 
the universe to be far more complex than a three- 
story building and we have abandoned this notion. 
But we have not abandoned the attempt to convey 
Christian concepts with an imagery dependent 
upon the first century's view of the world's 
nature. The Apostle Paul reflected the best 
scientific knowledge of his day but we have not 
followed his example. As a result, the Christian 
faith seems to more and more people to have 
less and less to do with life in the modern world. 

Christians must tackle the problem of rele- 
vancy. We must proclaim the concepts of 
Christianity so they are understandable to the 
modem mind. The above listed books are four 
of many currently available which endeavor to 

speak to those who have lost their faith as the 
result of expanding scientific information. 

Two of these volumes, Christian Morals Today 
and Litiirgij Coming to Life, are written by the 
British Bishop of Woolrich whose Honest to God 
caused quite a stir in 1963. In Honest to God 
the bishop speaks in favor of an understanding 
of God not dependent upon a spatial location for 
God and pleads that we mature beyond imagining 
God as some kind of "Super Being." 

Christian Morals Today is a series of lectures 
which both defend and amplify the chapter on 
morality written in Honest to God. In the series 
he advocates morality determined by love rather 
than by fixed laws and codes. 

Liturgy Coming to Life was written in 1960, 
before all the static caused by Honest to God. It 
is a series of short sermons on the meaning of 
holy communion and an account of an experiment 
in communion liturgy conducted when the bishop 
was dean of Clare College, Cambridge University. 
Many brethren will wonder what is unique about 
this experiment, for with all its modernization it 
still looks pretty "Episcopalian." 

The Man for Others wrestles with how we 
consider Jesus Christ in the new world. In spite 
of the sympathy it engendered in me it almost 
seems to say that the uniqueness of Jesus Christ 
is found in his self-sacrifice rather than that his 
self-sacrifice was the result of his uniqueness. 

Bishop Pike's book is different from the other 
three. Although they take strong positions that 
cannot help but attack many favorite notions, 
they have been written in a nonargumentative 
style. But Bishop Pike freely attacks those ideas 

by Floyd E. Bantz 

3-18-65 MESSENGER 25 

HAMILTON extraordinary preacher 

tackles an 
out-of-the-ordinary theme... 

"Serendipity" is the faculty of find- 
ing valuable things unexpectedly, 
while in search of something else. 
Columbus, Edison, Goodyear all 
made such finds, and J. Wallace 
Hamilton has spent 25 years on 
the trail of other illustrations in 
many fields of endeavor. In the 
realm of religion, above all, Dr. 
Hamilton shows that many of 
life's greatest treasures come as 
surprises, growing out of some- 
thing clse — Xht presence of the 
Spirit in the human heart. Pastor 
of Florida's famous, unusual 
"Drive-in" church, J. Wallace 
Hamilton ranges over the whole 
of human experience to plumb 
new spiritual depths in the idea of 
serendipity. Savs Bishop Gerald 
Kennedy : "Dr. Hamilton is one 
of my favorite preachers, and 
this book is one of his best . . . 
Seremlipity will not only minis- 
ter to countless laymen but it 
will also inspire countless 
preachers. What a preacher, 
what a title, what a book!" 


Other vrovoeative Hamilton hooks: 




Fleming H. Revell Company 


he feels to be outmoded. He does 
not show the depth revealed by the 

It is presumptuous for one not 
prepared by knowledge or talent to 
question these professionals, but 
reading their books gave me some 
uneasy feelings. 

The first is this; The people 
most able to understand the lan- 
guage of these authors are not as 
restricted in thought forms as the 
authors presume. They have long 
since realized that any word or 
phrase meant to speak of God is 
at best most inadequate. For them 
the authors seem to be prosaic, tilt- 
ing at windmills. On the other 
hand, the people who do need the 
provocation of these books will not 
understand the language the au- 
thors use to convey their ideas, let 
alone any new symbols for the con- 
cepts of Christianity. For them the 
books will seem to attack basic 
Christian doctrine. 

The other uneasiness stems from 
what appears to be a basic incon- 
sistency. This is especially apparent 
in Pike and Robinson. At the same 
time that they discard the old 
thought forms, they advocate the 
revival of many classical worship 
forms. These forms have a com- 
pelling attraction for many of us 
and should be revived, for they can 
speak to our time, but intellectual 
honesty requires the recognition 
that most of them originate from 
conditions and thought forms no 
more a part of our present culture 
than the three-story notion of the 
world. Why is not the same icono- 
clastic enthusiasm shown toward 
these worship forms as is shown 
toward the classical imagery of the 
Christian faith? Why must the lan- 
guage of concept be progressive 
and the language of worship con- 

Perhaps the antiquity of our 
language and forms provides us 
with opportunities we will not 
otherwise have. It may be that 
Christians will need to recognize 

their dependency upon an imagery 
descended from an abandoned 
world view and admit that no lan- 
guage, old or new, is wholly ade- 
quate. Then, in answering the 
question, "What do you mean by 
that?" we will be able to witness. 
In this process of interpretation we 
may be able to testify to the mod- 
ern mind of Christ's reality. 

AA. Starkey, Jr. Abingdon, 1964. 128 
pages, $1.50 

THIS small book attempts to pro- 
vide a readable and accurate sum- 
mary of gambling in the U.S. and to 
assess the question on a moral basis. 
A short history of gambling is pre- 
sented. The interrelationships of 
crime and the underworld are de- 
scribed. Many people need to be- 
come aware that their participation 
in seemingly innocuous forms of 
gambling helps to fill the coffers 
of the underworld tycoons. The 
close relationship between neuroti- 
cism and certain cultural patterns 
with gambling are assessed. 

All of tfiis is presented in light of 
the main concern: What is the role 
of the church and the Christian? 
Suggestions for a constructive pro- 
gram are offered. As a definitive 
statement of the problem of gam- 
bling, the book falls short. As a 
description of the issues and a read- 
able and thoughtful presentation, 
the book fills an important need. — 
Emmert F. Bittinger, Bridgewater, 

P. Barker. Fleming H. Revell, 1964. 160 
pages, $2.95 

THIS new book introduces us to 
Matthew, a onetime tax collector, 
arranging his materials in such a 
way as to present many views of the 
"same Jesus" — Jesus as teacher, as 
judge, as one who fulfills the Old 
Testament, who forgives sinners, 
who calls followers, who lays down 
his life, and as one who is raised 
and lives now. The author of the 

book points out accurately that the 
Jesus whom Matthew knew is not 
one like a king visiting the slums 
of his subjects, for, of course, a king 
never knew what it was to be a 
poor slum dweller. Matthew, ac- 
cording to our author, presents 
Jesus as God completely entering 
into all the conditions of human 
life. Here Jesus is shown as one 
who at times was hot, hungry, tired, 
as one who on occasions wept and 
was also joyous. 

A delightfully successful means 
has been brought into play by Dr. 
Barker to present the Gospel of 
Matthew in a new and fresh man- 
ner. The book is simply written, 
accurately interpreted, and chal- 
lengingly adapted to the reader's 
needs. — Milton Early, Ottumwa, 

MANY, Guenter Lewy. McGraw-Hill, 1964. 
416 pages, $7.50 

THERE were 326 German Roman 
Catholic priests in the Dachau con- 
centration camp when American 
troops reached it on April 26, 1945. 
That was one side of the story, that 
of the courageous few. The far 
larger side of the story is concen- 
trated on by Guenter Lewy, who, 
after incredibly wide-ranging re- 
search, traces how the German 
bishops and other Roman Catholic 
officials, and the Pope also, hardly 
ever spoke a strong direct word 
against the perversions and crimes 
of the Nazis, how they generally 
supported Nazi aims, exhorted their 
people to obedience (especially 
during the war), and reprimanded 
those who resisted the regime, how 
they never gave up on horsetrading 
with Hitler — their support if he 
would be a little easier on the insti- 
tutional church. 

Lewy makes it plain that rather 
than being the special offenders, 
"the German Catholics were part 
and parcel of a milieu that with few 
exceptions lacked a sufficient leav- 
ening of political sophistication and 

moral backbone to see through the 
patriotic shibboleths of the Hitler 

This distressing book is in a way 
the story of us all. Patriotic nation- 
alism pervades the churches in 
nearly all countries. This national- 
ism led the German churches and 
Christians to stomach even Nazism 
and go along with it. Maybe some 
future book will trace the then- ap- 
palling story of how nationalism, 
political unsophistication, and lack 
of moral backbone led American 
churches and Christians to stomach 
nuclear weapons and support the 
aiTns race straight to the end. — 
Dale Aukerman, West Alexandria. 

Abingdon, 1964, 160 pages. $2.75 

The author is editor-in-chief of 
Fleming H. Revell Company and 
wields a very able pen. Out of a 
long and versatile background he 
is here at his best in presenting six- 
teen persons of the Christian 
church, many of whom were re- 
garded as fools or heretics and were 
sometimes laughed at, sometimes 
thrown in jail. Some of these non- 
conformists are really little known, 
and so the light he sheds upon them 
is both useful and illuminating. 

All of these are persons who did 
not follow the conventional patterns 
of their day. They possessed one 
quality which seemed to be in all of 
them, a boundless enthusiasm 
which made a profound impression 
upon those who followed them. 

Some are little known person- 
ages, such as Simon Magus, Mar- 
cion, Montanus, Philip Neri, and 
Mather Byles. But there are also 
exceedingly helpful accounts of 
Martin Luther, Roger Williams, and 
William Booth. As for Booth, for 
instance, who of us has been aware 
that this person was a man whom 
nobody wanted? "His family did 
not want him, the church did not 
want him, the defenders of things 
as they were did not want him. 

We call it Christendom's 
most comprehensive com- 
mentary , , . you will too 




The most inclusive commentary of 
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vised Standard Versions; an Exe- 
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plus methods of using this tool in 

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the rich slandered him, the poor 
threw rocks at him, and the police 
clapped his followers in jail." Or 
that it was Catherine Mumford, 
whom he met at a tea in the home 
of Mr. Rabbits, and who was at- 
tracted to him by the lurid poem 
he recited that day, "The Grog 
Seller's Dream"; that she who be- 
came his devoted wife was the real 
secret of his power and success as 
a preacher and as founder of the 
Salvation Army? 

One is stirred by the dogged de- 
votion of these men and women, 
but is also irritated by some of 
their crudities and excesses. Never- 
theless, many of these were dissent- 
ers who helped bring reform in 
the Christian church at times when 
such correction was sorely needed. 
— Charles E. Zitnkel, Port Republic, 

3-18-65 MESSENGER 27 


■ • ■ • 



a man 

Ever since Ibsen we have had dramas which fall 
under the rather general category of "slice of 
life." "Nothing but a Man" might be termed a 
"slice of culture" Him, for it attempts to cut across 
Negro culture in the South in a realistic, rather 
than symbolic, manner. This reviewer is not able, 
on the basis of personal experience, to judge the 
accuracy of this conception, but if the newspaper 
and book reports of the past decade are even 
halfway tmie, this movie is quite accurate. 

The test of any realistic drama is whether the 
characters come through as real people or as 
stereotypes. The main character. Duff Anderson 
(Ivan Dixon), is very real as a young Negro at- 
tempting to discover his manhood. However, 
some of the supporting characters do run closer 
to stereotypes — for example, Duff's father-in-law, 
who is an "Uncle Tom" minister, and some of 
the white "red-necks." The fault in these charac- 
ters lies partly in the writing, partly in the acting, 
and it is unfortunate that they mar an otherwise 
true conception. 

Dulf is a railroad hand, footloose and smiling, 
yet somehow disturbed with himself and his 
world. He meets the minister's daughter, Josie 
(Abbey Lincoln), in a small town near Birming- 
ham. Despite his protestations of wanting to 
remain free, her different approach to life en- 
trances him, and they decide to marry. Duff 
quits the railroad against the advice of his friends. 
Once married he gets a job at a sawmill. Here 
a comment of the other Negroes about standing 
together leads him into trouble as a suspected 
union organizer. At the crucial moment when 
his white boss orders him to tell the others that 
he did not mean anything. Duff takes an im- 

portant step in becoming a man by quitting. 

Now the wheels of the culture begin to grind. 
Duff is blackballed from any other industry in 
the town. His father-in-law gets him a job at a 
filling station, but this, too, he loses by talking 
back to a customer. The only thing left is to 
pick cotton — something Duff cannot bring himself 
to do. Shpping farther and farther down, he 
pushes away his now pregnant wife and runs 
away to Birmingham to see his father, who is an 
alcoholic and who dies shortly after Duff arrives. 
In the realization that he is on the road to be- 
coming like his father. Duff returns to Josie and 
the possibility of becoming a man. 

The struggle of any human being to learn 
what it means to be a man in a culture which 
refuses to accept him as such in any way is perhaps 
an obvious theme. Yet, it is precisely this struggle 
and the accompanying pathos that is at the 
root of "civil rights" and "freedom now." In fact, 
this film could be said to be an exposition of the 
one line from the song, "Blowing in the Wind": 
"How many roads must a man walk down before 
they call him a man?" This theme is a significant 
one; this conception of it has integrity. It is thus 
unfortunate that the movie is marred by some 
inadequate minor characters and some of the 
acting. Mr. Dixon has a basic understanding of 
his character, but Miss Lincoln is wooden and 
unsure of herself, as are several of the other actors. 
As a movie "Nothing but a Man" is a further 
indication of the possibilities of good art coming 
from independent producers who are not afraid 
of tackling important themes. Hollywood is be- 
ginning to recognize what these possibilities can 
mean for the movie industry as a whole. 

28 MESSENGER 3-18-65 

by Dave Pomeroy 


Seventy-three churches added to Honor Roll of 
those now receiving MESSENGER in Every Home 

"Inspiring," "practical," "signifi- 
cant reading," "a great improvement." 
These words summarize what pastors 
and laymen are saying about Messen- 
ger in recent weeks, as letters have 
poured in since the appearance of new 
editorial features and a new format. 

Proof of the overwhelming approval 
and renewed interest in the magazine 
is the fact that dozens of pastors re- 
quested sample copies of Messenger 
and other literature to show to their 

Many churches discussed the pub- 
lication in council meetings and voted 
to adopt the Every Home Plan, with 

one copy of Messenger for every three 

At last count, over 4,500 new sub- 
scriptions have been received. 

Pastors and Messenger representa- 
tives are again urged to make full use 
of the various pieces of informational 
literature available, to secure the wid- 
est possible use of the magazine in 
their congregations. Every Messenger 
reader can also do his part to see that 
his own church is listed on the next 
report. What about your church? 

Here is the latest list of churches 
(as of February 10) now receiving this 
magazine on the Every Home Plan. 


Pacific Soutliwest (Californid) 

Cajon Valley 

Glendale, Ariz. 


La Verne 

Lindsay Community 

Live Oak 





Yuba City 

Bow Valley 


Florida, Georgia and 
Puerto Rico 

Clay County 


Pompano Beach, Morning Star 

Winter Park 
Idaho and Western Montana 

Northern Illinois and Wisconsin 


Chicago, Douglas Park 

Elgin, Highland Avenue 





Mount Morris 


Rice Lake, Wis. 

Yellow Creek 
Southern Illinois 

Allison Prairie 


Hurricane Creek 

La Motte Prairie 

La Place 



Walnut Grove 
Middle Indiana 

Bachelor Run 

Clear Creek 

Eel River 

Liberty Mills 

Lower Deer Creek 



Pleasant Dale 

Pleasant View 


South Whitley 

Spring Creek 

Llpper Deer Creek 

West Eel River 

West Manchester 
Northern Indiana 



Camp Creek 

Cedar Creek 

Cedar Lake 

Elkhart City 

Florence, Mich. 

Fort Wayne, Beacon Heights 

Fort Wayne, Lincolnshire 

Goshen City 

Little Pine 

Maple Grove 

Mount Pleasant 

New Paris 

North Liberty 

North Winona 


Pine Creek 

Pleasant Chapel 

Pleasant Hill 


South Bend, Prince of Peace 

South Bend, Second 

Turkey Creek 


Union Center 



West Goshen 

Yellow Creek 
Southern Indiana 

Four Mile 

Jeffersonville, New Haven 


Locust Grove 

Maple \5rove 

Nettle Creek 

New Hope 


Iowa and Minnesota 



Cedar Rapids 


Dallas Center 

Des Moines Stover Memorial 

Des Moines Valley 

English River 



Grandview, Mont. 


Iowa River 



Milk River Valley, Mont. 

Minneapolis, Golden Valley, Minn. 


Panther Creek 

Root River, Minn. 



Surrey, N. Dak. 

Kansas and Nebraska 

Conway Springs 

Enders, Nebr. 


Gravel Hill 

Kansas City, Cherokee Hills 

Kansas City, First Central 

Lone Star 



Maple Grove 


Mont Ida 




Pleasant View 

Prairie View 


South Beatrice, Nebr. 

Topeka, Rochester Community 




Easton, Peach Blossom 

Elkton, Immanuel 


Eastern Maryland 

Baltimore, North 

Kensington, Good Shepherd 

Locust Grove 

Thurmont, Blue Ridge 

Union Bridge 

University Park 
Middle Maryland 
Western Maryland 

La Vale Community 

Maple Grove 


Battle Creek 




Grand Rapids, First 


Lake View 




Sugar Ridge 





Kansas City, Messiah 


Turkey Creek 
Southern Missouri and Arkansas 

Mountain Grove 

3-18-65 MESSENGER 29 

Peace Valley 

Springfield, Good Shepherd 
North and South Carolina 

Pleasant Grove 

Northern Ohio 

Ashland, Dickey 

Black River 


Eagle Creek 

East Chippewa 



Lick Creek 


Maple Grove 


Pleasant View 



Wooster, Christ 

Zion Hill 
Southern Ohio 

Beech Grove 


Cedar Grove 


Dayton, Mack Memorial 

Donnels Creek 



Happy Corner 

New Carlisle 


Painter Creek 




West Alexandria 

West Charleston 

Big Creek 


Waka, Texas 

Myrtle Point 
Eastern Pennsylvania 




Big Swatara 



Conestoga, Bareville 

Conestoga, West 

Conewago, Bachman\ 

East Petersburg 




Harrisburg, First 



Indian Creek 

Lake Ridge, N.Y. 


Mechanic Grove 









Springville, Mohlers 

Swatara Hill 

White Oak 
Middle Pennsylvania 

Alfoona, 28th Street 



Huntingdon, Stone 

James Creek 

Lower Claar 

New Enterprise 

Roaring Spring 

North Atlantic, Pennsylvania 



Southern Pennsylvania 



New Fairview 

Pleasant View 



Sugar Valley 


York, First 
Western Pennsylvania 






Johnstown, Westmont 

Middle Creek 

Perin Run 

Pike Run (Middle Creek) 


Plum Creek 

Scalp Level 

Bristol, First 


Meadow Branch 
Texas and Louisiana 

Roanoke, La. 
Eastern Virginia 

Alexandria fellowship 




First Virginia 

Roanoke, First 

Roanoke, Williamson Road 
Northern Virginia 
Second Virginia 

Beaver Creek 


Elk Run 


Pleasant Valley 

White Hill 
Southern Virginia 



Danville fellowship 

Germantown, Brick 

Wenatchee Valley 

First West Virginia 

Maple Spring (Eglon) 
Second West Virginia 

Mount Zion 

Pleasant Hill 


Ti Cong (story, page 19) lives in Haiti. He 
could be from most anywhere in the world. He 
is a subsistence fanner, as were his fathers for 
generations. But unlike his fathers, Ti Cong 
looks to the future with hope. Soon his 
parched land will be irrigated and become pro- 
ductive. Through his labors he has earned food 
for his family of eight. The people of his 
region, as in thirty-five other countries of the 
world, enter into an era of new expectations 
because of your sharing through . . . 









(Please clip this form and enclose with your contribution. Send to: 
General Brotherhood Board, Church of the Brethren, Elgin, ill. 60120.) 

30 MESSENGER 3-18-65 



CBS-Radio on Feb. 18 launched a new weekly 
half-hour series of programs exploring de- 
velopments, trends, and events in religious 
life. Entitled the World of Religion, the pro- 
gram includes news reports, interviews with 
religious leaders and documentaries. . . . The 
eleven o'clock Sunday worship services of the 
Prince of Peace church in Denver, Colo., will 
go on the air on radio KLZ during the month 
of April. . . . S. L. Barnhart, pastor of the 
San Francisco church, Calif., is speaking each 
Sunday morning during March and April 
at 8:15 a.m. on the Faith and Life series of 
station KCBS. 


Dr. Paul Tournier, noted European physician, 
psychotherapist, and author, will be the visit- 
ing lecturer at the sixteenth annual Institute 
on th^ Ministry to the Sick, April 26-28, at 
The Johns Hopkins hospital, Baltimore, Md. 
Persons desiring further information should 
write to Chaplain Clyde R. Shallenberger, The 
Johns Hopkins Hospital, 601 N. Broadway, 
Baltimore, Md. 21205. . . . Persons traveling 
in Europe this summer may be interested in 
attending the German Evangelical Church's 
Kirchentag program at Cologne, July 28 — 
Aug. 1. For more information regarding 
Church of the Brethren representation, write 
to the General Secretary, General Brother- 
hood Board, Church of the Brethren Offices, 
Elgin, 111. 60120. ... The five-year Mt. 
Morris College reunion is scheduled for Sun- 
day, July 18, at the Mt. Morris church, begin- 
ning with a basket dinner at noon. 


Mrs. Joy Staples, 435 W. Sixty-first St., Kansas 
City, Mo., is interested in buying (or, if nec- 
essary, borrowing) a legible secondhand copy 
of the original Inglenook Cookbook, pub- 
lished in 1900. Write to her at the above 
address. ... A dairy farmer in Pennsylvania 
needs a married couple to help in his dairy 
program. Write to Paul Burd, R. 2, Box 21, 
Uniontown, Pa. . . . Revised dates for the 
European tour sponsored by La Verne College 
are June 20 to July 23. The leader is Miss 
Delia Lehman, 2909 Arrow Highway, La 
Verne, Calif. 

Godfrey, Jacob S., Dallastown, Pa., on Oct. 

18, 1964, aged 87 
Nininger, John A., Nickerson, Kansas, aged 

Ober, Daisy M., Mt. Gretna, Pa., on March 6, 

1964, aged 71 
Roudabush, Samuel J., Sparta, Mich., on Nov. 

1, 1964, aged 80 
Seitsinger, A. Ross, South English, Iowa, on 

Dec. 14, 1964, aged 85 
Shenk, Katie L., Neffsville, Pa., on April 30, 

1964, aged 75 
Shenk, Tillman, Lancaster, Pa., on Feb. 21, 

1964, aged 86 
Simmons, Cora O., Bridgewater, Va., on Nov. 

3, 1964, aged 82 

Sollenberger, Lester W., Pleasant Hill, Ohio, 

aged 86 
Stine, Geneta M., Lewistown, Pa., on Dec. 1, 

1964, aged 67 
Transue, Lewis E., Quinter, Kansas, on Dec. 

4, 1964, aged 48 

Wampler, Byron J., Sidney, Va., on Dec. 1, 

1964, aged 66 
Yeatter, Emma B., Lewistown, Pa., on Nov. 

13, 1964, aged 78 
Young, S. L., North Manchester, Ind., on Dec. 

15, 1964, aged 86 

Zug, Isaac, East Petersburg, Pa., on March 

16, 1964, aged 81 


Harvey Hostetler, a retired pastor, died of a 
heart attack on Jan. 29, at his home in La 
Verne, Calif. ... A member of the Cabool 
church. Mo., Mrs. Mary Adkins, received 
recognition for her community service at the 
community awards banquet. . . . Raymond 
R. Peters, prior to becoming pastor of the 
Manchester church, Ind., will be pastor-in- 
residence during the fall quarter at Bethany 
Theological Seminary. He will do some teach- 
ing and live on campus. . . . Wayne Zunkel, 
pastor of First church, Harrisburg, Pa., was 
elected 1965 president of the United 
Churches of Greater Harrisburg at its annual 

Leiand Wilson, director of interpretation, is 
among the contributors to Stewardship Facts, 
1965-66. His article, "Motives for Giving," 
is a condensation of a March LEADER article. 
. . . Moderator A. StaufFer Curry represented 
the Church of the Brethren at the installation 
services of Bishop John Elbridge Hines as the 

head of the three-and-one-half-million-member 
Episcopal Church in the United States. The 
service was held at the Washington Cathedral. 
... On Jan. 24 the Muncie church, Ind., 
licensed Eli Jackson to the ministry. . . . 
Edward K. Ziegler, pastor of the Oakton 
church, Va., has been elected president of 
the Fairfax County Division of the Council 
of Churches of Greater Washington. This 
division is also affiliated with the Virginia 
Council of Churches. ... A new member 
has been appointed to the McPherson College 
faculty for the 1965-66 school year; Jan van 
Asselt of Berkeley, Calif., will be associate 
professor of languages. A native of Vorden, 
The Netherlands, Mr. van Asselt has been in 
the United States since 1955. 

Golden wedding anniversaries have recent- 
ly been observed by Mr. and Mrs. Lewis 
Sink of Minneapolis, Minn.; Mr. and Mrs. 
John Adams and Mr. and Mrs. Minor Kiracofe, 
both of Lima, Ohio; Mr. and Mrs. E. Zimmer- 
man of York Center, 111.; and Mr. and Mrs. 
Emmerson Broadwater of Preston, Minn. Mr. 
and Mrs. Floyd Broadwater, also of Preston, 
celebrated their fifty-fifth anniversary; Elder 
and Mrs. J. B. Peters of Roanoke, Va., marked 
their sixtieth anniversary in October. 


Several pastoral changes have occurred 
since the last published report and since 
the Yearbook was compiled. Those that 
are known to the Elgin office include: Claude 
Sumner (interim), Chippewa Valley church. 
Wis.; William C. Crumley, 721 N. Sycamore 
St., North Manchester, Ind. (interim). Lower 
Deer Creek; Mrs. Allen C. Deeter, 313 N. Mill 
St., North Manchester, Ind., (director of Chris- 
tian education), Manchester; R. Earl Zimmer- 
man, R. 2, North Manchester, Ind. (interim), 
Bachelor Run; Mrs. Robert Sampson, 1132 
Congress Ave., South Bend, Ind. (director of 
religious education). South Bend, Crest Manor; 
Wendell Carmichael, R. 1, Mooreland, Ind. 
(interim). Buck Creek; Monroe C. Good, 113 
Kentway, Baltimore, Md. (interim), Baltimore, 
Dundalk; Earl M. Zigler, V^. Main St., Burkitts- 
ville, Md. (interim). Pleasant View; James A. 
Semones, 1220 Dale Ave., S.E., Roanoke, Va., 


Clapper, J. Blair, Everett, Pa., on Dec. 12, 

1964, aged 64 
Dallasega, Sebastiano, Everett, Pa., on Jan. 

19, 1965, aged 87 
Eby, Katie B., North Manchester, Ind., on 

Dec. 13, 1964, aged 94 
Engles, Clifford, Lanark, III., on Jan. 16, 1965, 

aged 76 
Disinger, Edward, Rossville, Ind., on Jan. 17, 


March 21 Camp Fire Girls Sunday 

March 28 One Great Hour of Sharing 

April 1 1 Palm Sunday 

April 16 Good Friday 

April 18 Easter 

April 25 National Christian College Day 

April 25 - May 1 Mental Health Week 

May 2-9 Christian Family Week 

May 3-5 District Leaders' Conference 

May 7 May Fellowship Day 

May 9 Festival of the Christian Home (Mother's Day) 

May 23 Rural Life Sunday 

3-18-65 MESSENGER 31 


Christian missions 
on a two-way street 

The director of the Peace Corps, R. Sargent 
Shriver, Jr., recently suggested that it is about 
time to experiment with a "reverse Peace 
Corps." The idea would be something like 
this: Let Argentina, for example, send 100 of 
its young persons to the United States to 
teach Spanish in Chicago high schools. Mr. 
Shriver thinks that not only would Chicago 
students learn Spanish; a benefit to the South 
Americans would be their opportunity to 
learn about the United States at firsthand and 
to discover that the Latin American image of 
this country is false and misleading. 

Since Peace Corps efforts are often com- 
pared with the long-established mission of the 
churches in sending Christian workers abroad, 
we got to thinking about the possibility of 
"foreign missions in reverse." Already this 
has happened in a few isolated instances. 
Some Christian leaders from abroad have 
visited our churches, a few students have 
come from overseas churches to study here, 
and occasionally we have a national delegate 
from India or Nigeria to represent his district 
on Standing Committee. And so far as our 
Brethren Volunteer Service program is con- 
cerned, it already encourages the two-way 
traffic that Mr. Shriver proposes. 

However, most of us still think of missions 
in terms of a one-way street. We regard our 
faith as exportable, we consider ourselves 
abundantly blessed with resources to share 
with the less fortunate, and we tend to look 
upon the "receiving" church as being in 
greater need than the "sending" church. But 
is it? 

Why should we not begin soon to ask our 
overseas churches to send missionaries, or 
"fraternal workers" if that is a better term, to 
minister in our communities and to work side 
by side with us? Perhaps only a few could 
com3 within a short time, but others might be 
sent later, until each year there would be fifty 

or more dedicated Christians from Ecuador, 
Nigeria, and India, available for service here. 
Not only for their education and training but 
primarily for what these persons could do for 
us, we ought to find some way of financing 
the missionary vocation on a two-way basis. 
And some part of the financing should come 
from overseas. 

Maybe the idea is premature, but it seems 
to us to have some merit. Among the values 
we see would be the following: 

1. We would need to face up to the actual- 
ities of our own spiritual poverty in the home 
church. If statistics mean anything, we must 
confess that either we lack the zeal or the zest 
or the power of the Spirit needed to win men 
to Christ here, while in at least some areas 
overseas the church is experiencing growth. 
But even more desperate is our satisfaction 
with a sub-Christian way of life that has taken 
on the color of our national surroundings. That 
is why what we do as Christians in this 
country — in race relations, in stewardship, in 
our private and public morals — falls so far 
short of the principles that we expect our 
missionaries to teach to new converts abroad. 

2. If missions were reversed, the repre- 
sentatives who came to us from overseas 
would soon learn that Americans are neither 
as godlike as some have pictured us or as 
Satanic as our detractors would paint us. It 
is possible that the younger churches, after 
having some direct experience of our own 
spiritual wastelands, might be disillusioned, 
but then they might also take heart, sensing 
that we, like them, are desperately in need of 
the healing grace of our God. 

3. It would certainly be wholesome for our 
churches abroad to become more aware of 
their place in the total world mission of the 
church. They could experience the joy of 
sharing their faith with persons living far from 
them. This would surely not limit their ministry 
to areas of need nearby. And, what is most 
important to all, we might all be led to discover 
a mission as vast as God's great redemptive 
love for all men wherever they live on this 
shrinking planet. — K.M. 

32 MESSENGER 3-18-65 

the nursery child — the gospel 

As wonderfully imaginative parables of our times, 
the PEANUTS cartoons hold many surprising lessons. 
You are in for more surprises when you read these 
two new books. 

The Gospel According to Peanuts Robert l. short 

Mr. Short interprets the comic strip's prophetic meaning from a theological perspective 
and highlights the remarks with selected cartoons. The result: a unique handbook 
of the Christian faith, illustrated with PEANUTS. $1.50 

Two-By-Fours Charles M. Schuiz and Kenneth F. Hall 

Here is a popular explanation of the nursery age child, from infancy to the four-year- 
old, in relation to the church's ministry for him. The book discusses the small child 
himself, his family, other people, and the church. The cartoons are typical Schuiz 
humor with his "children" making adult-style commentary on the small child's situa- 
tion. The text attempts also, in rather lighthearted fashion, to launch an open-end dis- 
cussion of the nature, needs, and relationships of the child within the context of the 
Christian community. $1.00 




WE STUDY THE BIBLE IN HIGH SCHOOL, an account of how one high 
school teaches the Bible as literature, written by the man who began the 
project, Thayer S. Warshaw. page 2 

INHERITING A REVOLLJTION. a church, doing business as usual, might 
have gotten by in ordinary times. But the church today faces a revolutionary 
age. by Walter Bowman, page 6 

OUR GUESTS, THE POLISH include twenty agricultural students engaged 
in study and research in a Brethren-sponsored exchange program, page 10 

MISSIONS AND THE POPULATION SPIRAL, a special report, tells how 
missionary doctors view problems of family planning in Ecuador, India, and 
Nigeria, page 16 

HE WORKS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY, the story of J. Quinter Miller's 
contribution to the ecumenical movement at local, state and national levels. 
by Ota Lee Russell, page 21 

OTHER FEATURES include a summary of the church's response to human 
need (One Great Hour), the moderator's dreams for the church, a seminary 
professor's concern over too early an age for baptism, and an editorial 
proposal for "missions in reverse." 


Martin Marty reviews the contribution of Dietrich Bonhoeffer twenty years 
after his death at the hand of the Nazis. . . . Anne Albright tells what happens 
to persons who become involved in the Mission 12 experience. ... A dozen 
or more ministers' wives give their answers to the question, "Marry a 
Minister?." . . . David Wieand examines the first volumes to appear of the 
Anchor Bible. 

VOL. 114 NO. 



■ifi^e of Visitation 

^j^#ers©ns With a Purpose 
v"^ ■ Marry a Minister? 



:> •• vSt?^^ 

-rfV/ . < 




In the MESSENGER of thirty to sev- 
enty years ago we got more spiritual 
uplift than we do in articles now ap- 
pearing in the paper by the better 
writers of learning, which are too in- 
tellectual for us common people with- 
out much education to understand. I 
have been a reader of the GM or its 
ancestors for eighty years. 

S. A. Shoemaker 
Wenatchee, Wash. 


As to church unity — does unity 
mean conformity? ... If Brethren 
have a self-accepted status, what does 
it profit them to discard it and take 
on that of another denomination? 
How far does status get you into or 
out of the kingdom of God? 

If the future of our church is in 
jeopardy, if we have not grown or 
even held our own, isn't it because 
we have failed to teach what we be- 
lieve and why we believe it? Isn't 
this due to the fact that instead of 
being smug, self-satisfied, proud of 
our differences, we have in reality 
been ashamed and afraid to take a 
stand for our faith? . . . 

There is a true way of achieving 
unity — conversion. This is needed 
not only in the Brethren church, but 
also in all other denominations as 
well. Let's get our boards, our com- 
mittees, our finances, ourselves work- 
ing on this. Then we shall have unity, 
a spiritual unity, the only unity for 
which Christ prayed. 

Pearl Dildine Weaver 
Edwardsville, Illinois 


Do you get the picture? People on 
their way to jail stop to kneel on the 
sidewalk to pray. If that sidewalk 
fronts our house, what do we hear 
them say? If we kneel beside them, 
what do they hear us say? Are we all 
praying, one for the other? Does God 

who knows our hearts hear us saying, 
"I am glad I am not as other men"? 
Or does he hear us praying, "God, be 
merciful to me a sinner"? "For out 
of the abundance of the heart the 
mouth speaks" (Matt. 12:34). 

Edwin Groff 
Lindsay, Calif. 


At a recent meeting of the board 
of Christian education of the Arlington 
(Virginia) Church of the Brethren, 
we voted unanimously to send a 
letter to you commending you and 
your staff for the wonderful work 
you have done in developing our new 
church publication entitled messen- 
ger. Each issue has been really 
packed with good solid articles in an 
e.xciting and lively format. 

I hope the change in publication 
policy for our main periodical will 
foretell a decided change in other 
aspects of our church work that need 
this kind of lively ongoing and forward 
looking format. 

Carl McDaniels 
Arlington, Va. 


"The World Council of Churches 
asked the Roman Catholic Church 
Tuesday night (Jan. 19, 1965) to join 
it in formal discussion of church 
unity," reads a quote from our local 
paper datelined Enugu, Nigeria. 

As a former Roman Catholic this 
announcement for discussing "unity" 
is quite interesting to me. I could 
envision a discussion on "union" but 
"unity" leaves me cold and clammy. 
I renounced my loyalty to the self- 
styled or elected "vicar of Christ" 
in order that I could practice freely 
my allegiance to the person of the 
Lord Jesus Christ. I am wondering 
about the new theology involved in 
the proposed "formal discussion of 
church unity." 

We are answering the age-old ques- 
tion these days as raised by the 
Prophet Amos (3:3): "Can two walk 
together, except they be agreed?" 

These days we seek solutions to 
our theological problems through 
committees who devise answers total- 
ly apart from biblical authority many 
times. Particularly is this true when 
the course we plan to follow is 
not in harmony with scripture injunc- 
tion. Committees become convenient 
"scapegoats" when Bible authority 
needs to be bypassed in order to as- 
sure philosophically oriented plans 
for progress. 

I remember some of our leaders 
saying . . . that the World Council of 
Churches does not ever intend to be- 
come a superchurch. Well, they may 
not call it by that label but the end 
product could merit the label. 

Will the Church of the Brethren 
continue its affiliation with a body 
that refutes in so many ways what the 
Reformation promoted and the found- 
ers of the Church of the Brethren sup- 

Stephen G. Margush 
Maitland, Pa. 


After reading the question and re- 
ply ( Feb. 4 ) concerning the anointing 
of infants and unconscious persons I 
checked up on it in the Greek editions 
and the lexicons. I find that the word 
traditionally translated "let him call" 
should be "you call to him." . . . 

We should always remember that 
Jesus frequently healed those who 
could not ask for themselves and 
sometimes at long distance, such as 
the nobleman's son. Jesus has prom- 
ised us that we also should do even 
greater things. Why don't we put this 
power to work more? We can always 
use the gospels to help us properly 
interpret the letters. That is, we can 
look to see how Jesus did it. Perhaps 
we are afraid that the physicians and 
morticians will starve if we take Jesus 

James tells us that it is the prayer 
of faith that saves the sick. He does 
not say that it has to be the sick per- 
son who does the praying. 

Harley J. Utter 
Wichita, Kansas 

MESSENGER, Vol. 114, No. 7. April 1, 1965, publi- 
cation of the Church of the Brethren continuing "The 
Gospel Messenger" 

Editor: Kenneth I. Morse 
Managing Editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh 
Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Weigle 
Director of Nev^s Service: Howard E. Royer 

MESSENGER, official publication of the Church of the Brethren, is 
owned and published every other week by the General Brotherhood 
Board -Church of the Brethren, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120, 
Norman J. Baugher, general secretary. Editor, Kenneth I. Morse; 
managing editor, Wilbur E. Brumbaugh; editorial assistant, Elizabeth 
Weigle. Filing date, Oct. 1, 1963. Entered as second-class matter Aug. 
20, 1918, under Act of Congress of Oct. 17, 1917. Second-class postage 
paid at Elgin, III. 

MESSENGER it copyright 1965 by the General Brotherhood Board, 
Church •f th« Brethren. 

Several hundred Brethren from a dozen 
districts have participated in a group 
life experience called Mission Twelve. 
What does it do for participants? Some 


with a 


SENSITIVITY. Awareness. Understanding. These were words 
I heard often in interviews I had with three young Elkhart, 
Indiana, couples. I had asked them about their experiences 
with Mission Twelve, a guided depth experience in responsible 
church membership. 

"Those three weekends have made me determine where 
my values really are. Questions like 'What do you think is the 
most important thing in life?' asked point-blank, made you 
struggle. I'm sure my values have changed since Mission 

Speaking these words was Edgar Weldy, painting contractor 
and chairman of the official board, church school teacher, and 
men's fellowship officer in the Elkhart City church. 

Mission Twelve consists of two weekend retreats, followed 
by a third retreat a year later, for several participants from 
clusters of congregations. They take it seriously enough to 
contract to accept certain disciplines and to bear the cost. Also 
included are consultations and congregational study and action. 

Mission Twelve addresses itself to basic questions: What is 



MESSENGER is a member of the Associated Church Press and 
subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 
Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are 
from the Revised Standard Version. 

Subscription rates: $3.75 per year for individual subscriptions; $3.00 
per year for church group plan; $2.50 per year for every home plan; 
life subscription, $60; husband and wife, $75. 

If you move, clip old address from MESSENGER and send with new 
address. Allow at least fifteen days for address change. 

ABOUT THE COVER: There is a photographic quality about the artwork 
on this issue's front cover. Even though it was drawn, it looks almost 
like an actual photo of a city street. It is somewhat symbolic of the 
new sense of mission we as persons are feeling, especially if we have 
been participants in Mission Twelve (see article this page). We walk, 
not alone but with a due sense of the importance of our personal 

PHOTO CREDITS: Cover Science Research Associates; 5 William Smith; 
6 Sigmund Fries; 10 Three Lions; 16, 17, 18 Religious News Service; 
22 Paul Conklin; 25 A. Devaney 

Persons with a purpose continued 

Mission Twelve aims at individuals and through th 

Pastor Charles Dumond and his associate, 
Eleanor Painter, have noticed changes in 
the Elkhart Mission Twelve participants 

The Lee Sloughs find it remarkable that 
the church is making the Mission Twelve 
kinds of thrusts into the everyday world 

my greatest concern in life? 
What does it mean to be a 
person, a son of God? Do I 
have the courage to accept and 
examine myself? How do I need 
to change, and can I face the 
change? How can I be a cre- 
ative person in my relationships? 
How can I live in mission? How 
can my congregation live in 
mission? How can I continue 
to grow? 

Edgar Weldy entered the first 
Mission Twelve program in 
Northern Indiana; he has com- 
pleted the third weekend re- 
treat. Shirley, his wife, partici- 
pated in the second Mission 
Twelve which followed the first 
by several weeks. Shirley under- 
scored Edgar's statement. 

"Yes, I noticed a change in 
Edgar after the first weekend. I 
could tell he had really had an 

Edgar Weldy, here with his wife Shirley, 
says, "I'm not upset by every little de- 
lay on the job. It's not that important" 

experience, that he was looking 
at life difi^erently." Shirley 
turned to her husband. "You 
used to be more concerned 
about your job and with making 

"And, yet, I'm actually mak- 
ing more money now than be- 
fore," mused the husband. "In 
my idle moments, my mind al- 
ways used to be on my work. 
Now there are other, more im- 
portant things to think about. 
I'm not upset by every little 
problem or delay on the job. It's 
not that important anymore." 

Speaking of church member- 
ship, Edgar said, "One of the 
most meaningful things since 
the weekends themselves is to 
see where you fit in. I'm more 
conscientious about preparing 
my church school class lesson, 
church attendance, and such 

2 MESSENGER 4-1-65 

ks to revitalize the church's sense of mission 







j ^ 

U 1 


Electrical contractor Ronald Bailey used 
to think mission was known only in Ni- 
geria before his experience as a missioner 

things now than I was before. 
It has even occurred to me that 
one might discover additional 
capabilities to do more . . ." 

While Shirley does not feel 
that her Mission Twelve experi- 
ence has been as dramatic as 
her husband's, there are similari- 

"Since my experience came 
after Edgar's, his thinking natu- 
rally influenced me before I 
went. I can't put my finger on 
it exactly, but, as I began to 
think of my mission in the 
church and the church dis- 
persed, my conclusions rein- 
forced my responsibility as a 
person. I formerly thought it 
was enough to work impersonal- 
ly as a church member through 
the arm of the church. Now I 
know that we have a re- 
sponsibility beyond that as an 

The Weldys, like all Mission Twelve par- 
ticipants, see the mission of the church 
in a different and more significant way 


4-1-65 MESSENGER 3 

Persons with a purpose continued 

No one looks the same to you after you have spent two intense weeke. 

individual person." Shirley is 
currently serving as director of 
children's work and on the 
Christian education commission. 

Ron and Sharon Bailey, a 
second husband and wife team 
who took part in Mission Twelve, 
were also impressed by the in- 
dividual's importance. 

"Before Mission Twelve," said 
Ron, "when I thought of mission 
I thought of the people we send 
to Nigeria. I never thought too 
much about evangelism. My 
responsibility as an individual 
is a new thought to me. Now I 
know that the church is what I 
make it rather than a place we 
go once a week." 

When asked if she had 
noticed any change in her hus- 
band since Mission Twelve, 
Sharon nodded. "He has a new 
concern for others. I think both 
of us try harder than before to 
be understanding, with our 
children and with each other. 
For instance, if one of us comes 
home grouchy, we understand." 
Ron is an electrical contractor 
in Elkhart; Sharon helps two 
mornings a week with the three- 
year-olds at nursery school at 
the church. 

Ron complimented his wife. 
"Sharon didn't have as far to go 
in this as I did. She has always 
been more patient and under- 
standing." Ron remembers him- 

self as often disgusted with his 
fellow workers, impatient with 
their mistakes. "Now I look at 
people differently on my job 
every day." 

Sharon teaches a children's 
class, sings in the choir, and 
serves on the music and wor- 
ship commission; Ron is a mem- 
ber of the ministry commission 
and a church school class officer. 

He considered the young 
adult class. "We must be ac- 
cepting of other people and 
make them welcome in our 
fellowship. One must make 
changes in order to grow; I 
don't mean we must give up any 
basic Christian beliefs. But we 
must be more understanding 
than I used to be — not as im- 
patient with newcomers. You 
can set up barriers by insisting 
on your own way." 

Lee Slough, church school 
superintendent at Elkhart City, 
believes the purpose of Mission 
Twelve is to make people aware 
of their individual responsibili- 

"People think, 'I'm just one 
person and therefore insignifi- 
cant.' They don't stop to con- 
sider that all movements are 
people, individual persons." 

For Lee, who works in the 
sales and estimating department 
of a tool and die shop, the 
weekend retreats were remi- 

niscent of industry's human re- 
lations clinics in which Christian 
principles are applied to deal- 
ings between individuals. 

"I see it as remarkable that 
the Church of the Brethren, 
with its history of the pious 
good life which we lived pri- 
marily within the four walls of 
home, should now, with Mission 
Twelve, be making a thrust into 
the world in every situation. I 
am happy that the church has 
decided to take this stand." 

Just how durable is the 
Mission Twelve experience? 
What happens after the struc- 
tured phase six? The Elkhart 
participants talked this over 
with Miss Eleanor Painter, their 
associate pastor, and Pastor 
Charles Dumond. 

Lee Slough said, "I feel there 
is a need for time in which to 
study, but so often we never 
get out of the study periods. 
We've finished the first part of 
Mission Twelve; now is the time 
to apply Mission Twelve. To 
be 'in mission' in the church 
does not mean that we should 
come back from the retreats to 
say 'change this,' 'change that,' 
even if something needs chang- 
ing. For instance, some church 
meetings are not truly Christian. 
We may be nicey-nice during 
the meeting, but we go out into 
the parking lot where we back- 

4 MESSENGER 4-1-65 

vork in Mission Twelve 

bite and criticize." 

Group dynamics has been one 
of the areas of concern which 
the Elkhart Mission Twelve 
participants have studied at 
regular meetings held since the 
retreats. Miss Painter, Mission 
Twelve staff member, pointed 
out new techniques and fresh 
approaches in chairing commit- 
tee meetings which Lee has 
used with success since his 
Mission Twelve experience. 

When Pastor Dimiond was 
asked what the local congrega- 
tion might do to keep Mission 
Twelve alive, he responded, 
"We must carry on by develop- 
ing some strategic retreat ex- 
periences. The local church can 
meet the challenge." 

Neither does Edgar Weldy 
feel that Mission Twelve will 
lose its thrust. 

"For me it is not over — the 
group will renew itself. In any 
situation, I am more sensitive 
now to what someone says or 
how someone acts. It is relative- 
ly easy in church, but not so 
easy in other situations. I hire 
some men who are not at all 
like me; I try to understand 
them. Since Mission Twelve I 
realize I must confront my em- 
ployees with Christ. I don't 
mean by preaching, and I don't 
mean wholly by example — as 
I've done so far. I don't know 

exactly how to do it, yet." 

But questing seriously with 
other church members who are 
also "in mission" among their 
fellowmen, it is likely that 
Edgar Weldy will discover "how 
to do it." And the Weldys, 
Baileys, and Sloughs are only 
three young couples among 
many who could give similar 

Miss Painter summed it up 
when she said, "Mission Twelve 
has had a tremendous impact. 
It is aimed at individuals, and 
through individuals it will re- 
vitalize churches." D 

Two pioneer leaders in the Mission Twelve 
program are S. Loren Bowman and Anna 
M. Warstler of the Brotherhood Board staff 

4-1-65 MESSENGER 5 

tness AftGn 


THE PLAQUE on the German church wall says 
simply: "Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a Witness of 
Jesus Christ among his brothers. Born 4 
February 1906 in Breslau; Died 9 April 1945 in 
Flossenburg." Fortunately both the German 
and the English languages have two different 
words to cover the idea of being a witness and 
being a martyr. Our word martyr comes from 
the Greek word for witness, and the two ideas 
are closely related. But it is easier to speak 
of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, the German churchman 
honored by the plaque, as a witness of Jesus 
Christ than as a martyr to him. 

For us today the word martyr is covered 
with so many*memories that it can hardly serve 
to describe the death of this near-contempo- 
rary at the hands of Hitler's men days before 
the end of World War II. Today the word con- 
jures up "martyr-complexes" and the wan 
desire of people to be seen suffering. Such an 
attitude hardly applies to the young man who 
loved life, food, music, the world around him. 
In our time the word calls to mind the heroism 
of ancient people, people who were seen to 
be saints somehow removed from the world 
and its stain. How can this picture be applied 
to a man who wanted Christians to live very 
much in the middle of the world, whose death 
can be seen as a punishment for what was 
called political crime and intrigues against his 
own nation? . 

Admittedly, many people who could not 
care less about theologians, about men who 
speak too formally about God, stop shrugging 
shoulders and start listening when the record 
of a theologian who was martyred is revealed 
to them. If the word martyr has helped Dietrich 



DietxT-ctL BorLtioeffer 

Bonhoeffer gain a hearing for his continuing 
witness, let it stand. 

Some of the records of his last full day of 
life, an April Sunday in a German prison camp, 
serve to leave vivid pictures of the character 
of his witness. Failure to sample them after 
twenty years would cause us to distort the 
recall of the remembered man. Payne Best, a 
British Intelligence Officer has said that Bon- 
hoeffer "was all humility and sweetness; he 
always seemed to me to diffuse an atmosphere 
of happiness, of joy in every smallest event of 
life, and of deep gratitude for the mere fact 
that he was alive. ... He was one of the very 
few men that I have ever met to whom his God 
was real and ever close to him." 

Best, along with other prisoners (including 
Wassilli Kokorin, a nephew of Molotov), heard 
the still youthful-appearing Christian preach 
briefly on the day's Bible readings: "With his 
wounds we are healed" and "Blessed be the 
God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! By 
his great mercy we have been born anew to a 
living hope through the resurrection of Jesus 
Christ from the dead." How we would like to 
know exactly what he said about these words 
and what else he said before his last words, 
spoken as he was taken to the scaffold: "This 
is the end ... for me the beginning of life." 

And another witness died. Some call him 
a martyr. 

We must be careful as we use either term. 
What kind of witness or martyr was he? Yes, 
he was involved in plotting against the state. 
This man, standing in the long Lutheran tradi- 
tion which calls upon believers to "obey the 
powers that be" was trying to help overthrow 

them. This Christian, who in The Cost of 
Discipleship had written what one pacifist calls 
the strongest statement of the case for non- 
resistance that can be found anywhere, began 
to resist, to connive with violent enemies of 
Hitler. This clergyman is accorded a heroic 
location at the beginning and at the end of a 
secular history, The Men Who Tried to Kill 
Hitler. Was he an utterly unreliable, inconsis- 
tent man? Why does his death attract so many 
Christians today as they set out to ponder the 
meaning of life? 

World War II took 17,000,000 lives in com- 
bat and 18,000,000 civilian lives. The estimates 
are conservative. What is one life among so 
many? Tens of thousands of Christians, many 
"purer" than Bonhoeffer, were martyred for 
fewer political reasons than he. Yet they have 
been entered in the book of nameless wit- 
nesses remembered by the churches. His 
name has been invoked by students, by laymen 
in renewal groups, by seminarians and minis- 
ters and professional theologians. Why? Many 
of the answers could be found in the record of 
his life as well as in his death. People identified 
easily with this friendly, learned, almost aristo- 
cratic and almost boyish thinker. But his 
personality alone provides too few clues to the 
reasons for his being remembered. Personality 
is elusive, not so tangible. Achievement mat- 
ters, over the years and in a variety of tests. 
What did he do and say and represent? 

In Bonhoeffer's last year he gave voice to what 
so many Christians have felt in the bottom of 
their hearts or have buried in the back of their 
minds: People today seem to be entering a 


new spiritual era in whicii faith in God and 
language about God have changed so radically 
that we hardly recognize them. No one can 
stand at such a place and state clearly all that 
should be said in a time of great change, and 
Bonhoeffer was not always clear. So much of 
what he has left us is fragmentary, partially 
thought out, and too provocatively stated. No 
one can speak with complete confidence about 
all that he stands for. 

Debates are intense. Most Western Chris- 
tians see in his cheerful defiance of totalitar- 
ianism a witness against world communism. 
But in East Germany a theologian has written 
a 575-page book which sets out subtly to show 
how Bonhoeffer can "fit in" as a Christian wit- 
ness with a positive attitude toward the world 
in which Marxism thrives today. 

In America countless young people testify 
to the fact that Bonhoeffer helped them hold 
their faith by the strength of his own. But in 
Germany one pastor said he hoped that Bon- 
hoeffer regained a lost faith before his death; 
he surmised from the theologian's writings that 
the faith had been lost along the way! Con- 
servative Christians find his writings to be rich 
examples of biblical understanding; yet some 
have called him an atheist. Arguments are 
heard defending the "early" Bonhoeffer against 
the author of the last letters and papers from 
prison. Clearly, we are dealing with a compli- 
cated witness. 

Protestants who have paid attention to the 
men who have shaped our generation's theo- 
logical thought are familiar with names of 
Americans like the two Niebuhrs and Paul 
Tillich or of Europeans like Karl Barth, Emil 
Brunner, and Rudolf Bultmann. These six 
giants were all born in the decade between 
1884 and 1894. Bonhoeffer, had he lived, might 
have been a theological leader in the gener- 
ation following theirs, for he was born in 1906 
and would still be in his fifties today. He had 
already made a prominent name for himself. 
The son of a professor of psychiatry and the 
pi;oduct of a comfortable and happy home life, 
he had developed his thought in a cosmopoli- 
tan way. Twice he visited the United States and 
on one trip had included Mexico; he had 
vicared in Barcelona and had served a church 
in London. He was a familiar figure at many 

gatherings of church leaders in the youth, stu- 
dent, and ecumenical movements all over 

In 1939 he hurried home to Germany from 
the United States to share the fate of Christians 
in his homeland; only on that base did he feel 
he could share in the rebirth of the faith there. 
He was a marked man. Two days after Hitler 
had been inaugurated in 1933 he was thrown 
off the air for a radio address criticizing the 
fuhrer principle of national leadership. He had 
cut off a promising teaching career in the 
German universities to shepherd an under- 
ground seminary which trained anti-Nazi pas- 
tors. A friend and relative of many who plotted 
resistance to Hitler's leadership from within, he 
involved himself even to the point of a secret 
trip to Sweden in 1942, there to meet with a 
British bishop who was to carry news of the 
resistance and proposals for early German 
surrender to Anthony Eden in England. These 
activities finally led to his arrest and his death. 

Behind him was an impressive body of 
writing. His collected writings in German take 
up 2,453 pages in four volumes. In addition to 
these are his first "theological miracle" (Karl 
Barth) called Sanctorum Communio and the 
equally technical Act and Being; there are short 
studies of the Bible, Creation and Faii and 
Temptation. His monument is the unfinished 
Etiiics. Those who wish to meet him for the 
first time might look at Life Togetiier and then 
settle down with two paperbacks (Macmillan is 
the publisher), Tlie Cost of Disciplesliip and the 
controversial Letters and Papers from Prison. 

Actually, more people than those who 
know it, have met Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Usually 
formal theology, even if it is written by a clear 
and expressive author, reaches most people 
when filtered through the words of preachers or 
when made visible in the action of Christians. 
Bonhoeffer has entered the life of the church in 
both ways. 

After World War II the young men who came 
from war into the ministry were looking for 
spokesmen. They wanted someone who dealt 
meaningfully with Christian themes but who did 
not surround them with "guff" or shroud them 

8 MESSENGER 4-1-65 

with false kinds of iioliness. They wanted and 
in Bonhoeffer they found someone who would 
speak intelligibly about the real world in which 
they lived. He talked about a secular world, a 
world which seems to "round itself off without 
God" and they were sustained by his counsel 
as they were informed by his vision. They 
looked for someone who could help them 
change the forms of the church, who could help 
them rescue the churches from triviality and 
self-centeredness. Bonhoeffer's thought sent 
them into the world. They looked for someone 
who would help them forget about the church's 
good name and fortune, its endowments and 
prestige and investments; he told them that to 
be a Christian meant that a person was first to 
be a man. But this man was also a servant, 
called to "participate in the sufferings of God in 
Christ." Those who have learned from him 
have taken a lead in the racial revolution; they 
have tried to preach sermons which will inter- 
pret life in a comfortable society. Not all of 
them acknowledge the debt — Americans do 
not like to be "typed" as slavish followers of 
any theologian. But the traces are there. His 
ideas have consequences. 

What did he do with his most radical ideas, 
those detailed briefly in the last months in 
prison? They were radical because he spoke 
of a world which was moving out of its old 
superstitions, its myth and its magic, and even 
its religiousness. Christians were to help ex- 
tricate people from the religiousness of Chris- 
tianity itself! By this he meant that they were 
not supposed to call people to a specific kind 
of piety, to a specific way of thinking about God 
("out there"), to a quest for a particular per- 
sonality type as a precondition for faith. In- 
stead of bewailing the rise of the "secular" 
world they should embrace it in Christ's name. 
Bonhoeffer asked for a "nonreligious" interpre- 
tation of biblical language. He was glad that 
people were not turning to God for simple 
answers to the problems created by their in- 
securities. Men were outgrowing such igno- 
rance, and people did not have to be pushed 
back into spiritual adolescence in the name 
of Christ. 

The ideas he set forth in this context are 
very complicated, and they have given rise to 
many interpretations. Anglican Bishop John 

A. T. Robinson picked up some of them for his 
best-seller disturber of the peace. Honest to 
God. Some historians have criticized Bon- 
hoeffer for his inaccurate timetable of human 
development "beyond religion" — religious- 
ness has turned out to be deeper and broader 
than he had thought. Psychologists and 
theologians have said his view of relatively 
happy secular man is fuzzy and deluding. 
People rush from one kind of religion to 
another and not into suspension of all religion. 
And still others wonder whether he has not 
"sold out" the faith in an attempt to make it 
palatable to moderns. 

Whoever reads this witness is forced to 
think: Do people in our time think about time 
and space, about God, as their forefathers did? 
Should they? What if they cannot? Is that the 
end of Christian faith? Must people first be- 
come anxious and sin sick before they can be- 
come a part of the Christian plan? Is God a 
sort of idea that is necessary in order to make 
sense in the laboratory or the legislature? 
Many of them answer along these lines: While 
Bonhoeffer's portrayal may be too radical, 
there is a realism at heart. And his call to 
service in Christ's name, to suffering and 
sharing the glory of God in the middle of the 
world — all this seems faithful to the biblical 

After Bonhoeffer wrote those radical words 
about the difficulty he and others had in talking 
about God and religion he wrote (August 21, 
1944) that "all that we rightly expect from God 
and pray for is to be found in Jesus Christ." 
"Our joy is hidden in suffering, our life in death. 
But all through we are sustained in a wondrous 
fellowship. To all this God in Jesus has given 
his Yea and his Amen, and that is the firm 
ground on which we stand." 

On that ground a lover of earth walked, and 
from it he was snatched by a gallows on an 
April day in 1945, twenty years ago. Whoever 
claims to have the "real" or the "whole" Bon- 
hoeffer in his grasp has to keep the words of 
August 21, 1944, and the act of April 9, 1945, 
in mind. He will gain a hearing. n 

4-1-65 MESSENGER 9 


The time of your visitation 

THERE are two passages in the New Testament 
that seem to unite Christmas and Holy Week. 
They are the two songs, or chants, in which the 
Gospel of Luke brackets the earthly life of Jesus: 
the song of the angels at his birth, and the song 
of the pilgrims who accompanied him to Jeru- 
salem as he rode on an ass into the city to his 
death. Here are the two brief songs. First, 

"Glory to God in the highest, 

and on earth peace among men with whom 
he is pleased!" (Luke 2:14). 

Second, "Blessed be the King who comes in 
the name of the Lord! Peace in heaven and glory 
in the highest!" (Luke 19:38). 

It is interesting to note the similarities of the 
two passages in their context, and the one signifi- 
cant difference. "On earth peace," sang the 
angels. "Peace in heaven," sang the pilgrims. And 
there follows Jesus' lament over the doomed city 

and his prophecy of the terrible war against the 
Romans, in which Jerusalem would be destroyed 
some thirty or forty years after the crucifixion. 
"And when he drew near and saw the city he 
wept over it, saying, 'Would that even today you 
knew the things that make for peace! But now 
they are hid from your eyes. For the days shall 
come upon you, when your enemies will cast up a 
bank about you and surround you, and hem 
you in on every side, and dash you to the 
ground, you and your children within you, and 
they will not leave one stone upon another in 
you; because you did not know the time of your 
visitation" (Luke 19:41-44). 

Because you did not know the things that 
make for peace, but now they are hid from your 
eyes! Of course, Luke was writing after the 
event, but any modern political commentator 
could have foreseen what was coming. The un- 
rest of the Zealots would become a full-fledged 

10 MESSENGER 4-1-65 

revolt, which colonial Rome would suppress with 
ruthless efficiency. And surely the release of 
Barabbas, who was one of them, did nothing to 
discourage the rebels. 

Had the Jewish people learned to turn the 
other cheek and walk the second mile, according 
to Jesus' prescription for dealing with enemies, 
could their nation have waited out the fall of 
the Roman Empire some centuries later? We 
have no way of knowing how history might have 
been changed "because you did not know the 
time of your visitation." 

On the hillside near Bethlehem the time 
of visitation was announced. The things that 
make for peace were not hidden in those days. 
They were made manifest with a great Hght and 
a star. "And the angel said to them, 'Be not 
afraid; for behold, I bring you good news of 
a great joy which will come to all the people; for 
to you is born this day in the city of David a 
Savior, who is Christ the Lord'" (Luke 2:10). 

One can only wonder at the faith of the 
shepherds who heard this announcement. They 
did not argue with the heavenly messenger 
or suspect that the whole thing was a hoax. Still 
less did they roll over in their cloaks and go 
back to sleep. No, they said to one another, " 'Let 
us go over to Bethlehem and see this thing that 
has happened, which the Lord has made known 
to us.' " Without waiting for further confirmation 
they got up and went. Never mind the sheep. 
They ran to Bethlehem in the middle of the night. 
They went "with haste." Let us go. Let us see. 
And they saw. 

Very different was the reaction of the power 
structure in Jerusalem — either Herod at the time 
of the first song, or Caiaphas the high priest at 
the time of the second. The members of the 
hierarchy were not listening to heavenly messen- 
gers. There was nothing they could be told; they 
knew it all. They had studied the law. What 
did they need with a song? So for the high 
priest there was no seeking and therefore no 
finding, no looking and therefore no seeing. And 
the time for seeing was drawing to a close; the 
vision, in its earthly guise, was passing by. But 
the heart of the city had proved itself a stone; 
the city knew not the time of her visitation, and 
the things that make for peace were hid from, 
her eyes. 

It was only the hierarchy, not the common 
people, who failed to recognize the Messiah in 
the Man from Nazareth. Indeed the priestly fear 
of him is inexplicable if his popularity did not 
threaten their own. Hence, the illegal predawn 
trial, the early morning rush to Pilate, and the 
haste to do away with the prisoner before the 
populace became aware of what was happening 

The crucifixion must have been a terrible 
blow to the Jews (those in the city as well as 
from the provinces) who had hung on his every 
word in the temple, where it was impossible for 
the authorities to apprehend him, even when he 
cleansed the temple by driving out "those who 
sold." Because the people were with him he 
could not be taken in daylight in the city. Hence, 
the nighttime capture in the Garden of Geth- 
semane, where Judas betrayed him to the powers 
of darkness. 

The angels had announced the coming of a 
Savior. The pilgrims welcomed the coming of 
a King. "Blessed be the King who comes in the 
name of the Lord!" It was not a war horse he 
was riding, on that Palm Sunday. It was the 
lowlv ass of Zechariah's prophecy. 

"Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! 

Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem! 
Lo, your king comes to you; 

triumphant and victorious is he, 
humble and riding on an ass, 

on a colt the foal of an ass." 

The pilgrims on their way to the passover 
recognized in him the things that make for peace. 

And the prayer of the early church was, 
"Maranatha" — "Our Lord, come." May it be our 
prayer too. 

The important thing is to know whom we 
worship. Worship in itself is not specifically 
Christian. To have faith is in itself meaningless. 
Man through the ages has had faith. The pagans 
worshiped their idols and their emperors. The 
pagans worshiped and praised, but they did not 
see. They did not know what they worshiped. 
Paul found in the Areopagus in Athens a statue 
dedicated "to an unknown god." But to us he 
is not unknown. Because we have listened to the 
songs of angels and pilgrims, we see, we recog- 
nize the Lord. We can say with Paul (in 2 Tim. 
1:12), "I know whom I have believed." Q 

4-1-65 MESSENGER 11 


The Wenatchee Valley church, Wenatchee, 
Wash., requests Annual Conference of 1965, 
through district conference of Washington, 
to appoint a committee to make a study 
of the organization and frequency of General 
(Annual) Conference. 

We suggest the following and other areas 
for study: 

a. Travel time and money expenditure; 
churches and districts in sending delegates. 
Standing Committee members, pastors, and 
General Brotherhood Board and staff per- 

b. The nature of business coming to Con- 
ference and the validity of meeting annually. 

c. The value of special conferences and 
study seminars that could be held on years 
when Conference does not meet. The place 
of Standing Committee, delegate body. Cen- 
tral Committee, and General Brotherhood 
Board in relationship to Conference. 

Kurtis Nay lor, pastor 
Noble E. Deardorff, moderator 
Answer of district conference: Passed to An- 
nual Conference. 

Mark Carmichael, moderator 
Mrs. Esther Colbert, clerk 


We recommend that a new dimension be 
added to Brethren Volunteer Service. The 
Apostle Paul speaks of presenting our bodies 
as living sacrifices. Jesus tells of the rich 
man who pulled down his barns and built 
larger ones rather than giving hts wealth 
where it was sorely needed. 

Therefore, the Second Virginia district con- 
ference recommends to Annual Conference 
that an attempt be made to find no fewer 
than one hundred Brethren who will, for 
one or two years, keep only running ex- 
penses of their homes or businesses and turn 
the remainder of their earnings over to the 
Genera! Brotherhood Board for outreach. 
They, in turn, would receive $10 per month 
as is customary in BVS. Further urge by 
way of example, if possible, that some of 
the first one hundred be found among those 
in high position in our church. 

Norman Harsh, moderator 
Minor C. Miller, clerk 



Being deeply concerned about the church 
school quarterlies and other helps being of- 
fered the churches by the Church of the 
Brethren and being well aware that a great 
number of churches throughout the Brother- 
hood are failing or refusing to use this 
material, either in part or whole, the Myrtle 
Point Church of the Brethren, in council as- 
sembled this fourth day of October, 1964, 
petitions Annual Conference meeting at 
Ocean Grove, N. J., in 1965, through the 
Oregon district conference, as follows; 

That Annual Conference appoint a repre- 
sentative committee to study the various pub- 
lications intended for church school use. That 
this committee try to ascertain why so many 
of our churches are not using this material, 
and, if possible, suggest the manner in which 
these publications may be brought into line 
with Brethren thought to the end that church- 
wide use can be made of them. 

Charles E. WolfF, moderator 
Mildred Miller, secretary 
Answer of district conference: Passed to An- 
nual Conference. 

Martin Gauby, moderator 
Jane Smith, writing clerk 



At the annual meeting of the District of 
Western Canada, July 17, 18, 19, 1964, the 
delegate body passed the following query 
and wishes it to be submitted for considera- 
tion at the 1965 Annual Conference: 

"Whereas Canada is a foreign country and 
whereas we find ourselves unable to do so, 
therefore, we, the District of Western Canada, 
petition the Church of the Brethren Annual 
Conference meeting at Ocean Grove, N. J., 
June 1965, to register the Church of the 
Brethren as a historic peace church with the 
Canadian government." 

Glenn M. Harmon, moderator 
Marguerite Wade, clerk 


We of the Good Shepherd Church of the 
Brethren of Morgantown, W, Va., request 
the First District of West Virginia, assembled 
in Petersburg, W. Va., on Oct. 16 and 17, 
1 964, to request Annual Conference, as- 
sembled in Ocean Grove, N. J., June 1965, 
to provide a study of all Brethren located in 
college and university towns across the 
Brotherhood, concerning the Church of the 
Brethren students. The concern raised in this 
query is whether or not the total Brother- 
hood is obligated or committed financially 
for the support of student foundations and 
activities for such churches located on college 
and university campuses other than already 
established Church of the Brethren college 

Melvln Slaubaugh, moderator 

Morris Kiddy, clerk 
Received at district conference held in Peters- 
burg, W. Va., and passed to Annual Confer- 
ence, Ocean Grove, N. J., 1965. 

Robert Bane, moderator 

Melvin Slaubaugh, clerk 


Whereas there is a diversity in practice 
and policy in the Church of the Brethren and 
among other denominations regarding those 
who are permitted to receive the Lord's 
Supper and Eucharist, and whereas there is 
an increasing mobility within our Brotherhood 
and across denominational lines, and whereas 
it would seem desirable and less confusing 
to have more uniformity in practice in regard 
to those who are encouraged to participate 
in the Lord's Supper and Eucharist: Therefore, 
the Good Shepherd Church of the Brethren 
assembled in regular council on Sept. 20, 
1964, petitions Annual Conference, through 
Eastern Maryland district conference, to study 
the current practices in the Church of the 
Brethren, the tradition of the church, and 
the theological implications and psychological 
effects involved when an individual, particu- 
larly a child, is allowed or denied participa- 
tion in the sacrament before baptism, and 
bring recommendation that will help unify 
our practice in the local church. 

Philip E. Norris, moderator 
Charles W. Byers, clerk 
Answer of district conference: Passed to An- 
nual Conference. 

Curtis W. Dubble, moderator 
Ronald G. Lutz, clerk 


Question: How did the Bible 
get into English? 

Answer: The Bible was trans- 
lated into English by Wycliffe, 
Tyndale, Coverdale, and others 
who worked from the original 
languages. Wycliffe's Bible, 
1383, the first English Bible, 
was written by hand. Tyndale's 
New Testament, 1525, was the 
first printed English New Testa- 
ment. Coverdale's Bible, 1535, 
was the first printed English 
Bible. The King James Bible 
appeared in 1611, was revised 
in England in 1885, and then 
in the United States in 1901. 

A further revision of the New 
Testament was made in the 
United States in 1946, followed 
by the Old Testament in 1952. 
This is the Revised Standard 

The New English Bible, which 
came out with the New Testa- 
ment in 1961, is a fresh transla- 
tion from the original Greek. 
Work is progressing on the Old 
Testament translations from the 

Question: What were the date 
and place of the first printed 

Answer: The first Bible was 
printed between 1450 and 1456 
at Mainz, Germany, from type 
devised by Johannes Gutenberg. 
The Bible was in Latin, printed 
from a contemporary manu- 
script of the Vulgate. There are 

you ask 

between forty and fifty copies 
of this Bible known to be in 
existence. One Bible is owned 
by the Congressional Library, 
Washington, D. C., and it is said 
to be one of three perfect copies 
and one of several printed on 

Question: "Train up a child in 
the way he should go: and 
when he is old, he will not 
depart from it" (Prov. 22:6 KJV). 
Suppose parents have truly tried 
to create a Christian home and 
to teach Christian principles 
from babyhood to maturity, and 
yet the adult child becomes lax 
in his Christian principles and 
in his relationship to the church. 
Just how much comfort and 
hope should a parent hope to 
receive from the above verse? 

Ansicer: This verse is a part of 
the wisdom literature of Israel. 
It is an aphorism which ex- 
presses the need for both cor- 
rection and training in children 
and suggests the effectiveness of 
proper direction in formative 
years. The general truth of the 
proverb is clearly evident. 

However, this is not a guaran- 
teed formula for controlling 
human behavior. It is im- 
possible to predict the conduct 
of a person in the same way as 
we predict the reaction of 
chemical elements in a labora- 
tory. Any formula for complete 
success in rearing children 
would be an absolute denial of 

human freedom. Therefore, par- 
ents may try as conscientiously 
as they can to "train up a child 
in the way he should go," but, 
when he is no longer under 
parental authority, he may exer- 
cise his own free will and turn 
against all he was taught. This 
fact is often difficult for parents 
to accept, but the truth is that 
no one of us can live the life 
of another, certainly not parents 
for their children, and every one 
of us must be accountable to 
God for his own deeds. 

Thoughtful parents must al- 
ways be uneasy about what it 
really means to "train up a child 
in the way he should go." So 
often a mother and father, with 
the best intentions, will fail in 
this task because they do not 
allow the child the freedom to 
express himself as a person and 
to grow naturally through the 
various stages of personality de- 
velopment, disciplined but un- 

It is so easy for parents in the 
name of proper training to be 
arbitrary, dictatorial, and de- 
manding. They may even 
smother the child by kindness, 
so that real strength of charac- 
ter has no chance to take root, 
and, when the external controls 
are removed, the real feelings, 
often hostile, are released. It is 
even possible for parents in their 
training of children to mistake 
as the will of God their own de- 
sires and hopes and ambitions 
for the child and to impose these 
upon their children with re- 
ligious fervor. 

This certainly does not ex- 
plain every reason why children 
in adult years will turn away 
from the proper training of their 


; If you have a question you would like to have answered 
on this page, send it to Questions You Ask, Messenger, 
Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 
Replies to questions are written by Dr. Paul M. Robinson 

Faith Looks Up 


IT HAD really been a good summer. After we left home in June 
the days passed by like a parade. We enjoyed an assortment of 
experiences ranging from climbing among the Indian ruins at 
Mesa Verde to receiving three eighteen-inch trout from a Michi- 
gan family camped next to us in Yellowstone Park. 

But on August 13 the parade came to an abrupt halt. Jimmy, 
aged two, was lying in an oxygen tent fighting for his life. Little 
did we know as we pulled out of the campground near Billings, 
Montana, that within six hours a deadly bacterial croup would 
have all but claimed his life. 

Sickness seems even more of a traumatic experience when 
family and friends are hundreds of miles away. And, yet, here 
we were, driving into a small town of 10,000, buying groceries for 
a picnic lunch and within minutes finding ourselves at the mercy 
of total strangers and a son about to go through death's door. 

As I write this article a new year has begun. Yes, Jimmy 
lived! Why was his health restored? We have asked ourselves 
that question many times realizing that many other equally sick 
two-year-olds do not survive. Was it because of the quick 
diagnosis and treatment by a well-trained physician? Was it 
because of the constant and loving attention of many nurses? 
Was it because of the oxygen tent with spray mist, and potent 
drugs which had been designed and developed in the laboratories 
of concerned scientists? We believe that each of these factors 
was most vital, but, even beyond this, we believe Jimmy lived 
because of the prayers of intercession, prayers by strangers, yet 
filled with Christian concern and love. 

As we left that small, bustling Western town, I realized, as 
though for the first time, that God is love and that we humans 
know and serve him only as we are involved in total relationships 
with the others he has created. This love demands a deep and 
abiding sense of the worth of each person with whom I come in 
contact — as a concerned mother, a tense coach's wife, a trained 
public school teacher, or simply as a searching member of the 
church's laity. 

Joan P. Keim is a native of Idaho, a graduate 
of McPherson College, and a former regional 
director of children's work. Her present re- 
sponsibilities include being a homemaker in 
Bridgewater, Virginia, where her husband, 
George, is a college faculty member and coach. 
The Reims have four children ranging in age 
from two to thirteen. Mrs. Keim is a public 
school teacher and is active in local church, 
college, and community affairs. 



childhood. Some "comfort" and 
"hope" for the parent should 
come in the realization that God 
never loses his concern for any 
person. Like the hound of 
heaven, he pursues even those 
who have rejected him. His 
Spirit is still at work in ways 
beyond human understanding. 

Many times after years of in- 
difference to their relationship 
with God and his church, the 
early training of men and 
women has brought them back 
to active Christian faith and 
service. Parents of such children 
should certainly never cease to 
pray that, like the prodigal son, 
they will "come to themselves" 
and return to the Father's house. 


With every step that moves 
Aw^ay from what is known 
Toward what I dream, 
My tradition introspects and tests 
The truth of its salvation. 

If waking could presolve 
The day which it initiates. 
The present would need no fu- 
To work at its timeless problems. 

Neither does sleep solve time 
When it shakes the crumbs of 

Off the cloth spread across the 

Neither then does sleep allow 
The past to die unquestioned. 

But with every step I pace 

Away from what is known 

Toward what I dream, 

I step one step beyond my past 

To find God's will 

In the space of time. 


14 MESSENGER 4-1-65 


Federal school aid — what's at stake? 

"I PROPOSE that we declare a national 
goal of full educational opportunity," 
said President Johnson upon introduc- 
ing proposals on federal aid to edu- 
cation. "Every child must be encour- 
aged to get as much education as 
he has the ability to take. . . . Nothing 
matters more to the future of our 

With this goal, few Protestants 
have taken issue. Many have heralded 
its declaration. But some are troubled 
about the implications for church- 
state relationships inherent in the 

Without overt reference to parochi- 
al schools, the President's plan is seen 
as encompassing a shared-time ar- 
rangement in which public education- 
al facilities are utilized by nonpub- 
lic school students. Administration 
sources estimate up to fifteen percent 
of the funds — about equal to the 
ratio of private school students in the 
total school population — would be 
channeled to private education. Such 
funds would be designated largely for 
books and libraries — direct student 
help — rather than for the institutions 

Dr. Arthur S. Flemming, University 
of Oregon president, a National 
Council of Churches vice-president, 

and a former member of President 
Eisenhower's cabinet, described the 
administration's measure as a "basi- 
cally sound proposal." As National 
Council spokesman he testified that 
"our support is for a program under 
which the federal government helps 
public elementary and secondaiy 
schools to make some of their facilities 
and other resources available to stu- 
dents from private schools." 

Dr. Flemming cautioned, however, 
that "a program of federal funds 
available to private schools would be 
opposed vigorously by many of the 
communions of the National Council." 
Five safeguards taken from a 1961 
major policy statement of the Nation- 
al Council General Board ought to 
be clearly stated in the legislation 
being formalized. Dr. Flemming 

4 That benefits for srudents not in- 
clude grants from federal, state, or 
local tax funds for nonpublic ele- 
mentary and secondary schools. 
^ That benefits for students must be 
determined and administered by 
public authorities responsible to the 

^ That the benefits should be identi- 
fiable by the students as public 

Jl That the program not be used di- 
rectly or indirectly for the inculca- 
tion of religion or the teaching of 
sectarian doctrine. 

C That, in the distribution of bene- 
fits, there be no discrimination by 
reason of race, religion, class, or na- 
tional origin. 

Other churchmen commended the 
measure's preschool and kindergarten 
programs and its supplemental com- 
munity centers for teaching special 
courses to public and parochial stu- 
dents alike. 

Opponents contended that the en- 
actment of such a measure may bring 
a proliferation of private and parochi- 
al schools, federal intervention on 
curricular matters, questions on the 
constitutionality of shared time, and 
eventual sectarian religious indoctri- 
nation at public expense. 

The Christian Century labeled the 
President's education program as the 
"most adroit effort yet made to side- 
step the religion issue," a longtime 
hurdle to federal aid to schools. The 
Century added that any solution to 
the religion aspect of federal aid to 
education can be "only a compromise, 
and the willingness to endure some 
dissatisfaction is of the essence of 

4-1-65 MESSENGER 15 


Beauty from ashes 

On ground that six months ago was 
blackened by burning rubble now 
stands a new brick church. 

And if the Christian Union Bap- 
tists* new building should be bombed 
or burned, it will rise again, declared 
the churchmen who participated in 
its dedication. 

The Negro church near Jackson, 
Miss., is a monument to a people's 
striving for a new place in society. 
Even more, it is a monument to inter- 
faith cooperation, something rarer to 
Mississippi tradition than a Negro 

The congregation is one of thirteen 
in the state whose facilities have been 
bombed and burned. To these 
churches and to thirty-eight others 
hit by flames and explosions, the 
Mississippi Committee of Concern 
seeks to offer help in rebuilding. 
Most of the churches are Baptist. 

In an unprecedented response, 
Methodist, Episcopal, Catholic, and 
Jewish leaders in the state joined in 
an appeal for funds to restore the 
charred churches. "In my forty-four 
years as a minister," said one Baptist 
committee member, "this is our first 
interfaith effort, I'm sorry to say. It's 
a shame it had to come over some- 
thing like this." 

In an appeal, "Beauty for Ashes," 
the Committee of Concern called on 
churches throughout the nation to 
assist its efforts. Quaker and Men- 
nonite volunteers came to aid with 
the construction. By February $52,- 
000 had been raised. 

Among contributors to the fund 
campaign was the Church of the 
Brethren's Pacific Southwest Confer- 
ence, which joined the Southern Cal- 
ifornia Council of Churches' Christ- 
mas to Good Friday drive for $2.5,000 
to restore St. Matthew's Baptist 
Church in Jackson. "It is our Chris- 
tian responsibility to help keep the 
flow of human energies within the 
context of God's will. This project 
is a means of deepening our own 
understanding and perception of the 
dynamics of the race issue," com- 
mented Glenn H. Bowlby, Pacific 
Southwest executive secretary. 

The question 

With Bibles in hand, ninety Cath- 
olics, Presbyterians, Methodists, and 
Brethren entered the Oakton Church 
of the Brethren in Virginia. They 
came for worship and fellowship, and 
they came to find what this business 
of Christian unity is all about. 

In mixed groups, they turned to- 
gether to John 17 to read and discuss 
the meanings of the unity passage of 
the Bible. They heard views on the 
scriptures set forth by the ministers 
of their respective communions. They 
heard host pastor Edward K. Ziegler, 
moderator of the meeting, lead in 
prayers for unity. They joined in an 

Interfaith monument: Christian Union Baptist Church 


act of dedication adapted from a simi- 
lar service of the World Council of 
Churches at its New Delhi Assembly. 

The gathering was one of twelve 
neighborhood meetings, involving 100 
churches, in the Virginia sector of 
metropolitan Washington, D.C. The 
groups convened in commemoration 
of the Week of Prayer for Christian 
Unity. The services augmented two 
larger interfaith meetings held earlier 
in the week in conjunction with the 
Presidential inaugural events. 

As the Catholics, Presbyterians, 
Methodists, and Brethren departed 
from the Oakton church, they asked 
themselves some persistent questions: 
"Why is this a once-a-year affair?" 
"Why don't we meet monthly across 
interfaith lines for Bible study and 
fellowship?" "Why don't we involve 
our teen-agers in some interfaith 
Christian activities, too?" 

At Oakton as elsewhere, the ques- 
tion stands: Why . . . ? 

Top film fare 

In an effort to encourage the pro- 
duction of better American films, the 
Broadcasting and Film Commission 
of the National Council of Churches 
in March feted producers of three 
motion pictures released in 1964. 

"Becket," which relates the struggle 
between King Henry II and Arch- 
bishop Thomas Becket over whether 
the church was to be at the personal 
whim of kings or to be free servants 
of God, was cited for merit in the 
category of "treatment of religious 
subject matter." 

"Fate Is the Hunter," a story about 
an airline manager who probes the 
cause of a recent plan crash, was 
named winner in the category of "por- 
traying American life and culture in 
the light of Christian ideals." 

"Fail Safe," a fictional account of 
what happens when a minor break- 
down in a radar system triggers, the 
United States' bombing of Moscow, 
was chosen in the category of "reflect- 
ing the predicament and hope of 

The nominations committee found 
no films warranting citations in two 
other areas — "presenting family life 
in keeping with Christian principles" 
and "showing application of Christian 
ideals to the growth of personality 
in children." 

16 MESSENGER 4-1-65 


Marry a minister? A distaff view 

"CLERGY ought to be celibate," the 
wife of an Anglican parish minister 
in England contended some weeks 
ago. According to Mrs. Brenda 
Wolfe, twenty-eight, "No decent 
right-minded man ought to have the 
effrontery to ask any woman to take 
such a lousy job! It is thoroughly 

What really bugged the writer, she 
said, was that to be married to a 
minister was to be married to a con- 
gregation — and answering to it. 

Mrs. Wolfe's outspoken views ap- 
peared originally in Prism, an Angli- 
can monthly. She asserted further: 

"I had high-minded visions of en- 
tering with my husband into the great 
work of converting the world (who 
doesn't at twenty-one), but here I 
am, surrounded by four children, tied 
to the house, expected to turn up 
at every cat-hanging, and feeling like 
a widow as my husband is always on 

The writer maintained that she 
loves her husband, the Rev. Michael 
Wolfe, but did not let this stand in 
the way of her complaint. 

In sum, her counsel was: "Never 
marry a cleric. It is almost like being 
the favored mistress of a married 

To seek reaction of the wives of 
Brethren ministers to Mrs. Wolfe's 
stand. Messenger sought out a sam- 
pling from across the Brotherhood. 
By and large, the majority of Breth- 
ren respondents felt Mrs. Wolfe was 
way off base. But at least one knew 
her plight all too well. 

This former lady of the manse, 
whose name is held in confidence, 
enumerated the disappointments she 
had come to know in her husband's 
charges. The grievances follow: 

"First, the husband's lack of time 
for companionship. A pastor's wife 
has to take the scraps of time and 
energy that are left over, and the 
pickin's are pretty lean! 

"The suffering involved. You try, 
you sacrifice, and people want more 
and more from you. The church is 

like a monster with an insatiable ap- 
petite. Sooner or later, some of these 
same people you sacrifice for are the 
ones who turn their backs on you. 
One of my biggest disappointments 
was to discover the pettiness of 
church people. 

"The sickening amount of time 
needed in just keeping the organiza- 
tion going. 

"The loss of my identity. People 
always introduced me as 'our pastor's 
wife.' I began to forget I had a name! 

"Not being able to express beliefs 
(many of which differ from my hus- 
band's) without fearing it would re- 
flect on him unfavorably. 

"Not being able to participate in 
church work as any other woman. 
Not being able to serve on a com- 
mission or in some area I could really 
enjoy. Not having a say in council 

"Not being a success as a pastor's 

On the positive side of the ledger, 
the same person welcomed the sat- 
isfactions — 

— "of seeing her husband in work 
he enjoyed and in which he felt ful- 

— "of being of help to people genu- 
inely in need, 

— "of fellowshiping with other min- 
isters and their wives." 

But the list of sorepoints was not 
ended. "The superhuman things the 
pastor's wife is expected to be — an 
outstanding mother, wife, hostess, 
church worker, and community work- 
er. How I hate that word expected. 
'You are expected to have your living 
room clean at all times.' (Other folks 
have family rooms, but in the par- 
sonage that would be an extrava- 
gance.) 'We expect the pastor's wife 
to attend all the executive meetings 
of United Church Women.' (Inter- 
ested or not.) 'You are expected to 
train your child early.' (Oh, yes, Dr. 
Robinson, it does too still happen!) 
'You are expected to entertain various 
groups.' ( But don't get chummy with 
any one couple or someone will be 

Being a pastor's 
wife is a "Icnisy 
job," according 
to Mrs. Michael 
Wolfe of London. 
In this report a 
number of Breth- 
ren ministers' 
wives react pro 
and con on par- 
sonage life 

jealous.) Laymen need to quit ex- 
pecting and start accepting. 

"But what hurts most of all is to 
hear knowledgeable people make re- 
marks like the one I heard from a 
leading church member the other 
night ... 'I don't know what I'd 
do if my husband were around the 
house all the time as a minister is.' 
Nothing could be further from the 
truth! Her pastor, whose office in- 
cidentally is not in his home, is one 
of the hardest working pastors I 

After all this, would the critic ad- 
vise a young woman against marrying 
a minister? "No, but I would encour- 
age her to go into it with her eyes 
open, thinking it over very carefully 
in relation to her own personality." 

Against these laments stand the 
views of other ministers' wives, decid- 
edly positive. After serving some fifty 
years in the ministry with her hus- 
band, Mrs. Galen K. Walker, La 
Verne, Calif., responded, "I have no 
major disappointments. In fact, may 
I say, no disappointments at all." 

Similarly, Mrs. George L. Detweil- 
er, Somerset, Pa., reflected upon thir- 
ty-five years of parsonage living and 
had no complaint. "My only disap- 
pointment has centered on the com- 
placency and lack of commitment of 
many professing Christians in the 
churches." Her counsel to the ag- 
grieved Mrs. Wolfe: "Self-pity is the 
death of the soul." 

Continued on page 21 

4-1-65 MESSENGER 17 


Peace seekers 

Into the office of Anastas I 
Mikoyan, chairman of the presidium 
of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., 
stepped four representatives of the 
Christian Peace Conference of Prague, 
Czechoslovakia. They came to deUv- 
er an international peace appeal 
adopted by the second All-Christian 
World Peace Congress. 

"Unfortunately for you," Mikoyan 
chided them in his greeting, "I am 
an atheist." 

But the Russian leader listened for 
forty minutes as the delegation 
pleaded for peaceful cooperation 
among nations, for general disarma- 
ment, and for united efforts to combat 
poverty and hunger in the world. 
He responded gratefully, remarking 
that church groups "can do a lot" to 
promote peace. 

Later the international delegation, 
headed by Prof. Joseph L. Hromadka, 
dean of the Amos Comenius Theologi- 
can Faculty in Prague, was received 
by Patriarch Alexei of the Russian 
Orthodox Church, then entertained at 
a plush reception. 

The whole affair was a milestone 

Peripatologists in the making 

for the Prague peace movement, 
which since 1958 has sought diligent- 
ly to rally Christians of all countries 
to work together aggressively for 

The movement now claims adher- 
ents in fifty-eight countries. At its 
congress last summer nearly 1,000 
Protestant and Eastern Orthodox rep- 
resentatives participated, including 
five Brethren. Officially representing 
the denomination were W. Harold 
Row and William G. WiUoughby, 
both of the Brethren Service staff, and 
three present or foiTner Brethren Vol- 
unteer Service workers. 

At the Moscow reception one mem- 
ber of the delegation,- Herbert Mikhal- 
ski, a pastor in West Germany, shared 
his own vievv for the movement: 

"We all differ in our views, but 
our wish to see a better world unites 
us. We Germans know better than 
anyone what war is." 

Goodwill, U.S.A. 

German youth will be dispatched to 
the United States to engage in social 
work in a Negro section of St. Louis. 

They will be sponsored by the 
"Token of Repentance Action" of the 
Evangelical Church in Germany and 
will serve one year. This will mark 
the first time that the organization — 
dedicated to goodwill projects abroad 
as an expression of contrition for 
Nazi-inflicted suffering — has commis- 
sioned youth to the U.S.A. 

Since 19.58, some 500 West Ger- 
man youth have been sent to projects 
in eight countries, serving on a basis 
similar to Brethren Volunteer Service. 

To lead the blind 

Who can teach the blind? Those 
who know blindness, according to a 
theory practiced by graduate students 
at Boston College. 

To acquire a reahstic knowledge of 
those who must live in blindness, the 
students wear blinders and use canes 
as they make their way around the 
campus. The students will tea,ch 
peripatology, the science of develop- 
ing in blind persons their remaining 
senses to achieve optimum orientation 
and mobility. 

A federal grant from the Office of 
Vocational Rehabihtation helps un- 
derwrite the training program. 

Nurse to Ecuador 

Development of community clinics 
and education in family planning are 
tasks to be undertaken by Clara Rae 
Walters, R.N., in her new assign- 
ment commenc- 
ing April 1 in 

Miss Walters 
assumes the 
three-year ap- 
pointment after 
three years of 
voluntary service 
at Hospital Cas- 
taner in Puerto Rico. 

Her work will be supported jointly 
by the Church of the Brethren and 
by World Neighbors, an independent 
service agency. 

Miss Walters, the daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. Ward Walters, Nappanee, 
Ind., is a graduate of the Goshen 
School of Nursing and a member of 
the Nappanee Church of the Brethren. 

Unity within 

Emerging out of this year's sweeping 
reorganization of the National Coun- 
cil of Churches is a new Division of 
Christian Unity. 

A host of previously fragmented 
programs — United Church Women, 
United Church Men, Youth Minis- 
try, and interfaith cooperation — are 
among the departments now being 
coordinated through the new division, 
under the staff leadership of Mrs. 
Theodore O. Wedel. 

As National Council associate gen- 
eral secretary for Christian unity, Mrs. 
Wedel outlined the theological ele- 
ments of Christian unity, the expres- 
sion of unity at local levels, and a 
unified lay witness as the three prime 
targets for the unit's work. 

Among Mrs. Wedel's staff members 
is Mrs. James E. Wyker, Berea, Ky., 
a 1960 Annual Conference speaker. 

Bretliren representatives to the pro- 
gram board of the new division in- 
clude DeWitt L. Miller, Hagerstown, 
Md., Paul M. Robinson, Oak Brook, 
111., and S. Loren Bowman, Elgin, 111. 

And so be it 

A sign in the lobby of the Camp 
Hill high school in Pennsylvania, ap- 
parently fostered by a student, set 
forth one of the more certain facts 

on the issue of prayers in public 

The sign read: 

"As long as there are midyear 
and final exams, there will be 
prayers in our school." 

Growing edges 

Weyers Cave, Va. — A detention 
home for juveniles has been recom- 
mended for construction here by a 
study committee which includes 
two Church of the Brethren pastors. 
They are Robert E. Houff, Har- 
risonburg, and Guy E. Wampler, 
Bridgewater. Communities in three 
counties have been invited to par- 
ticipate in the development of the 
long-sought home. 

North Manchester, Ind. — A serv- 
ice of cleansing and coiimiitment 
was conducted by the Manchester 
Church of the Brethren. Added to 
a period of reexamination of the 
past was the burning of slips of 
paper on which each participant 
had written the thing he most 
wanted to be rid of in his living. 
The papers were set afire from an 
altar candle and dropped into a fire- 
proof container to bum. 

The idea of the thought-burning 
approach was traced to Grace 
Methodist church in Atlanta, where 
huge crowds gather each new year 
"to forget the past and face the fu- 
ture" through the symbolic service. 

HoUidaysburg, Pa. — A first in 
the area, a Faith to Faith panel, 
featured two Protestant and two 
Roman Catholic pastors here at the 
YW-YMCA. Floyd E. Bantz, pas- 
tor of the Roaring Spring Church 
of the Brethren, was one of the 
Protestant speakers. 

New Windsor, Md. — Three 
European youth were among train- 
ees in the winter Brethren Volun- 
teer Service unit. They were: Jetske 
Bennema of Holland, a teacher who 
has four Brethren work camps in 
Europe to her credit; Gerhard 
Haack of West Germany, a phone 
repairman who after BVS antici- 
pates entering alternative service 
in Germany in Ueu of eighteen 
months of military service there; 
and Michael Schoenberg of Berlin, 
Germany, a mechanic and sports 

For the sake of democracy 

Castaner, Puerto Rico -In Latin America politicians hate to 
give up power. The inevitable result is dictatorships, revolts, 
political chaos, and provisions in constitutions forbidding re- 
election of presidents. But Luis Munoz Marin, ex-governor of 
Puerto Rico, fought his own people to give up the governorship 
after sixteen years, when he had been assured of reelection and 
the praise and plaudits of the hemisphere. At the convention of 
the Popular Party in Mayaguez, when he announced that he would 
not run again for governor, his voice was lost in a chorus of 
"no" until he shouted back, "You cannot make me violate my 

Munoz was Puerto Rico's first and only elected governor and 
the architect of its program and progress. He leaves with the 
program still incomplete, with decisive measures still to be taken 
to achieve what he has named "the purpose of Puerto Rico." His 
successor has to achieve the rest of his program without Munoz' 
help, for any reliance on the elder statesman would lead the 
opposition to cry out "rubber stamp," or "stooge." But Roberto 
Sanchez Vilella is a worthy successor to Munoz, and able to pro- 
duce his own ideas and collaborators. Though his leadership is 
only a few days old, he has already produced surprises, such as 
naming Carlos J. Lastra, a Protestant lay preacher as well as 
brilliant and energetic economist, as his number two man, Secre- 
tary of State. 

Why did Munoz step down? For the sake of democracy, 
which would not be served by continuing one man in power, even 
though it is the best man for the job. Puerto Rico has progressed 
to the point where it does not have to depend on one individual, 
where the people can stand on their own feet. And as Sanchez 
Vilella pointed out in his inauguration speech, "In the first act, 
Munoz was the star, but now it is the second act, and the people 
are the star of the show." — John Forbes 

Elgin, 111. — A social study and 
action class at the Highland Avenue 
Church of the Brethren has under- 
taken sponsorship of a tutoring pro- 
gram for two local high school 
graduates, both Negro, helping pre- 
pare them for college. On the basis 
of tests given the youth, it was de- 
termined they could undertake col- 
lege studies with proper motivation 
and assistance in such areas as 
reading and vocabulary. 

Sabetha, Kansas — Four Church 
of the Brethren congregations — 
Morrill, Sabetha, Rock Creek, and 
Granada — have moved to study 
jointly ways of strengthening one 

another in witness to their com- 
munities. Since 1932 the member- 
ships of the four churches have de- 
clined by half, in direct ratio to the 
farm decline in that area. 

Plymouth, Ind. — "What in the 
World?" a theme based on a recent 
book by Colin W. Williams, 1965 
Annual Conference speaker, has 
been explored by the Plymouth 
Church of the Brethren in a series 
of six Sunday evening sessions in 
members' homes. The congrega- 
tion in the past has found the small 
group meetings in homes to be a 
creative encounter within the 
church family. 

4-1-65 MESSENGER 19 


Continued from page 17 

"As I see it," said Mrs. Raymond 
R. Peters, Dayton, Ohio, "Mrs. 
Wolfe's problem is that she has not 
accepted her role as housewife and 
mother and is transferring this unhap- 
piness to her husband's profession. 
With this attitude she could be just 
as unhappy if her husband were a 
doctor, athletic coach, or salesman." 

Prompted by Mrs. Wolfe's tirade, 
some of the women interviewed con- 
curred that there were certain hazards 
for the ministerial family, but these 
were not insurmountable. One Pacific 
Coast woman pointed up "a very real 
danger of a minister's family growing 
up without a closeness and solidarity 
because of the father's absence much 
of the time." 

Mrs. Richard N. Miller, Aurora, 111., 
doubted if demands upon the time 
of pastors were necessarily greater 
than upon many businessmen and ex- 
ecutives. "If the husband-wife rela- 
tionship is going to be good, it can 
be good with little or much time to- 
gether. It just means working harder 
at making better use of the time spent 

"My counsel to a minister's wife," 
Mrs. Miller continued, "is, be your- 
self. If you want to be 'just a house- 
wife,' be it. If you are inclined to 
be active in the church, do it. If 
you tend to take over things, then 
find community or other interests to 
take over, so that you don't take over 
the church. Leave that for your 

Mrs. Paul E. Miller, Adel, Iowa, 
felt that ideally the minister and his 
wife should share not only in home 
and family but in interests outside 
the home and, if possible, beyond 
church involvements as well. 

On the other hand, the mutual in- 
terest of both the minister and his 
wife in the church is a distinct asset, 
observed Mrs. Curtis W. Dubble, 
Westminster, Md. "Our common con- 
cern enables us to share problems 
with each other which brings about 
a deeper relationship than in those 
professions where the wife is com- 
pletely shut off from her husband's 

If there is any one time of strain 
for the minister's family, it comes 
when the children are small, said Mrs. 
Roy S. Forney, West Grove, Pa., 

mother of five children, all of whom 
are married. Added Mrs. Wendell 
Flory, Waynesboro, Va., "It is at this 
time we get discouraged and feel self- 
pity. Our sense of values is being 
tested; every Christian needs to eval- 
uate her role as homebuilder. It 
would seem Mrs. Wolfe does not 
sense its importance." 

While most of the ministers' wives 
felt their families were set apart some- 
what from lay families of the parish, 
they did not believe they were put 
on a pedestal as may have been the 
case years ago. "I try to remember 
that in reality we are answering to 
God for our lives," said Mrs. James 
H. Beahm, Leola, Pa. "Whatever is 
right for a Christian to do is right 
for the parsonage family." 

Mrs. I. James Eshleman, Denver, 
Colo., indicated that in pastoral ex- 
periences in eastern, central, and 
western sections of the country, and 
in rural, college town, and sprawling 
urban congregations, her family has 
felt free to set their own standards 
with little shift from place to place. 
Her one regret: "Our children can't 
know the special love that grandpar- 
ents give. Distances prevent this, but, 
fortunately, we have always found 
elderly parishioners who make won- 
derful substitutes." 

"This disappointment we have 
sensed most keenly," said one pastor's 
wife, "is that a minister with all the 
qualifications and more as set forth 
by Annual Conference fails to receive 
an adequate salary to permit a work- 
ing edge against emergencies. For 
us, any unforeseen emergency could 
be tragic." 

Still another put it, "Though we 
love the ministry and are most happy 
in it, I feel it is unjust to make a 
family of the pastor live on the salary 
of an average layman. This disregards 
his four years of college, three years 
of seminary, and often additional 
training. And it overlooks the eighty 
or more hours a week spent on the 
job. It seems ungodly that the minis- 
ter cannot climb the economic ladder 
as do other men." 

A unique privilege appreciated by 
the Philip E. Norrises, Lanham, Md., 
is their congregation, the University 
Park church, granting them the op- 
portunity to own their home, even 
though it entails Mrs. Norris' teach- 

ing full time and caring for a family 
of five without household help. The 
arrangement signals a growing inde- 
pendence of the pastor's family in 
many congregations. 

Just as the parish family is sensitive 
to too much attention, neglect also 
can be biting. Upon leaving a former 
charge, Mrs. Phihp Lauver, now of 
Flint, Mich., recalled how her hus- 
band was lauded by a series of 
spokesmen from the congregation and 
the community. Afterwards, a mem- 
ber came up to her and said, "Why, 
no one said anything about you!" 

"Up to that moment, I'd been per- 
fectly happy. Then there quickly ran 
through my mind the telephone calls 
I had taken, the ideas and materials 
I had shared, the ruffled feelings I 
had smoothed, the family plans I had 
canceled to allow meetings to be held 
at others' convenience. Didn't anyone 
know — or care? 

"Then in a moment I realized I 
didn't want them to know. Why 
should they care? I was part of the 
team. I had shared in some precious 
experiences. I had seen many others 
grow toward becoming new persons 
in Christ Jesus. This is what really 
mattered," Mrs. Lauver declared. 

"What it boils down to is commit- 
ment," explained Mrs James Eshle- 
man. "Not commitment to the church 
and its busyness, not even to the 
husband! But commitment to God's 
spirit. This is where I find release 
and freedom and what puts things 
into perspective for me." 

Mrs. Wendell Eller, Wawaka, Ind., 
expressed the sentiment, "I am not 
sure that being a minister's wife is 
or should be any more rewarding 
than any other vocation as long as 
we are Christian and put our heart 
and soul into the vocation we choose. 

"But on the matter of marriage, I 
would say yes, marry a minister or 
minister-to-be, if you love him. 
("And if he's not already married," 
another respondent quipped.) But 
don't marry him just because he is 
a minister." 

The final counsel for Mrs. Wolfe 
and those in kindred spirit with her 
was suggested by Mrs. Richard Mil- 
ler: "If we don't expect problems and 
frustrations, then the question should 
not be 'marry a minister?' but, rather, 
'marry a man?' " 

20 MESSENGER 4-1-65 


|N late September 1961, while Congress was 
busy drawing up the Peace Corps Act, Miss Lula 
Miller was standing in a classroom less than two 
miles away. She was, at sixty, beginning her 
twenty-eighth year as a biology teacher at Eastern 
High School right in Washington, and the Peace 
Corps could not have been farther from her mind. 

But when the next September rolled around, 
Lula Miller was in a classroom 11,000 miles away 
from her home in the American capital. She was 
still a biology teacher, but she was also a Peace 
Corps volunteer, the oldest volunteer in the small 
South Asian country of Nepal. 

Many Americans would not recognize the 
name of this isolated, landlocked nation north- 
east of India. But almost everyone has heard of 
Sir Edmund Hillary and his conquest of a moun- 
tain there. That mountain. Mount Everest, and 

by Peggy Anderson 

Lula Miller, Brethren teacher, graduate of Bridgewater 
College, served for two years tn Nepal with the Peace 
Corps. Here she guides students in a biology lab class 

"I recommend the Peace Corps to anyone, young or old," 
says Lula Miller. She spoke to Nepali merchants in their 
own language. She has visited Brethren churches in India 

hundreds of others only sHghtly less spectacular, 
make Nepal one of the most beautiful countries 
on earth. 

How did Lula get from Washington, D.C., to 
Katmandu, Nepal? 

"I had an acquaintance in Washington who 
started to work with the Peace Corps just after 
it began," she reports. "He knew I'd been apply- 
ing here and there to teach dependents of Ameri- 
can service personnel overseas. He suggested I 
might think about the Peace Corps instead. I was 
amazed at this suggestion: I'd thought the Peace 
Corps was only for youth! But when my friend 
told me that Nepal and other countries needed 
biology teachers, I applied right away." 

In Katmandu, the capital of Nepal, Lula was 
assigned to teach at Tri Chandra College. Built 
in 1916, Tri Chandra was the oldest college in 
Nepal and, until 1962, the only one. Using text- 
books printed in India, Lula taught zoology to 
forty-five students preparing for intermediate and 
Bachelor of Science degrees. 

Some students could not afford books; so lec- 
tures and laboratory work were particularly im- 
portant. During a class one day the teacher 
from America discovered that her students had 
never seen some of the lower forms of life they 
were discussing. She found an old tin can, went 
to the pond back of the school, and returned 
with some fine specimens of algae. "The children 
were delighted," Miss Miller remembers, "to 
realize that the pictures in their textbooks cor- 
responded to actual living organisms to be found 
right nearby." 

Classroom teaching is a big job, especially in 
a strange country, but in the evenings and during 
school vacations Lula found time to work on 
small projects of her own choosing. She offered 
English to her own students. English is the 
language of education in Nepal, but many 
students are still having difficulty studying in 
their second language. To Miss Miller's offer of 
help, one boy replied: 

"There are no difficulty with me to understand 
class lecture. But, yes, a little difficulty occurs in 
understanding the lecture of new fellow who has 
just come from foreign country newly. We 
Nepalis are always ready to help anyone at any 
time. Thanks very much for your sympathy in 
asking above question." 

She helped run English workshops for 
secondary school teachers at the Nepal America 
Cultural Center, and she took a job teaching 
English to government employees who had won 
scholarships to study abroad. With the money 
she earned from the latter undertaking, Lula 
Miller set up a zoology reference library at Tri 

"One of my greatest satisfactions," Miss Miller 
recalls, "was working with Dr. Edgar Miller of 
the United Mission hospital in Katmandu. In 
this hospital, sponsored by Protestant churches 
in West Germany, I saw Christianity operating 
as a living force. Dr. Miller was working on a 
paper on infectious hepatitis, which had hit 
Nepal very hard in 1959. My job was abstracting 
material from hospital records to support his 
research. The paper was for publication in a 
Nepali medical journal." 

Lula lived with two other volunteers in a small 
house about twenty minutes' walk from her school. 
Volunteers live on the same level as their local 
co-workers, and to establish themselves as part 
of the community, the women did their own 

"It was often hard to know what was proper 
for women to do," Lula says. "Although there 
were Nepali women on our faculty, there are still 
rather rigid mores which dictate female behavior. 
Take this job of marketing, for example. I was 
carrying my groceries home one day, and a Nepali 
friend stopped me on the road. He looked in 
my basket and seemed surprised. When I 
questioned him about this, he replied, 'Oh, here 
women can carry fruits home from the market 
themselves, but a woman never carries vegetables 
herseff!' " 

Most volunteers do not find it easy to leave 
their country of assignment after two years, and 
Lula Miller is no exception. "I thought it was 
hard to leave the United States," she admits, "but 
it was much, much harder for me to leave 
Katmandu. My experiences there opened new 
lands of interest for me. I have a whole new 
insight into my own culture and my own religion. 
I suppose that some people would consider join- 
ing the Peace Corps at my age an alternative to 
the close of life. For me the Peace Corps offered 
the beginning of a new life. It is through service 
to mankind that man can be made free." D 

22 MESSENGER 4-1-65 

a des/otional guide for the family 

DO YOU KNOW Jesus? Let a group of mistreated and undernourished 
prisoners of war introduce you to the Christ they knew: 

"He was one of us . . . Like us, he often had no place to lay his head, 
no food for his belly, no friends in high places. He, too, had known bone 
weariness from too much toil, the suffering, rejection, and disappointments 
that are part of the fabric of life ... He became flesh and blood. We saw 
him in the full dignity of manhood. He was a man we could understand 
and admire ... a leader we could follow." 

This is the way Ernest Gordon describes the feelings of himself and his 
fellow prisoners in his book. Through the Valley of the Kwai. 

Men everywhere find strength and inspiration in Christ, not only because 
he was a good man but because he was God incarnate. He came to show 
mankind the nature of the love of God and to redeem us from our sins. 

What a wonderful Savior and Lord he is! Do you know him? 

APRIL 4-10 

Mark 1:9-15. Christ's life exemplified Peter 
Marshall's observation; "Life is not measured 
by its duration but by its donation." 

Mark 1:16-20; 3:13-15. Jesus calls us to follow 
him, and to those who obey he reveals himself. 
Do you walk within hearing distance? 

Mark 4:35-41. In the midst of our hurried lives, 
Christ says to us, "Peace, be still." Our storms 
will be less violent if we obey. 

Mark 10:13-16. "A little child shall lead them." 
Lord, may we be as children, simply trusting, 
quick to forgive, eager to learn and follow. 

Mark 10:17-22. This ruler erred by thinking God 
would reward his doing rather than being. Big 
donations cannot buy salvation or love! 

Mark 10:46-52. Had it not been for his blindness 
this man might never have seen Christ! By faith, 
we see life in a new and lifferent way. 

Mark 9:33-37; 10:42-45. Who are today's greatest 
— the high salaried, famous, and educated, the 
good Samaritans those who serve? 


APRIL 11-17 

Mark 11:1-11. "King of my life, I crown thee 
now. Thine shall the glory be." Am I a com- 
mitted disciple of King Jesus? 

Mark 11:15-19. Is your church "a house of 
prayer for all the nations," or is it in need of a 
spiritual "spring cleaning"? 

Mark 12:41-44. "The Lord loveth a cheerful 
giver"; so the little girl gave him a penny instead 
of a dime because she could do it more cheer- 

Mark 14:17-21. In the Lord's supper we com- 
memorate Christ, commune with him, and conse- 
crate ourselves anew for future service. 

Mark 14:32-42. "It was alone the Savior prayed 
in dark Gethsemane." We cannot share all of 
life; some situations must be faced with God. 

Mark 14:43-46. Before you denounce Judas, 
think how we betray Christ by cowardice, silence, 
and compromise, and yet sing, "My Jesus, I Love 

Mark 15:22-27. "He died that we mighf be for- 
given; he died to set men free." "Love so 
amazing, so divine, demands my soul, my life, 
my all." 

4-]-65 MESSENGER 23 

Look anew at Jesus 

Our aim in worshiping together as famihes 
is to better understand God and his will for our 
lives. The clearest and best way to know God 
is through his Son, Jesus Christ. These weeks, 
immediately preceding Easter, are an appropri- 
ate time to concentrate together on who Jesus 
was and what he did. Discuss his human charac- 
teristics and his divine. Why did he come? What 
did he teach? Where is he now? 

We have selected scriptures from the Gospel 
of Mark describing significant experiences and 
teachings of Jesus especially during his last week. 
With younger children you may wish to sup- 
plement these scriptures with reading of addi- 
tional events from a Bible story book or the 
child's church school material. Older children 
will enjoy comparing identical events as told by 
the four Gospels, in the same and different trans- 
lations. The resource book, Christ and the Fine 
Arts, by Maus, is rich with art, poems, and stories 
which could feed an eager child's increasing 

Try to imagine the life and times of Christ 

Pictures of Christ or events from his life 
may be used to remind your family of the 
devotional theme and the Lenten season. Search- 
ing will reveal beautiful ones in every home, in 
church school books, religious magazines, calen- 
dars, Bibles, church bulletins, and on Christmas 

and Easter cards. You may wish to use a single 
picture, such as Sallman's "Head of Christ," the 
entire period or make a bulletin board arrange- 
ment, adding pictures each day depicting his 
birth, teaching, healing, miracles, and events of 
Holy Week. 

Pictures of Palestine today showing the ter- 
rain Jesus knew may add to your family's ap- 
preciation of him as a person. One recent visitor 
there explained that she had always thought of 
the New Testament times as ancient history until 
she realized that the time from his life to ours 
covers approximately the lives of twenty persons 
and that did not seem like many at all! 

Instrumental and recorded music can also add 
to the setting for your devotions. Such numbers 
as "Were You There?" "God So Loved the World," 
"I Walked Today Where Jesus Walked," and 
selections from The Messiah, are a few of the 
vast possibilities. Use what you have, but use it! 

From The Brethren Hymnal, sing together 
such hymns as "Tell Me the Stories of Jesus" 
(No. 474), "We Would See Jesus, Lo! His Star 
Is Shining," (No. 146), "Jesus Calls Us," (No. 
243), and "Strong, Righteous Man of GaHlee" 
(No. 396). 

Through all of this, the scriptures, discussion, 
music, art, poems, and stories, emphasize re- 
peatedly the love that motivated Jesus' life, the 
way we reveal love by giving, and that this love 
was for us! 

Jesus Was a Loving Teacher 

Wilhelmina D'A. Stephens, 1945 


Charlotte A. Barnard, 

f^i i i ;^U 


1. Je - sus was a 

2. Je - sus was a 

3. God, we thank Thee 

lov - ing Teach -er, 
pa - tient Teach- er, 
for this Teach -er. 

Help -ing peo - pie day by day 
Want - ing all to leam God's will. 
And our praise to Thee we give. 

^•in^f F-rt TF i i\ h [ j i ^ 

f^ ^j-ij'iitfi^'J^ ^ 

Know the love of God our Fa - ther, Teach-ing them to love and pray. 

Tell -ing sto - ries they'd re-mem-ber — Sto - ries that we're read -ing still. 
For His love and for His pa - tience, Show - ing peo - pie how to live. 

fi;it^ r p 

Reproduced by permission from Hymns for Primary Worship; words copyright 1946 by The Westminster Press 



the Anchor Bible 

One of the major ventures of the religious 
press today is the publication of the Anchor Bible. 
Two of the thirty-eight volumes — those on 
Genesis and the Epistles of James, Peter, and Jude 
— have already appeared ( Doubleday and Com- 
pany: Vol. I, $6; Vol. XXXVII, $5). The others 
are to follow on a regular basis of six volumes 
a year so that completion can be expected in 1970. 

The publication is aimed at "bvisy churchmen," 
"serious students," "concerned laymen," and "gen- 
eral readers." While the Anchor Bible in view of 
this wide public does not aim to be overly tech- 
nical, it does attempt to deal with the basic 
issues raised by scholars and to include a 
minimum number of textual notes. 

The format and organization of each volume 
attempt to further these aims. Each book of the 
Bible is provided with an introduction which 
places the book in its historical setting. Next, an 
original translation of the biblical text printed in 
large, easy-to-read type is interspersed at con- 
venient intervals with "comments" in smaller 
type, discussing the broader significance of the 
context and the language and with "notes" 
which explain the translations. 

Wide readership is assured by the inter- 
national and interfaith complexion of the Hst of 
authors. Among them are seven Catholics, five 
Jews, and twelve Protestants. While they are 
largely American based, two are from the Pontifi- 
cal Biblical Institute, one is from the Hebrew 
University in Jerusalem, and one is from the 
University of Basel, Switzerland. 

That there will be a heavy emphasis on history 
and archaeology is assured by the fact that the 
general editors are the famous Palestinian 
archaeologist, W. F. Albright, and his pupil, 
David N. Freedman, former editor of the Journal 
of Biblical Literature. A survey of the list of 
authors shows a heavy sprinkling of Professor 
Albright's pupils and of those with a similar point 
of view. The Anchor Bible thus bodes to be 
weighted historically and archaeologically rather 
than theologically. In this connection it is inter- 
esting to observe that none of the names of the 
authors so far released are noted for "member- 
ship" in the Bultmann school. 

Bo Reicke's commentary in The Epistles of 
James, Peter, and Jude, may well prove to be 
one of the finest commentaries in the entire series. 
He does an outstanding job of placing these 
epistles in their probable historical setting in the 
last decade of the first postapostolic epoch. Bo 
Reicke holds that 1 Peter was written from Rome 
just before the Neronian persecution of 64 A.D. 
and that James, 2 Peter, and Jude with their 
positive attitude towards the state and society 
belong in the middle years of Domitian about 90 
A.D., before he began to persecute the church. 

In spite of Luther's negative attitude toward 
James, the author presents the epistle as a genu- 
inely Christian book with admonitions on dif- 
ferent themes urging Christian patience in 
facing trials and in awaiting the coming of the 
Lord. He speaks with prophetic power against in- 
justice and with personal warmth for what is right. 

by David J. Wieand 

4-1-65 MESSENGER 25 


facing the church 



J. EHiott Corbet! focuses on such 
themes as communism, race, and dis- 
armament as he paraphrases five prophets. 
Says Hubert H. Humphrey: "The author 
is to be congratulated for a creative and 
imaginative interpretation of the pro- 
phetic wisdom of the Old Testament in 
contemporary terms." Paper, S2.00 


SurjH Singh points to the interrelations 
of three world views within the frame- 
work of history and the current world 
situation. In objective terms, he shows 
how Christianity's past social irrelevance 
helped communism and democracy dis- 
place it in their respective spheres of in- 
fluence, and how the present failure of 
the Marxist vision and occurrence of the 
American social revolution offer the 
church opportunities to regain its rele- 
vance. Cloth, S3.00; Paper, S1.95 



Robert Lee, Editor. Theological, bibli- 
cal, and sociological perspectives on the 
essence of the exploding metropolis are 
provided by seven distinguished scholars: 
Robert Lee, Robert W. Spike, James Muil- 
enburg, William Petersen, Harold Gilliam, 
Joseph H. Fichter, S.J., and William R. 
Grace. Paper, $1.50 


Alan F. Geyer views American Protes- 
tantism in the world arena. ". . . worth 
the while of any person seriously inter- 
ested in the political sociology of reli- 
gion."— American Political Science Re- 
view. Paper, S2.25 
From the publisher of the LAYMAN'S BIBLE COMMENTARY 

ask your bookseller or write 


8 North Siith Street. Richmond. Virginia 23209 

Professor Bo Reicke has a genu- 
ine feeling for 1 Peter, which he 
understands to be written by the 
apostle with the heavy collabora- 
tion of Paul's fellow traveler Sil- 
vanus (1 Peter 5:12), who was 

"steeped in Greek culture." The 
writer persuasively argues that 1 
Peter is a baptismal sermon penned 
to strengthen the faith of new con- 
verts and to help them recognize 
the supreme worth of the gift of 

salvation which they have received. 

2 Peter is understood as belong- 
ing to the "testament" form of lit- 
erature in which the man of God, 
in view of his imminent death, bids 
farewell to his intimate friends and 
urges endurance in the face of im- 
pending calamities. Readers who 
feel this "apocalyptic fervor" of 2 
Peter "cannot fail to be moved" 
by it. Jude is held to be of sec- 
ondary origin and to be written to 
oppose seducers of the church. 

Since Speiser's Genesis, which 
heads the hst of Old Testament 
commentaries, is acclaimed in the 
promotional hterature as "a master- 
piece," "one of the decisive books 
of the Bible written in this genera- 
tion," this reviewer approached the 
volume with great expectations. It 
proved to be saturated with lin- 
guistic and historical erudition. 
Literary analysis spilled over from 
the "notes" into the "comment" 
sections. Here is a mine of infor- 
mation useful both to the specialist 
and to the seminary student, but 
much of it is beyond the interest 
and understanding of the average 

In the introduction Speiser pre- 
sents a magnificent synthesis of lit- 
erary and tradition criticism of 
Genesis and argues convincingly 
for the authenticity both of the 
background and of the foreground 
of the biblical story. The ultimate 
inspiration of Moses derived from 
the earlier vision of Abraham, who 
left the polytheism of his Mesopo- 
tamian homeland "in quest of spir- 
itual values" bound up with 

Speiser's translation is vigorous, 
clear, and effective, but his com- 
ments are too frequently made of 
dry bones rather than of theological 
and spiritual nourishment. 

Whether the Anchor Bible will 
live up to the superlatives of the 
publisher's advance publicity only 
history can record. It is clear, 
however, that the commentaries 
will attempt to find that unattain- 

26 MESSENGER 4-1-65 

able happy medium between be- 
ing too technical and detailed on 
the one hand and too popular and 
brief on the other. The impressive 
list of authors guarantees that each 
volume will be technically compe- 
tent and that it will receive careful 
appraisal from the scholarly world. 
The original translations of the 
bibhcal text may be one of the 
outstanding contributions of the 
Anchor Bible. Finally, because of 
its interfaith nature this series will 
further the ecumenical dialogue. 

Students of the Bible — both lay 
and professional — will want to ex- 
amine the individual commentaries 
as they come from the press, for 
some of them are destined to make 
outstanding contributions to the 
understanding of the Bible today. 

THE HEART OF MAN, Erich Fromm. Harp- 
er & Row, 1964. 156 pages. $3.95 

This book is one of a series 
entitled Religious Perspectives 
planned and edited by Ruth A. 
Anshen. Religious Perspectives is 
a thoughtful effort by eminent 
specialists to comment upon and to 
interpret man's spiritual and so- 
cial condition in the latter half of 
the twentieth century. 

In this book, Erich Fromm, a 
highly respected neo-Freudian 
analyst, discusses the nature of man 
which he regards to be a contradic- 
tion in search of a solution. His dis- 
cussion of the destructive and con- 
structive forces within man — his 
potential for good or evil — is pre- 
sented against the background of 
the atomic arms race and the ur- 
gency of the threat of extinction 
from nuclear war. In a penetrating 
chapter, "Freedom, Determinism, 
and Alternativism," he assesses 
man's ability to become aware of 
the forces which stand back of his 
actions. In gaining insight into 
these forces, he believes that man 
gains a greater measure of freedom 
from them. 

In general, Fromm is attempting 
to articulate and vindicate the hu- 

manist tradition as it finds expres- 
sion not only in the scientific and 
philosophical realm but also in the 
religious sphere. This thought-pro- 
voking book should be read by 
those in search of growth, chal- 
lenge, and personal and social de- 
velopment. — Emmert F. Bitting- 
er. Bridge-water, Va. 

Sfevick. John Knox, 1964. 239 pages, 

The author, over a period of 
time, has had a lively exchange 
of ideas concerning fundamental- 
ism both with people who consid- 
ered themselves within this move- 
ment and those outside it. Here 
we have collected the main ideas 
contained in that correspondence. 
The author states that the purpose 
of the group differed according to 
whether the person involved was 
attempting to "examine, defend, 
oppose, understand, or, in some 
cases, escape fundamentalism." 

Fundamentalism is being dis- 
cussed more now than it has been 
for some time, thus the timeliness 
of this book. The first section is 
devoted to the rise of the move- 
ment around 1900. Now we are 
witnessing the crisis which has 
arisen in the second generation. 
The first generation scorned aca- 
demic standards, but this genera- 
tion is now seeking to become at- 
tractive to youth and to find an 
"insignia of status." 

The second section is devoted 
to "The Crucial Issue," which is 
defined as biblical inerrancy result- 
ing in allegiance to and the prac- 
tice of legalism in various forms. 
Other chapters are devoted to the 
church, grace, separation from the 
world, and the world. 

This is a book for all who are 
interested in understanding move- 
ments within the church and es- 
pecially for those whose minds are 
open toward understanding funda- 
mentalism. Virginia S. Fisher, 
Elizabethtown, Pa. 

For the 
reader. . . 

Devotions for 
Young Teens 

Helen F. Couch and Sam S. Bare- 
field. These forty devotions, 
written especially for young- 
teens, offer inspiration and 
help for daily problems. 112 
pages. $2 

It All Began With 

W. McFerrin Stowe. Twelve ser- 
mons based on the title idea of 
the book. Bishop Stowe dis- 
cusses God's relevancy to many 
of today's pressing concerns. 
112 pages. $2.50 

The Anatomy of 

Austin C. Lovelace. Dr. Lovelace 
provides for the first time a 
study of poetic forms as they 
are related to the expression of 
feeling and mood in hymn 
texts. 112 pages. $2.75 

Order from your bookstore 


4-1-65 MESSENGER 27 


thems II & III. Helen Boatwright and 
Charles Bressler, soloists; instrumentalists; 
Collegium Musicum of Rutgers University, 
Alfred Mann, cond. Cantate 645 202 
mono and 655 202 stero, $5.95 'each. 
Chandos Anthems IV & VI. The same; 
add Jerrold Held, soloist. Cantate 645 
201 mono and 655 201 stero, $5.95 each 

Limits of space prevent me 
from fully describing any one of 
these rich baroque settings of 
Psalms 11, 51, 42, and 96. Many 
listeners are familiar with Bach's 
motet, "Singet dem Herrn ein 
neues Lied," and I invite them to 
compare it with Handel's setting 
of the same text, Psalm 96. 
Handel had not been living in 
England long when he composed 
these cantatalike works for the 
Duke of Chandos, yet the music he 
WTOte perfecdy matches the ca- 
dences of the King James Version. 

by William Robert Miller 

Each of these anthems has a sup- 
pleness and vivacity not found in 
the later and more awesome The 
Messiah. Few works by any other 
composers possess such a wealth 
of melody or achieve so nice a 
balance between instrumental and 
vocal parts — they are almost con- 
certos for chorus and orchestra. 

Cantate, a Germany company, 
has here brought together some of 
America's best musicians, if not the 
most stellar names. Soprano Helen 
Boatwright and organist Paul May- 
nard, for example, are matchless in 
this music. The performance as a 
whole and in detail equal the best 
that one might ask of England or 
Europe; they are a pure delight. If 
medals are to be struck and distrib- 
uted, conductor Alfred Mann and 
engineer David Hancock should 
receive very gleaming ones. 


Narrated by Raymond W. Van Steen. 
Philips 205 mono, $4.98, and 605 stero, 

Here is a guided tour of Chris- 
tian hymnody to broaden the hori- 
zons of every American or Euro- 
pean. From Ghana, Tanganyika, 
Armenia, India, Papua, Burma, Su- 
matra, and elsewhere, many 
tongues praise the Lord. A neg- 
lected side of the ecumenical en- 
counter is here brought to the fore 
in all its complexity. Many of the 
selections reveal indigenous riches; 
a few display the comical imprint 
of missions more American than 
Christian, as in a snatch of "Jesus 
Loves Me," where only the lan- 
guage has been changed. It 
sounds so funny in Chinese! 

The Russian Orthodox rite, the 
Lord's Prayer recited and chanted 

in Greek (from Athens), a Swedish 
Salvation Army group, the 121st 
Psalm sung by the Protestant 
monks of Taize —all these and 
more are spliced together with a 
running commentary. Only Ro- 
man Catholicism seems to be ab- 
sent. This remarkable and so far 
unique recording is of varying 
technical quality, but for obvious 
reasons it is a "must." The hand- 
some album includes an essay by 
the ubiquitous Martin E. Marty, 
whose many credentials include a 
lively sensitivity to renewal in wor- 
ship forms. 

Christiansen, cond. Concordia S-1 (stereo 
only), $5.75 postpaid from Concordia 
College, Moorhead, Minn. 

Neither new nor great, this disk 
is worth knowing about as the re- 

pository of the first published work 
of a major American composer — 
William Schuman's Four Canonic 
Choruses (1933). Oddly, only 
three are included, though room 
was found for an undistinguished 
piece by Jean Berger. The Schu- 
man choruses, to texts by Millay, 
Cullen, and Tennyson (omitting 
Sandburg's Night Stuff), are epi- 
taphs stressing ongoing life more 
than death — as one might expect 
from a twenty-three-year-old com- 
poser. Admittedly immature, lack- 
ing a well-defined personality, 
these choruses nevertheless possess 
enough substance to merit a place 
in our churches' repertory. 

This recording also includes an 
appealing Christmas carol by Zol- 
tan Kodaly in his rich Hungarian 
idiom, a brief work by the minor 
German composer, K. H. Graun, 
and J. S. Bach's Motet No. 2, "Der 
Geist Hilfft." All the singing is in 
English, and not bad for a denomi- 
national college choir. 

KINS. Read by Cyril Cusack. Caedom 
TC nil, mono only, $5.95 

The poetry of the Jesuit Hop- 
kins represents a landmark in Eng- 
lish literature as well as in the 
long sequence of Christian reli- 
gious expression. And there is 
such wealth of sheer sound, of the 
music of language, that he de- 
mands to be heard with the ear, 
even felt in the larynx, rather than 
only read with the eye and pon- 
dered with the mind. His longest 
poem. The Wreck of the Deutsch- 
land, is a powerful evocation of 
the heroism of German nuns in a 
disaster at sea. God's Grandeur 
and The Wirulhover call to mind 
the deeply felt reality of God in 
the sensate world. There are many 
more also on this disk, spoken with 
idiomatic fervor by a gifted actor. 
Here and there a narrowly Cath- 
olic piety may unsettle you, but 
it is worth forgetting and forgiving 
for the greater beauty to be found 

28 MESSENGER 4-1-65 

WILLIAM BYRD: Mass for Four Voices 
and Virginal Music. Choristers of West- 
minster Abbey, Sir William McKie, cond.; 
Lady Jeans, virginals. Archive 3201 mono 
and 73201 stereo, $5.98 each 
J. J. FROBERGER: Organ and Harpsichord 
Works. Gustav Leonhardt. Cambridge 
509 mono, $4.98; 1509 stereo, $5.98 
J. S. BACH: Preludes and Fugues. Helmut 
Walcha. Archive 3206 mono and 73206 
stereo, $5.98 each 

Works. Karl Richter. Deutsche Grammo- 
phon 18906 mono and 138906 stereo, 
$5.98 each 

This assemblage of four records 
is not altogether random. In addi- 
tion to progressing over three cen- 
turies, the four taken together say 
something about the complexities 
of the progression. Byrd's Eliza- 
bethan manner comes forth in his 
secular pieces for the virginal, a 
lap-sized harpsichord, dating from 
1591-1613. These sparkling dance 
tunes could well have been played 
on the lute; there are still echoes 
of them in some of our old Ap- 
palachian banjo tunes. The Mass, 
dating from about 1605, is of a 
very different sort, English to be 
sure, but clearly of Gregorian an- 
cestry. The record is very engag- 
ing, though I slightly prefer the 
Cambridge choir's sound in the 
mass (London 5795); there is no 
competitor in the keyboard works. 

With Froberger, we move to the 
next generation. Although a child 
of his time (1616-1667), he shows 
an individuality that is as rhap- 
sodic and romantic as Robert 
Schumann. Where Byrd's keyboard 
was jaunty, Froberger's is expan- 
sive. His organ pieces have a med- 
itative mystical character seldom 
heard again until Messiaen in the 
20th century. 

Bach's Preludes and Fugues 
come a century later, but the dif- 
ference is not so much chonologi- 
cal as structural. Without denying 
their freedom and creativity, these 
are preeminently works of assidu- 
ous musical logic, engaging the 
mind with their architectonic bril- 
liance of design. 

Mozart's works for the organ are 
relatively few. His Fantasia, KV 
608, suggests the reason. Although 
dating from 1791, the year of his 
death, it shows no real grasp of 
the organ as an instrument. Franz 
Liszt's Prelude and Fugue make 
a bizarre comparison with those of 
Bach for this creator of florid tone 
poems has all but attempted to use 
the organ as a substitute for the 
grand orchestra of his time — or for 
the grand piano. 

Curiously enough, it is Brahms, 
whose eleven choral preludes were 
written in 1896, who comes closest 
of the three to continuing the or- 
gan tradition after Bach. There 
are touches of nineteenth century 
schmalz, but it is subdued by a 
simplicity of melody and a delicacy 
of counterpoint rare for Brahms' 

The three organists featured on 
these recordings are well suited to 
their respective materials. Walcha 
is, to my mind, the definitive Bach 
organist; I have not cared greatly 
for Richter's Bach, but his Brahms 
is superb — as is, apparently, Leon- 
hardt's Froberger, for which there 
is no competing edition. 


A moving interpretation of the 
SufFering Servant poem in Isaiah 
52:13—53:12 set in the signif- 
icant framework of eight Holy 
Week meditations. 96 pages. $2 

Order from your Bookstore 


Publisher of The 
Interpreter's Dictionary 
of the Bible 

CONTRIBUTORS: Martin E. Marty, who is a 

student of BonhoefPer and editor of the book, 
"The Place of BonhoefFer," is associate pro- 
fessor at the Divinity School of the University 
of Chicago and an associate editor of "The 
Christian Century." Anne Albright lives in 
Ft. Wayne, Ind., where her husband, David, 
is pastor of the Beacon Heights church. Edith 
Lovejoy Pierce, a resident of Evanston, Hi., has 
contributed both poetry and inspirational 
MESSENGER. David J. Wieand is professor of biblical literature 
and Greek at Bethany Theological Seminary, Oak Brook, III. 
Peggy Anderson is a staff v^^riter for the Peace Corps. Director 
of the health cooperative at Castaiier, John Forbes is also 
related to the Castafier Consumers Cooperative, Puerto Rico 

4-1-65 MESSENGER 29 


By Ruth Eitzen 


1. First spring birds we look for 

2. The name of this season 

3. The color of grass in spring 

4. Big, brightly colored spring flowers 

5. Something new on trees 

6. What young plants and animals do 

7. Something warm that everything needs 

8. Something wet the plants need 


9. A little animal that hops 

10. What the sun does 

11. What people make outdoors in spring 

12. Who made all that we enjoy in spring? 

13. A blossom before it blooms 

14. The first thing to do in a garden 

15. Little pools made by the rain 

16. How the robin makes music 

Answers to crossword puzzle 

sSuis gx 'sajppnd ^i 'Sip ^-j 'pnq 
EI 'poQ 31 'uapJBg XT 'sauiqs qI 'I'qciBJ 5 :ssojov 

uiBj 8 'uns I 'mojS 9 
'saAEaj £ 'sdijn} f 'uaajS g 'Suuds g 'uiqoj \ :umoq 

All rights reserved 

A Springtime Bible Verse to Learn 

For lo, the winter is past, 
the rain is over and gone. 

The flowers appear on the earth, 
and the time of singing has come, 

and the voice of the turtledove 
is heard in our land. 

Song of Solomon 2:11-12 

30 MESSENGER 4-1-65 


The circulation of the MESSENGER con- 
tinues to increase as more and more 
churches are adding new subscriptions. 
The printing order for the March 18 
issue was 42,000 and the prospects for 
steady growth are encouraging. 


A farmer is needed for a two-hundred-acre 
dairy farm six miles from Washington, Pa., 
beginning immediately. Interested persons 
should write Mrs. S. W. Bail, 703 E. Oak St., 
Arcadia, Fla. . . . Brethren farm families 
interested in locating in northwestern Illinois 
and living in a Brethren community should 
write to R. O. Blough, chairman of the place- 
ment committee of the Polo church, at R. 3, 
Polo, III. 61064. . . . Anyone willing to sell 
a copy of the old Inglenook Cookbook in fair 
condition should contact Richard J. Bennett, 
506 Princeton Ave., Lakewood, N. J. . . . 
Persons having tape recordings of sermons 
or lectures by Elder Reuel Prifchett of White 
Pine, Tenn., are asked to contact Dale Auker- 
man, R. 3, West Alexandria, Ohio. 

Commission, where she has served since 
1952. She will continue in service at the 
General Offices as copy editor. Filling the 
vacancy will be Mrs. Ruby H. Linkous, cur- 
rently serving as district secretary in Second 

Dillon C. Gnagey of Fresno, Calif., died 
Feb. 28. After a memorial service in the San 
Francisco church, the body was flown to the 
South Waterloo church for burial. . . . Elder 
W. O. Tannreuther, one of the pioneer settlers 
in the Orange Township community in Iowa, 
died Jan. 21, at the age of ninety-four years. 
He taught school, farmed, and served in the 
free ministry for thirty years. One of the 
pioneer Iowa district leaders, he also served 
many years on the National Sunday School 
Board. ... On Feb. 5 W. Glenn McFadden, 
pastor of the Pasadena church, Calif., died 
after a brief illness from a rare disease which 
attacked the bone marrow. A native of Ohio, 
he had taught school and then after graduat- 
ing from Bethany Seminary had served 
churches in Southern Ohio, at Elgin, and at 
Pasadena. Memorial services were held at 
Pasadena and at the Paradise church, Ohio. 

Fiftieth anniversaries were observed by Mr. 
and Mrs. Osa Biser of Troy, Ohio; Mr. and 

Mrs. J. W. Matthews, members of the Ninth 
Street church, Roanoke, Va.; Mr. and Mrs. 
A, J. Lannlng of Sabetha, Kansas; Mr. and 
Mrs. Ben Kimmel of Sheldon, Iowa; Mr. and 
Mrs. George Larimore of Laotto, Ind. Mr. 
and Mrs. Lawrence Ward and Mr. and Mrs. 
Adam Rudisill, both of Troy, Ohio, marked 
their fifty-eighth and fifty-seventh anniversary, 
respectively; sixty-five years of marriage were 
celebrated by Hiram and Mary Rhodes Rep- 
logle of Martinsburg, Pa. 


Mr. and Mrs. Fred J. Miller of Hartford 
City, Ind., thank the many friends who con- 
tributed to the Miiler-Zinsmeister scholarship 
fond at Manchester College, set up in memory 
of their daughters and son-in-law, who were 
killed in an automobile accident in November. 
. . . The family of Roy Wade Grossnickel, 
who died in January, are gratified for the 
response in contributions to Heifer Project in 
his memory. 


During the first quarter of the present 
church year 140 persons were baptized in 
six churches in Nigeria. ... A new road 
makes it easier for visitors and friends to 
stop off at the Flat Creek mission near Man- 
chester, Ky. . . . The New Hope church in 
Indiana recently had a mortgage-burning cere- 
mony for its parsonage and sponsored a 
project for sending comforters and layettes 
to the Lybrook Indian mission. Six members 
drove to New Mexico to deliver the contribu- 
tions from churches in the Southern Indiana 
district. . . . Men of the English River con- 
gregation in Iowa started in February to dis- 
mantle their parsonage. Lumber will be sal- 
vaged for use in building a new parsonage 
planned for the same location. 


April 1 1 Palm Sunday 

April 16 Good Friday 

April 18 Easter 

April 25 National Christian College Day 

April 25 -May 1 Mental Health Week 

May 2-9 Christian Family Week 

May 3-5 District Leaders' Conference 

May 7 May Fellowship Day 

May 9 Festival of the Christian Home (Mother's Day) 

May 23 Rural Life Sunday 

June 6 Pentecost 

June 6 Annual Conference Offering 


Director of circulation Ralph Delk of the 
Brotherhood staff has been appointed a mem- 
ber of the Curriculum Promotion Committee, 
Protestant Church-Owned Publishers' Associa- 
tion. . . . Willard Powers, superintendent of 
transportation service for Kable Printing Com- 
pany, a member of the Mt. Morris church. III., 
and a former member of the General Brother- 
hood Board, has been named official repre- 
sentative of the Printing Industries of America 
on a fifteen-man committee formed by the 
Postmaster General to advise directors of the 
Post Office Department's operating bureaus. 
... On April 3 Wayne F. Geisert will be 
formally installed as the seventh president 
of Bridgewater College, Va. . . . Kathryn 
Kiracofe, India missionary, began a furlough 
in the States at the end of February. 

Carl H. Zigler has resigned as pastor of 
the Polo church in Northern Illinois and Wis- 
consin. . . . After seven years with the 
Mill Creek church in Virginia, Charles Zunkel 
will terminate his work there on Aug. 31. . . . 
Mildred Etter Heckert has resigned as admin- 
istrative assistant in the Christian Education 


Becker, Lena G., Savanna, III., on Dec. 26, 

1964, aged 79 
Bennett, OIlie L., Bethel, Pa., on Dec. 26, 

1964, aged 67 
Blouch, Alice E., Palmyra, Pa., on Dec. 22, 

1964, aged 70 
Brumbaugh, Mary, Kremlin, Mont., on Jan. 

10, 1965, aged 95 
Brunner, Anna M., Neffsville, Pa., on Oct. 17, 

1964, aged 86 

Coffman, Ervin H., Palmyra, Pa., on Jan. 7, 

1965, aged 46 

Kerrick, Nora F., Martinsburg, Pa., on Dec. 

21, 1964, aged 77 
Ketcham, Elizabeth, Canton, ML, on Dec, 29, 

1964, aged 85 

Lehman, David E., Canton, III., on Jan. 6, 

1965, aged 19 

Meisky, Mary A., New Oxford, Pa., on Nov. 

5, 1964, aged 74 
Morton, Martha, Hopewell, Pa., on Dec. 30, 

1964, aged 88 
Richwine, Violette S., Harrisburg, Pa., on Dec. 

17, 1964, aged 67 

Rose, Harry D., Canton, III., on Jan. 14, 1965, 

aged 73 
Shank, William E., Brookville, Ohio, on Dec. 

2, 1964, aged 77 
Sharp, Emma N., Palmyra, Pa., on Sept. 10, 

1964, aged 72 
Shearer, Harry K., Palmyra, Pa., on Oct. 13, 

1964, aged 88 
Snider, Lydia B., Brookville, Ohio, on Jan. 

24, 1964, aged 77 

Snyder, Teddie G., Morrill. Kansas, on Jan. 

14, 1965, aged 20 
Stoneburner, Vicki, Decatur, Ind., on Nov. 6, 

1964, aged 71 
Tibbet, Jennie L, La Verne, Calif., on Jan. 

25, 1965, aged 90 

Ward, Henry E., Ottawa, Kansas, on Dec. 23, 

1964, aged 89 

Webber, Paul E., Manheim, Pa., on Jan. 2, 

1965, aged 59 

Winger, Emma, Marion, Ind., on Oct. 11, 

1964, aged 87 
Wolfe, Elizabeth, North Manchester, Ind., on 

Jan. 15, 1965, aged 84 



The limitations of a vocabulary 

The "fables" that cartoonist Jules Feiffer 
contributes to a number of newspapers contain 
some painfully sharp observations on human 
nature. In a recent one this modern-day Aesop 
pictures an elderly man, obviously destitute, 
who recounts the successive ways in which 
society has viewed his plight. He used to think 
of himself as being "poor." But he was told 
he was "needy." Then a better word came into 
use. The man was "deprived" — until at a later 
time he was described as being "underpriv- 
ileged." And now, in current jargon, he is 

Reflecting on his treatment by society, the 
poor man says, "I still don't have a dime. But 
I have a great vocabulary." 

As Fieffer pictures the old man, it looks as 
if he seldom ventured far from his armchair. 
But if he should ever take a look at one of the 
government building projects that the planners 
think will solve his economic problem, he would 
encounter another vocabulary from the engi- 
neers on the job. Or if he should happen to 
run into a visiting educator who was prepared 
to end illiteracy in his area, he could, in the 
matter of a few minutes, pick up a dozen more 
strange words. 

Or suppose that he got as far away as the 
village church where the young pastor, fresh 
from his seminary, was expounding on God's 
answer to man's predicament. Is there any 
assurance that, even in a sanctuary dedicated 
to the Savior of all mankind, he would receive 
more than some additions to his vocabulary? 

It is a sober truth that far too many persons 
who are eager to be of help to the needy, both 
the culturally and the spiritually deprived, are 
better prepared to offer a new vocabulary than 
they are ready to share their hope, their faith, 
or their own rich experiences of a more abun- 

dant life. We are dependent upon words as a 
primary means of communication, but the 
words, especially the newest and most popular 
words, have frequently become a substitute for 
action. Faced with a thorny problem — and 
most situations involving people are compli- 
cated by human perversity — it is easy to work 
out a verbal solution, a pat answer that reads 
well in print or sounds well in a public speech 
but which, in actual application to a specific 
instance of need, does little more than add to 
a man's vocabulary. 

If a man asks for bread, will you give him 
only a new word to describe his hunger? Jesus 
once quoted the ancient truth that man does 
not live by bread alone but by every word that 
comes from the mouth of the Lord. He was not, 
however, offering a vocabulary, even a divine 
vocabulary, in place of more immediate help. 
He was himself the Word made flesh, the Word 
embodied in a person who lived and dwelt 
among men. He regarded himself as the Word 
that God was now speaking to men. 

So IT is particularly unfortunate when Chris- 
tians substitute a vocabulary of religious 
phrases for the actual experience of making 
Christ known — in the flesh. The word we 
share must not only speak of God incarnate 
in Christ; it must also be embodied in the life 
we live, else we have only a vocabulary to 

Not by bread alone, not by words — even 
the best words — alone, not by programs 
alone, not by prayers alone but, rather as we 
incarnate the spirit of Christ in a personal 
ministry and a personal mission can we really 
help the needy. Otherwise, they will have to 
subsist on — vocabulary. — K.M. 

32 MESSENGER 4-1-65 


This is four books in one: • an introduction to the life and 

significance of Bonhoeffer • Thy Kingdom Come, a lecture 

written by the young and fiery Bonhoeffer • The First Table of 

the Ten Commandments, an essay written while he was in 

prison • and a bibliography of his works which have been 

translated into English. $2.00 

To be published in June: No Rusty Swords, the first volume of 

his collected works. $4.50 

Other books: THE COST OF DISCIPLESHIP, $4.50 and $1.45 





The writings of 



a completely new translation 
to serve readers of all faiths 

The Anchor Bible will be published in 38 volumes on a regular 
basis of six volumes a year, and is scheduled for completion in 
1970. It is the work of Catholic, Protestant and Jewish scholars, 
under the general editorship of William Foxwell Albright and 
David Noel Freedman. Supporting each page of the translation 
will be several pages of notes and comments on sources of the 
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Ready Now: Genesis, Volume 1, by E. A. Speiser $6.00 
The Epistles of James, Peter, and Jude, Volume 37, 

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PERSONS WITH A PURPOSE is one way of describing tlie participants 
in Mission Twelve. Here is a report of interviews witli tfiree couples in 
one church who took part, by Anne Albright, page 1 

THE TIME OF VISITATION went unobserved by persons who failed to 
recognize the meaning of Jesus' coming and the things that make for 
peace. A Palm Sunday meditation, by Edith Lovejoy Pierce, page 10 

German churchman died at the hands of Hitler's men. The witness of 
Bonhoeffer's life and thought lives on. by Martin E. Marty, page 6 

A TIN CAN OF ALGAE became a classroom teaching aid for Lula Miller, 
Peace Corps volunteer in Nepal who taught at Tri Chandra College, by 
Peggy Anderson, page 22 

MARRY A MINISTER? A number of Brethren ministers' wives answer by 
telling the hazards and happiness involved, page 17 

INTRODUCING THE ANCHOR BIBLE, a review article examines the first 
two volumes in a major publishing enterprise, by David Wieand. page 25 


OTHER FEATURES: record and book reviews, daily devotions related to 
the life of Christ, answers to questions about training up a child, a report 
from Puerto Rico, Annual Conference queries, various news stories. 


A portfolio of scenes related to Christ's passion, painted by Rembrandt; 
"The Christian Way of Death," a discussion by Daniel Flory; a feature story 
of a unique ministry to leprosy patients in Nigeria; a report on a recent 
peace convocation; and a review of The Greatest Story Ever Told. 





I would like to commend you on 
keeping us informed as to Sunday 
school material being used around the 
world. However, it is my prayer that 
the Brethren Church will never adopt 
such curriculum. Let us not teach 
our children that the Bible might con- 
tain myths. No matter how I look 
at the definition of myth it boils down 
to "lie." Even using the definition, 
"product of the imagination," it's still 
not truth. 2 Tim. 3:16 indicates that 
God is the author of the Bible. I 
cannot believe that God would inspire 
men to write lies. 

Mrs. Glenn Brandt 

Hershey, Pa. 


In reply to "Controversy Over Cur- 
riculum" (Feb. 4), I think it is dan- 
gerous when we want to teach our 
children that the story of the creation 
is not as written in Genesis. 

In 2 Peter 3:4-10 Peter says that 
one day is with the Lord as a thou- 
sand years, and a thousand years as 
one day. We can teach this fact to 
our children. We do not know how 
long each day was in the creation. 
Mrs. H. M. Fields 
Winter Park, Fla. 


I must disagree with Dr. Paul M. 
Robinson in his reply to the question, 
"Should Children Who Have Not 
Been Baptized Partake of the Lord's 
Supper?" Christ said, "Let the chil- 
dren come to me, and do not hinder 
them." It has been my experience 
of thirty some years that children 
who accompany their parents to the 
table of the love feast accept Christ 
at an early age and receive baptism. 
Until a child knows sin, is baptism 

P. Stein Hockman 
Romney, W. Va. 


I would like to obtain the names 
and addresses of those readers who 
have adopted (or are interested in 
adopting) a child or children of a 
race other than their own. Together 
with the Carl Pattersons of Milledge- 
ville. 111., we would like to start a 
newsletter. Over the years I have 
known several families with this ob- 
jective. Therefore, we feel the need 
for one another. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Carpenter 
Kent, 111. 


Goes to the writer and the article, 
"Holders of the Dream," in the Feb. 
18 issue. Intelligent, logical minds 
will feed on this and will react by 
implementing these good ideas in 
their communication with others 
whom they influence. To do this is 
not only good psychology, but it is 
also a fulfillment of our Lord's com- 
mis.sion, "Go ye . . ." 

F. Blake Million 
Ashland, Ohio 


The ministry of E. B. Craun proved 
an excellent example of "laity in mis- 
sion" about which we hear so much 
today. His creativeness in finding ap- 
propriate forms of ministry to rural 
youth through the Future Farmers of 
America has been a most positive in- 
fluence on thousands of lives. 

However, I must take issue with 
Brother Craun when he states, "Peo- 
ple live closer to God in farming than 
in any other way I know." If this be 
true, then God is "closer" to a rapidly 
decreasipg percentage of the Ameri- 
can population. Besides being a bit 
pretentious — as if rural society some- 
how had a particular corner on God — 
farming as a common experience, a 
mind set, a way of life is fast losing 
its influence on the American scene. 

We live in an urban culture. It 
is the influence of city-based com- 
munication centers, e.g., radio and 
television programs, national maga- 

zines — yes, even the city-produced 
Sears catalogue — that are creating 
the images and merchandise of to- 
day's world. 

Brother Craun's statement, how- 
ever, is all too reflective of the "coun- 
try mouse's" lingering influence upon 
his city cousin. America still dislikes 
cities. The city is seen as a center 
of sin rather than a valid expression 
of man's creativity. 

The fact that the Church of the 
Brethren is on the cutting edge of 
international mission and so seeming- 
ly inefFectual in urban mission is a 
further example of the country 
mouse's hngering influence on the 
needs of his urban cousin. 

As a "city slicker" I resent the 
implication that true life can be found 
"down on the farm." It can. How- 
ever, I would extend the invitation 
to Brother Craun to discover just as 
valid and meaningful a life — better 
geared to the 20th century — "up in 
the city." 

Stanley L. Davis, Jr. 
Chicago, 111. 


When we begin to doubt God's 
Word and say part of it is only myth, 
we may as well cast it all aside, as 
far as any good we will get out of 
it. In Matt. 12:39-40 Jesus referred 
to the incident of Jonah and the 
whale, and if it had not been a fact 
do you think he would have related 

Mrs. C. E. Bower 
Winter Park, Fla. 


You did well, indeed, by placing a 
black border around the article, "Con- 
troversy Over Curriculum," as noth- 
ing will bring death to the Christian's 
spiritual life as well as to that of 
the church faster than to begin doubt- 
ing the veracity of the scriptures. To 
compound this tragedy, the "myth" 
is to be taught children in Sunday 
schools and churches. . . . 

William J. Wadsworth, Jr. 
Plainfield, N. J. 

MESSENGER, Vol. 114, No. 8. April 15, 1965, publi- 
cation of the Church of the Brethren continuing "The 
Gospel Messenger" 

Editor: Kenneth I. Morse 
Managing Editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh 
Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Weigle 
Director of News Service: Howard E. Royer 

MESSENGER, ofRcial publication of the Church of the Brethren, is 
owned and published every other week by the General Brotherhood 
Board — Church of the Brethren, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120, 
Norman J. Baugher, general secretary. Editor, Kenneth I. Morse; 
managing editor, Wilbur E. Brumbaugh; editorial assistant, Elizabeth 
Weigle. Filing date, Oct. 1, 1963. Entered as second-class matter Aug. 
20, 1918, under Act of Congress of Oct. 17, 1917. Second-class postage 
paid at Elgin, III. 

MESSENGER is copyright 1965 by the General Brotherhood Board, 
Church of the Brethren. 

\ A*. ■ ' 





T/ie Lost Supper, Smithsonian Institution 



Head of Christ 

MESSENGER is a member of the Associated Church Press and 
subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 
Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are 
froni the Revised Standard Version. 

Subscription rates: $3.75 per year for individual subscriptions; $3.00 
per year for church group plan; $2.50 per year for every home plan; 
life subscription, $60; husband and wife, $75. 

If you move, clip old address from MESSENGER and send with new 
address. Allow at least fifteen days for address change. 

ABOUT THE COVER; The cover illustration was done by Janie Russell 
who designs the art for the Day by Day feature in each issue of 

PHOTO CREDITS: 1 Three Lions; 10 illustration by Harry Durkee; 15, 17 
Don Honick; 19 Religious News Service; 20 Paul Tepley; 23 illustration 
by Janie Russell 


I N HIS choice of a subject for his work Rembrandt al- 
ways surprises us by his love of the Bible. This man who 
in 145 paintings, 70 etchings, and 575 drawings took 
biblical themes and treated all of them in an individual 
manner did indeed live with the Bible. In this regard 
(his) drawings are particularly enhghtening because they 
are mostly not destined for the public. They are like the 
pages of a diary where all through his life Rembrandt 
noted down the discoveries he made in the Bible. 

As a young man, Rembrandt looked for the dramatic. 
The scriptures were an excellent source of stories full of 
tension and movement. But from 1642 onward, in his 
loneliness, he discovered the meaning of the message 
which contains the key to human existence. From that 
time he no longer sought to exploit the Bible; he tried 

Christ Presented to the People, Art Institute of Chicago 

hrist Washing the Disciples' Feet, 
rt Institute of Chicago 



to interpret it. In his mature years Rembrandt 
became the servant of the Word of God. Thus 
Rembrandt is the only great painter not only 
of the Netherlands but also of the whole world 
to deserve the name of a biblical painter, for 
he roams through the Bible from beginninng 
to end and gives us what he discovers. 

Under the influence of baroque art, Rem- 
brandt, too, in his youth thought it appropriate 
to depict Christ in a grand and dignified man- 
ner. In his later years, however, Rembrandt 
ceased to depict the Christ in human glory. 
The Bible revealed to him the mystery of the 
Messiah and of his unknown coming into the 
world. The Christ in his work no longer bears 
any resemblance to a figure of a heroic, epic 
poem or a model of touching humility. He is 
the Messiah of Isaiah 53, "without form or 
comeliness." Rembrandt is as realistic as the 
Gospels, and in no way relieves the events of 
their terror, their brutahtv, and their scandal. 

4 MESSENGER 4-15-65 

The Three Crosses, Art Institute of Chicago 

Two others also, who were criminals, 

were led away to be put to death with him. 

And when they came to the place which is called The Skull, 

there they crucified him, and the criminals, 

one on the right and one on the left. 

And Jesus said, 

"Father, forgive them; 

for they know not what they do" (Luke 23:32-34). 

4-15-65 MESSENGER 5 


Pilate Washing His Hands, Metropolitan Museuni of Art 

Christ at Emmaus, Art Institute of Chicago 

After Jesus' burial, everything is over, and the dis- 
ciples are left without any hope. Against that back- 
ground of the lowest depths of humanity Rembrandt 
causes the miracle of Emmaus to shine out brightly. 
Georg Simmel notes that at the first glance Rem- 
brandt's Christ looks more insignificant than the 
people around him: "And yet, if we look just a little 
longer, that weak, almost faltering being becomes 
the only i-eally firm one, and all the other strong and 
substantial figures are uncertain and almost uprooted 
beside him, as if he alone, not they, were standing 
on the ground on which man can truly stand." 

Excerpted from Rembrandt and the Gospel by W. A. Visser 't 
Hooft, World Publishing Company 

4-15-65 MESSENGER 7 

The Descent From the Cross, 
National Gallery of Art 


Thanks to the work of mission doctors 
like Roy Pfaltzgraff, there is new hope for 
those who have been crippled by leprosy 



"I'm walking! I'm walking!" 

Audu's shout announced his return home. 
The village responded as if it were one body. 
Friends and old neighbors ran toward him; their 
shouts and laughter surrounded Audu, who heard 
only fragments of what they said. 

". . . Back! Where are your crutches? Hand 
him a hoe. Let's see your leg. How did the 
doctor . . ." 

Audu grabbed for extended hands as he 
laughed and talked. "It's good to be alive!" 
thought Audu. 

Life had not always seemed good to Audu 
Zobi. When he contracted leprosy, he had been 
a hardworking, dependable farmer who loved 
the soil. But then the sickness had come. At 
first, the small sore did not pain his foot; so he 
neglected it until an angry ulcer appeared and 
then became cancerous. The ulcerous poison was 
already coursing and throbbing throughout 
Audu's body systems when the doctor saw him 
at the clinic in his village of Wandali. 

It was not too difficult to persuade Audu to 
go to the leprosarium hospital, but it was quite 

another thing to obtain his permission to ampu- 
tate his leg. He knew he was near death, and 
did not want to enter the spirit world with a 
mutilated body. Finally, in a desperate gesture 
to fight off his impending death, Audu consented 
to the operation. 

With the ulcer and its toxic poisons gone, 
Audu's thin, frail body began its long, hard fight 
to regain its health and strength. The day came 
when the Garkida physician felt that he should 
fit the remaining portion of Audu's leg with a 
prosthesis (an artificial leg). Then came the 
challenge of learning to walk again and finally 
return to Wandali and the task of farming Audu 
loves so much. 

Audu's story is but one of thousands of 
chapters in the life of the Church of the Brethren 
leprosarium at Garkida in Northern Nigeria. 
Established in 1929, the Garkida Leprosarium, 
recently renamed Adamawa Provincial Lepro- 
sarium, has progressed from a traditional home 
for outcasts to an up-to-date, effective treatment 
program, centered around a modem well- 
equipped hospital and emphasizing outpatient 

8 MESSENGER 4-15-65 

treatment for all patients who do not need 
special care. 

Heading this outstanding leprosy program is 
a tall, lanky Pennsylvanian who brought his wife 
and son to Africa twenty years ago. From the 
moment Dr. Roy Pfaltzgraff saw his first leprosy 
patients, many of them deformed and mutilated 
from lack of early and effective treatment, he de- 
termined that his way of witnessing for Christ 
was to use all of his knowledge of medicine and 
surgery in giving the best possible treatment to 
these sufferers of Hansen's disease. 

How well Dr. Pfaltzgraff has succeeded is 
attested to not only by the excellent medical 
program which has drawn high praise from the 
Nigerian government but also by the program 
of evangelism which is related to the leprosarium 
and which has had widespread influence in the 
establishment of the church in the area served 
by the hospital. 

As government leprosy officer for two prov- 
inces. Dr. Pfaltzgraff oversees the work of almost 
two hundred rural clinics under local govern- 
ment administration. This is in addition to his 
main job of supervising the central institution at 
Garkida, which treats some 550 resident patients 
and more than 4,000 persons in a network of 
outpatient clinics. 

Some eighty children between the ages of 
one and five attend a baby clinic at the hospital, 
where all health problems are cared for and 
nutritional supplements are given. And at an 
excellent accredited school, more than one 
hundred youngsters get an education while under- 
going medical treatment. 

An outstanding surgical program repairs para- 
lyzed hands and damaged feet. In one year. 
Dr. Pfaltzgraff performed 740 minor operations 
and 25 major ones. 

Several months ago, just prior to furlough 
Violet Pfaltzgraff, the doctor's wife, mother of 
five children and head nurse of the institution, 
wrote friends, "We were thrilled to just discharge 
two patients walking under their own power, who 
had been helpless cripples in our wards for over 
three years." 

Amina was one of those women. When she 
came to the hospital, both of her feet were in a 
very poor condition, so poor in fact, she had given 
up the fight to become a healthy woman. Amina 

had come to believe it was God's will that she be 
an invalid all of her life. "Such a response is not 
uncommon among the Fulani people, who are 
Muslim," commented the Pfaltzgraffs as they re- 
counted the story. 

The days of Amina's life stretched into several 
years. The doctors and nurses had taken over the 
fight for her. Medical procedures restored her 
one foot to normalcy, but the other foot had to 
be amputated because of its helplessly crippled 
condition. Still Amina did not care. "It is God's 
will that my life be this way," she would say. 

Then one day Audu smiled at Amina as he 
passed through her ward. Amina was amazed 
that Audu was happy and walking. "Why would 
God want anyone with just one leg walking again 
like a normal person?" she asked the doctor. He 
did not answer her question. He simply in- 
formed Amina he was making a prosthesis for 
her leg also. Amina laughed in unbelief, but it 
was only a few months later that she was able 
to laugh for joy as she began walking around her 
ward and began talking about the trek that she 
soon would be taking home to her village. 

Leprosy control today in Nigeria is not too 
difficult owing to the effectiveness of the drug, 
Dapsone. Great strides have been made in 
getting the three percent to thirteen percent of 
the total population of Nigeria who have Hansen's 
disease under some kind of medical treatment. 
Rehabilitation of the patient, however, is a very 
difficult task. 

In the majority of the materials on leprosy 
today, there is great stress laid on the rehabilita- 
tion of the hand. Dr. Paul Brand, a leprologist 
working in India, has pioneered in this particular 
work. "I would not minimize the importance of 
rehabilitating the hand," comments Dr. Pfaltz- 
graff, "but for the African at this stage of his 
economic development, the rehabilitation of the 
foot is of much more importance than the hand. 
When a farmer has nothing but a hoe, he can 
get by with almost any kind of a hand, but he 
must be able to walk to his patch of ground. He 
must be able to stand in his field." 

It was nine years ago that the Pfaltzgraffs be- 
gan their investigation of the possibilities of 
prosthetic rehabilitation of the feet. Consultations 
with Dr. Brand, a visit to the Hoy Ling Chou 




DanieTl'C. Flpry '\ ^^'^^^ 

I REMEMBER a play we gave in college entitled 
"Death Takes a Holiday." Three dramatic 
scenes depicted the experiences of one single day. 
Though accident and sickness seemed fatal, the 
characters involved did not die because death 
was on vacation on one unusual day. The play 
impressed those who witnessed it with what life 
would be like if there was no physical death. 

Still we know that death takes no holiday, 
today or any other day. It is eternally with us 
and will be with us until the end of time. We 
must face its reality or we do not face life itself. 
Death is at work full time. There is a certainty 
of death that no one can avoid. "It is appointed 
to man once to die." Sooner or later, somewhere. 



someplace, sometime, each of us must face death. 

There is a finahty about the prospect of death. 
It affects the rich, the poor, the weak, the strong, 
the important, the insignificant. To say when a 
person dies, "He passed away, was translated, 
is gone," does not do justice to the fact of death 
from the human standpoint. Why do we not say 
honestly, "He is dead," and face up to the situa- 

We are never fully prepared Jot death, but 
before it comes — and it will come — we should 
have thought out our beliefs concerning death. 
This is for our own sake, if we must face death 
personally or if death takes someone close to us 
and we must learn to face life without that per- 

son. Both the shock and acceptance of loss are 
part of the reality of death. 

The Christian church has not always offered 
a true picture of death, its meaning, its nature. 
In the Middle Ages death was too fatalistic. Even 
in the 19th century, the typical approach to death 
was not entirely biblically based. Several well- 
known hymns paint inadequate pictures of the 
experience of death. "Lead kindly Light, amid 
th' encircling gloom" is much too dismal to 
describe the Christian's hope after death. "My 
Faith Looks Up to Thee" contains the words, 
"death's cold, sullen stream." Death should be 
a warm, welcome stream for those who have 
lived a life completely and are prepared through 

4-15-65 MESSENGER 11 

Christ to move on. 

In 1 Corinthians 15, Paul spells out a more 
adequate concept. Paul tells us that this body 
will perish after death, but we shall receive a 
new body through the transforming power of 
the living God. "This perishable nature must 
put on the imperishable, and this mortal nature 
must put on immortality." Death for the Chris- 
tian is a change wrought by God, not just a 
transition experienced through the desire of man 
for eternal life. The apostle declares that the 
resurrection of Christ has made possible our hope 
in resurrection, as individuals made alive eternal- 
ly through belief in a living God. Thus death is 
not a dull end but a glad awakening. Paul puts 
resurrection first, immortality second. We must 
experience a personal resurrection before we can 
have hope for immortality after death. 

The fatalist says, "Death is an enemy that 
cannot be overcome." The Christian can say, 
"Death is a friend that we must become ac- 
quainted with." 

The fatalist says, "Death has a sting that lasts 
into eternity." The Christian can say, "Death has 
a joy that no depths can drown." 

The fatalist says, "Death is a sentence which 
can never be revoked." The Christian can say, 
"Death is an opportunity to experience the future 
blessings of salvation." 

Paul describes death as a victory. There is 
a victory in death, a victory over death. What is 
the victory over death? The experience of death 
for the believing Christian is not, or need not be, 
a defeat at the end of life. It can be a victory 
which climaxes the genuine thrills and adventures 
of life. What is the victory over death? It is an 
acknowledgement of God, "who gives us the 
victory through our Lord Jesus Christ." It is the 
victory over sin, the victory over law. It is the 
victory of the total man over the finality of death. 
It is centered in Christ, who was raised from 
death by the power of God his Father. Acts 
2:24 declares: "But God raised him up, having 
loosed the pangs of death, because it was not 
possible for him to be held by it." 

Paul would admonish us to live beyond death 
and above death. He would have us believe that 
there is a victory, a hope, a certainty that there 
is something beyond this life. Most of all, he 
would have us believe that there is someone who 

when life here offers us nothing more meets us 
beyond life. Life to come offers us everything 
we can hope for! 

As a Christian I have come to approach death 
as an optimistic realist, not as a pessimistic 
fatalist. I believe that death is not easy to face, 
but it can be faced either in defeat or in victory. 
We either accept or reject the fact of death. The 
understanding of and approach to death affect 
the understanding of and approach we make to 

Psychology would say that the fear of death 
is basic, human fear, more unconscious than con- 
scious because we tend to push it into the un- 
conscious realm since we all want to live. Yet, 
it is a natural, not an unnatural, fear. It is part 
and parcel of modem man's philosophy, "I love 
life; I want to live." Yet this fear of death must 
move over and merge into an acceptance of the 
stark reality of death, and beyond to the antici- 
pation of life beyond death. 

In A Man Called Peter Catherine Marshall 
tells the now familiar story of how ill prepared 
for death she was when Peter died suddenly at the 
age of forty-six back in 1949. But the amazing 
part of the story was that she ordered the 
memorial service for her departed husband to be 
held in the church sanctuary where Peter had 
preached the previous Sunday morning. There 
were the singing of hymns, the reading of scrip- 
ture, the assistant minister in the pulpit with 
other minister friends. In spite of her sudden 
grief in the loss of Peter, she knew that he, with 
his strong Christian beliefs about life after death, 
would have wanted it that way. 

Thus there is victory over death for those 
living as well as for those who die in the Lord. 
Our approach to funeral services reflects our be- 
lief about death, our concept concerning the cer- 
tainty of life beyond. If our belief in the resur- 
rection is strong, our faith will see us through 
every experience of death that comes our way. 

If the baptism of believers, the dedication of 
babies and parents, the marriage of couples who 
are Christian, and the celebration of anniver- 
saries are part of the regular program of the 
church, then certainly the Christian memorial 
service for the faithful should be considered no 
less a regular worship experience in the life of 


12 MESSENGER 4-15-65 


you ask 

Question: What should be 
the role of the minister's wife 
in the local church? 

Answer: There is probably 
no vocation in which a wife is 
so uniquely related to her hus- 
band's office as in the Christian 
ministry. This is recognized 
publicly at the time of the ordi- 
nation of the minister when, if 
he is married, his wife is asked 
to take this vow, "Will you 
sustain your beloved companion 
in this ministry, uniting with 
him in a ministry of prayer and 
devotion, encouraging him by 
your love and prayers, sharing 
with him in this ministry now 
entrusted to him so far as God 
gives you grace and strength?" 

When a pastor is installed in- 
to the ministry of a congrega- 
tion, his wife is charged to "be 
a true spiritual helpmeet to your 
husband and to maintain a 
home which shall be a shining 
light of wholesome family liv- 

In general, the pastor's wife 
should be allowed to be what 
any faithful, consecrated mem- 
ber of the congregation should 
be. While the situation in each 
local church will vary greatly 
she should accept whatever 
service is consistent with her 
ability, not because she is the 
minister's wife but because she 
is a Christian. Her relationship 
with her husband does not give 
her an "ex-ofiRcio" status in the 
administration of the church. 
Like her husband, she should 

be dedicated to the task of help- 
ing the members of the congre- 
gation grow in their own spirit- 
ual maturity, and she will often 
remain in the background in the 
official life of the church while 
at the same time lending her 
gifts in the support of those who 

For the wife of the pastor to 
plead exemption from any serv- 
ice to the church because of her 
relationship to her husband 
would be as unfortunate as if 
she were to use her role and 
status to dominate the life of 
the congregation. It would 
probably be well for her to 
avoid membership on the church 
board or any other agency to 
which her husband would be 
responsible. On the other hand, 
many ministers' wives make out- 
standing contributions to the life 
of the congregation in the min- 
istry of music, in various pro- 
grams of Christian education, in 
women's work, and in countless 
other areas of service. 

A congregation should not 
expect a minister's wife to ac- 
company her husband when he 
makes pastoral calls. She may 
call with her husband if her 
time and family situation permit, 
but her presence generally tends 
to make the visit more social 
than pastoral or professional. In 
any case, she should not be ex- 
pected to give her time to her 
husband's professional duties as 

if she were a staff member of 
the church. 

Perhaps the greatest contri- 
bution the pastor's wife can 
make is to fulfill the charge 
given when her husband is in- 
stalled into oflBce — to be a true 
spiritual helpmeet to her hus- 
band and to give her Christian 
witness to the church and to 
the world as a faithful and de- 
voted wife and mother. 

Question: Where were the 
first Bibles printed in America? 

Answer: The first to be print- 
ed in America was in 1663 for 
the Indians in Massachusetts in 
their own language. It was 
translated into the Massa- 
chusetts Indian language by 
John Eliot, a missionary. The 
first Bible in a European lan- 
guage was printed in German 
by Christopher Sower in Ger- 
mantown, Pennsylvania, in 1743. 
The Enghsh Bible was first 
printed in this country in 1782 
lay Robert Aitken, in Philadel- 
phia, with the approval and 
recommendation of Congress. 

Question: Into how many 
languages has some whole part 
of the Bible been translated and 

Answer: According to the 
American Bible Society, as of 
now, 1,216. It has been esti- 
mated that there may be about 
1,000 languages and dialects in 
which some part of the scrip- 
tures should still be translated 
and published. The American 
Bible Society alone has dis- 
tributed more than half a million 
copies of the scripture since its 
organization in 1816. 

If you h.ave a question you would like to have answered 
on this page, send it to Questions You Ask, Messenger, 
Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 
Replies to questions are written by Dr. Paul M. Robinson 


Dare we forsake 
a mission field 
on our doorstep? 

One Million People in Need 

I have a great concern for the west side of 
the city of Chicago and also for the Brethren 
witness there. Could it be that we have al- 
most forsaken one of the neediest mission 
fields in the world? 

The west side of Chicago is a great social 
stage on which is played a hundred thousand 
tragic dramas. The actors are all sorts of men 
representing all forms of social estrangement 
and neglect, dramatizing every form of human 

The cast includes over one million who 
represent every type of human deprivation; 
minorities seel<ing some sense of dignity; im- 
migrants from every corner of the land striving, 
often unsuccessfully, to become urbanized; 
and the socially disinherited, whose needs 
receive only superficial attention and meager 

Most of these residents have been under- 
educated. The rate of functional illiteracy is 
appalling; the average education is below the 
average for any state in the Union. Concerns 
of federal and local authorities for this shock- 
ing educational blight is entirely too little and 
much too late; many have already reached 
early middle age without proper learning ex- 

periences, and no hope remains for alleviation 
of their deficiency. 

The cast of this drama is largely econom- 
ically destitute; the majority of families are 
living in dilapidated housing and on substan- 
dard subsistence. Twenty-five percent of all 
residents are recipients of public aid because 
of their unemployability. 

The setting is covered with thousands of 
crowded tenements, noisy streets, dirty alleys, 
with few and underfunctioning social institu- 
tions and organizations. They are overcome 
by the immensity of their task; many flounder 
without adequate staff or adequate programs 
to begin to meet the needs. 

Thousands of shadows of personal and 
social disorder shroud the area. Vice lords 
mind the "turf," threatening the safety and 
security of everyone with their desperate 
search for escape from boredom. But the cast 
keeps increasing, the setting becomes more 
disintegrated, and the disturbing gap between 
need and service deepens. 

This was once the home of the Brethren in 
the Chicago area. They settled here, built 
homes, sent their children to the schools, 
built churches in which to worship and train 
their youth, established a hospital to serve 
the needy, neighbored with those who lived 
among them. But many of the Brethren are 
now gone. They have moved their homes, 
along with their neighbors, to the fringes of the 
exploding metropolis. A few of their religious 
and social institutions remain, seeking, but who 
knows how successfully, to maintain some wit- 

Few hear the cries of pain from the asphalt 
jungle, and few choose to serve in this wilder- 
ness of ignorance, this fortress of fear, this 
desert of despair, this battlefront of social un- 

Perhaps there are those who would ac- 
cept the challenge if the call to service came 
with more clearness of program and purpose, 
but unless someone leads the way the pro- 
phetic mission of the church on the west side 
will be further lost, and the west side of 
Chicago will continue its road to economic 
deprivation and social degeneration, and 
Brethren genius for social service will wilt and 
waste away. I\^ERLIN CLARK 

14 MESSENGER 4-15-65 


Pacem in Terris: Where to begin? 

Although it was two years ago at 
Easter that the late Pope John XXIU 
issued the encyclical, Pacem in Term 
— Peace on Earth, his voice again was 
heard in a persuasive entreaty to the 
consciences of men. 

The occasion was the star-studded 
International Convocation to Ex- 
amine the Requirements for Peace, 
set up by the Study of Democratic 
Institutions. Convened in New York 
Feb. 17-20, the conclave was a 
massive demonstration of the will for 
peace and with this, a realistic avowal 

of the inadequacies of present-day 
mechanisms to achieve peace. 

Using the late pontiff's final en- 
cyclical as its theme, the convocation 
heard celebrated personalities from 
East and West laud the universally 
appealing document, then read into 
it their own understanding of how 
peace is to be achieved. 

Yet, in contrast to what would have 
been a few years earlier, the partisan- 
ship of the speakers was moderate, 
weighed against the broad spectrum 
of ideologies and issues represented. 

Among peace churchmen at peace conference 

Muste, Shomer, Row 

A weakness of the program was its 
skirting of outright confrontation on 
conflicting views. 

Representing the Church of the 
Brethren were W. Harold Row and 
Ralph E. Smeltzer of the Brethren 
Service Commission staff. Among 
other peace churchmen participating 
were Dr. Howard Schomer of Chicago 
Theological Seminary, Dr. A. J. Muste 
of the Fellowship of Reconciliation, 
and Dr. Paul Peachey of the Church 
Peace Mission. 

The point at which the theologians, 
statesmen, and social scientists came 
loudest and clearest, and perhaps 
most in tune with the peasant pope, 
was in their stress upon mutual trust, 
tolerance, understanding, the respect- 
ability of negotiation — all these as 
prime requisites for peace building. 

Typically yet provocatively, George 
F. Kennan, former U. S. ambassador 
to Russia and Yugoslavia, appealed 
"for something resembling a new act 
of faith in the ultimate humanity and 
sobriety of the people on the other 
side." For the West this would en- 
tail "a basic revision concerning 
Soviet intentions." For both East and 
Weit it would mean coming to realize 
that "in the predication of only the 
worst motives on the adversary's part 
there lies, today, no hope at all." 

4-15-65 MESSENGER 15 


"Campus Encounter" 

Christianity, like all of life, is en- 
meshed in mystery. The adequate 
response of the Christian involves a 
leap of faith, not a clutching to easy, 
absolute answers. 

Pointing this up was Elizabeth- 
town College's "Campus Encounter," 
a two-day volley of theological and 
philosophical crossfire on the theme, 
"Living Without THE Answer." Zero- 
ing in with an adroit attack was 
guest leader T. Wayne Rieman, Man- 
chester College's religion and philoso- 
phy department head. 

What makes man man more than 
anything else, he told the Etownians, 
is his seeking of meaning. "This is 
what the human venture is all about 
— finding out what life is and what 
kind of world this is." 

"There are answers aplenty, but 
not THE answer. Our knowledge is 
vast, but our knowledge is not truth. 
All knowledge is known from a van- 
tage point and is consequently biased, 
limited, distorted. Science, rehgion, 
philosophy, the arts, the practical 
man — all make assumptions or have 
presuppositions which cannot be 
proved. We have answers, but not 
adequate answers. 

"But man is an exalting creature — 
a worshiper! Everyman raises some 
idea, person, thing, value, or method 

to the level of ultimacy. Something 
becomes authoritative. Everyman 
bets his life on something. The ulti- 
mate dependence is faith." 

Why the Christian faith? These 
things commend it, Dr. Rieman told 
the Pennsylvania collegians; 

• It makes more sense of more 
things: creation, birth, life, suffering, 
evil, goodness, joy, love, death. It 
gives the highest estimate to the 
worth of man. 

• It boldly affirms: God is sover- 
eign love, the ground of being. Life 
is good, full of opportunities for each 
to become what God meant him to 
be. Creation is good; God is at work 
in the world. 

• It is open to learning, discovery, 
and growth, accepting or rejecting 
ideas and truths on the basis of their 
harmony with sovereign love (as re- 
vealed in Jesus Christ). 

• It humbly admits that we see 
dimly. Eveiy claim to truth must be 
open to reexamination. 

This latter point was a major 
weapon in Dr. Rieman's assault. To 
a Messenger reporter he commented 
later, "In the academic milieu, our 
prevailing presuppositions about sci- 
ence, the social sciences, the humani- 
ties . . . our learning and our knowing 
. . . our sometimes presumptuous 
academic Tower of Babel . . . all are 
under scrutiny." 

And so it should be, in the Tim 
Rieman view. For the best of good 
education, as he sees it, foregoes giv- 
ing easy answers to gigantic issues. 
Rather, he looks upon a good liberal 
arts college as "a raiser of questions. 

Tim Rieman to Etownians; "Everyman bets his life on something" 

a pointer to the classic answers, a 
critical evaluator of all answers, and 
an enabler or midwife who helps 
students to be bom intellectually and 
existentially and who helps them to 
make decisions and to say, 'Here I 
stand.' " 

Herein lies the crucial concern — 
the necessity of taking a stand, even 
though THE answer still eludes us. 

At Elizabethtown, Tim Rieman 
summed up his stand in these terms: 

"I choose to believe that God is 
good. This is it for me! If we are 
sure about the goodness of God, then 
we can be sure about most everything 
that matters most. God is love. I'll 
bet my life on this!" 

The inescapable "R" 

Modern man has come to accept the 
fact that "the matter of religious be- 
lief ought not to be taught in the 
classroom. Yet he substitutes for be- 
lief in God all manner of ultimate be- 
lief about man, history, and destiny 
taught with religious devotion ip the 

Such education, said Dr. Glenn A. 
Olds, president of Springfield (Mass.) 
College, will build "technological 
giants and moral midgets." 

Dr. Old's address was directed not 
to a church convention but to the 
American Association of School Ad- 
ministrators, meeting 27,000 strong 
in Atlantic City. 

To avoid giving a special place 
to any one version of religion, educa- 
tion now offers "freedom from reli- 
gion," he charged. 

Yet, he added, "religion cannot be 
escaped. We merely substitute some 
idolatry for it, whether of technology, 
state, economic group, political party, 
or racial superiority." 

Without the perspective, disci- 
pline, and correction that a transcend- 
ing ideal bring, man embraces "half- 
gods, man-made gods that not only 
bewilder but bewitch." 

The alternative, said the educator, 
is not to return to "an authoritarian 
education, religious or otheiAvise, 
which through fear, threat, or promise 
rob man of his reason . . ." but to 
"lecover the perspective of our re- 
ligious heritage at its best and relate 
it, as a fourth R to the enterprise of 
our total education." 


Assessing the new youth curriculum 

"The new Church of the Brethren 
youth curriculum is making church 
school intellectually respectable," 
claims Ronald K. Morgan, pastor, 
Hutchinson, Kansas. 

In the same vein, Charles M. 
Bieber, pastor of the Big Swatara 
congregation, Hummelstown, Pa., 
terms the new year of study, In His 
Hand, as "the best youth curriculum 
which I have ever seen, by the 
Church of the Brethren or any of 
several other publishers. It digs deep- 
er into biblical meaning." 

On the other side, the official board 
of the New Salem church, Milford, 
Ind., charges that "the entire book is 
a brazen endeavor to miscolor the 
teaching of God's Word." 

And as reactions continue to come 
and go, even Annual Conference may 
get into the act, for a new query 
originating with the Myrde Point 
church in Oregon requests a study of 
various church school publications 
. . . "to ascertain why so many of our 
churches are not using this material 
and, if possible, to suggest the manner 
in which these publications may be 
brought into line with Brethren 
thought to the end that churchwide 
use can be made of them." 

However, in terms of distribution, 
the 13,600 and 12,023 copies of In 
His Hand ordered for pupils each of 
the last two quarters represent a high 
for youth curriculum use among 
Brethren churches. 

Interestingly, the most ardent fans 
of the new curriculum are adults, and 
so are the arch-critics. In a number 
of churches, parents and other adults 
are studying the material simultane- 
ously, though separately, with the 
young people. One Southern Pennsyl- 
vania congregation based its Wednes- 
day night prayer meetings on the new 
youth course. 

What is not readily apparent to 
some users is the theological position 
taken by Graydon F. Snyder, author 
of the first year's student books. 
Many feel that he is liberal, and a 
cursory look at the material might 

substantiate this. "It is only a careful 
reading in context which denies the 
liberal," observed Charles Bieber. 
"But apart from reading, when one 
has opportunity to hear the author 
interpret, he recognizes that con- 
servatism or liberalism is not im- 
portant; the author is biblical." 

"His conclusions are by and large 
conservative but are refined by, tested 
by, examined by, and usually strength- 
ened by the best of modern scholar- 
ship," observed Ronald Morgan. 

To Author Snyder, associate pro- 
fessor of biblical studies at Bethany 
Theological Seminary since 1959, this 
means dealing head on with the 
miracles and mysteries of the Bible 
from the standpoint of scientific possi- 
bility and historical accuracy, yet not 
overshadowing the meaning to those 
who experienced the event. The 
primary stress is on the statement 
of faith by the participants. 

"The Bible is conversation, God's 
word with man and man's reply to 
God as well as man's conversation 
with other men about God's action," 
Dr. Snyder asserted. "In real dialogue, 
inner consistency is not important 
When I find a conflict in biblical 
material, I do not ask which is right 
and reject the other, but I ask. What 
is the meaning of the conflict to Israel 
and to the early church? Between the 
knowledge of what the people saw 
and what actually happened, the 
point is. What insight does this off^er 
into their faith and confession?" 

The answer, the professor main- 
tains, concerns us, for he sees the 
Bible as the story of our lives through 
birth, childhood, youth, maturity, and 
death. "We do not fully understand 
the Bible," he says. "We never will. 
My plea is to take what you can get 
and live on the basis of that. Read 
the Bible yourself and ask, 'What is 
God trying to say to me?' " 

On this basis, an overt aim of 
In His Hand is so to relate the Bible 
to youth that they will find it ap- 
pealing to read. Reports vary vddely 
as to how youth are responding. On 

Author Snyder to pupil and teacher: 
"Just let the Bible say what it really does" 

the favorable side, at the Mill Creek 
church in Virginia, Don Click, a 
youth teacher, commented, "There is 
a new appreciation of the Old Testa- 
ment and of understanding of the 
scriptures. It is encouraging to see 
youth set an example in using their 
Bibles in the church school class. 
Personally, I rate the new curriculum 
as one of the most significant achieve- 
ments in youth emphasis in the 
decade and a half I have taught." 

Mr. Click, who also teaches in 
high school, noted that the curriculum 
was over the heads of some students. 
"In defense of this, let me say a cur- 
riculum which does not go over the 
heads of some will not challenge the 
more curious and capable student," 
he added. 

The Virginia teacher further re- 
ported that parents were "lavish" in 
their praise of the curriculum. "Our 
youth are asking questions they never 
have asked before," he quoted parents 
as saying. 

At Hutchinson, Kansas, one youth 
said after using the choral reading 
on Amos, prepared by Kenneth B. 
Byerly, writer of the teacher's guide 
for two quarters: "Golly, that's too 
real!" The class is considering using 


4-15-65 MESSENGER 17 


To a Virginia layman, a youth teactier of fifteen years, 
tfie new senior tiigfi curriculum is tops. To a California 
pastor, it is quite irrelevant. How do others react? 

the reading for congregational wor- 

"The class shows more interest in 
this curriculum than formerly," said 
Duane M. Rowland, youth teacher of 
the West Eel River church in Indiana. 
"More youth study the lessons regu- 
larly and comprehend the human ele- 
ment in them." 

But not all users agree about its 
speaking to youth. Jacob T. Dick, 
pastor, Fresno, Calif., finds In His 
Hand "too orthodox" and questions 
the money and time spent on a new 
curriculum "still not applied to life." 
He maintains, "It is open and honest 
about things that happened so long 
ago that no one cares if you are open 
and honest. We are alive in today's 
world, and we might try to escape 
it through a new curriculum, but it 
simply will not be ignored. 

"I speak as a man of the world, 
interested in the world, the world 
that God loves," commented Pastor 
Dick. "I sense very httle of this mood 
in the new curriculum." 

Among some who differ with Pastor 
Dick are persons who feel that the 
first-year books are a little too worldly, 
particularly in the treatment accorded 
sex. "It seems to select lessons related 
to sexual behavior of people of the 
Old Testament a great deal of the 
time," objected D. H. Bucher, teacher 
at the South Waterloo church, Iowa. 
"This type of lesson is good and 
necessary and appeals to youth, but 
what of other areas of study, such as 
the Old Testament laws?" 

On the treatment of sex Professor 
Snyder holds his ground. "I don't see 
how one can read the Bible without 
dealing with sex. Many of the key 
biblical analogies relate to sex." 

What disturbs some readers is In 
Hh Hand's very candid assessment 
of biblical characters and places. 
"The writer belittled Canaan and said 
it wasn t as beautiful as the Bible 
said it was. That's stupid," a youth 
of the Big Swatara congregation as- 
serted. Some Indiana adults were 
offended by the heading. My Father 

Was a Hobo, a paraphrase of Deut. 
26:5, given to the section on 

The point, as Dr. Snyder explains 
it, is that the glamor and halos put 
upon the personalities of the Bible 
are not biblical, but a modern-day 
construction. "Life does not go like 
our pious picture of David, and no 
one would want it to," he said. "I 
haven't deglamorized the Bible. I 
am seeking only to let the Bible say 
what it really does." 

At this point many find the author 
convincing. A Virginia youth, follow- 
ing the lesson on "One Little Ewe 
Lamb," explained she could no longer 
feel the same about David as she had 
as a child. Her staid concept of David 
as a ti-uly great man of God was 
shaken, to be sure, by the discovery 
of David's more base side in dealing 
with other persons. But in the process 
her own search for truth was stimu- 
lated, the girl said, for she began tft 
equate the life of the early men of 
God with the problems and crises in 
her own life. 

Similarly a woman at the Fresno 
church in California reported from 
her adult class studying the course, 
"Many of the things I thought I knew 
about the Bible proved to be false 
when I really confronted the scrip- 

This is precisely the confrontation 
the planners of the course had hoped 
for. Not that the study would center 
in the curriculum itself and end there, 
but that it would prompt classes and 
individuals to become absorbed in 
discerning the Bible's meaning for 
them, stated Richard N. Coffman, 
youth editor. 

For New Testament oriented Breth- 
ren, In His Hand, with two parts of 
Old Testament to one part New 
Testament, may appear imbalanced. 
But in the following two years of 
senior high studies, additional cover- 
age will be given to New Testament 
themes, whereas the Old Testament 
focus comes almost solely in the first- 
year course. 

Graydon Snyder, who has degrees 
from Manchester, Bethany, and 
Princeton and who has taken added 
work at Goettingen in Germany and 
Oslo in Norway, sees study of the 
Old Testament as crucial, even though 
its value "is probably negative." 
Through the Old Testament, he ex- 
plained, "we leam how it is that man 
is unable to live with law as his 
guideline of life. Likewise, in our 
personal lives, each of us moves from 
failure of the law to acceptance of the 
mercy of God and to development of 
the Christian life through the Holy 
Spirit rather than the law." 

For young people. Old Testament 
study enlightens youth's understand- 
ing of their own Christian growth 
from the "law" of childhood to the 
"freedom" of adulthood. Dr. Snyder 

While fundamentalists and con- 
servatives may tend to see the first 
year's senior high volumes as too 
liberal, and liberals as too orthodox. 
In His Hand seeks to yield to neither. 
There is attempt neither to rationalize 
the miracles nor to whitewash the 
saints. In Dr. Snyder's view, h, story 
is not a sidelight to understanding but 
the setting in which God's revelation 
is bound up with the people he 
elected, a necessary context for 
understanding the conversation be- 
tween God and man. "I believe very 
strongly that every verse and every 
paragraph of the Bible has some sig- 
nificance for us in the history of God's 
redemptive work among men." 

The Bible survey approach of the 
first-year course seemed so valid to 
Kansan Ron Morgan that he ques- 
tioned whether any study other than 
of this kind has the right to displace 

But as future courses take form, the 
subsequent materials will take a differ- 
ent tack. Yet to classes who have 
studied well In His Hand, there is 
the hope that they may proceed with 
a grounding in biblical history not 
commonly achieved heretofore by 
Brethren youth and adults. 

18 MESSENGER 4-15-65 

The expressed desire 

In Geneva two of the top leaders 
of the ecumenical movement shared 
an hour of shining satisfaction over 
what may be a promising and epoch- 
marking breakthrough in Christian 

Specifically, this was the announce- 
ment that the Roman Catholic Church 
had agreed to explore the possibilities 
of dialogue and collaboration with 
the 209-member World Council of 

The announcement was made by 
Augustin Cardinal Bea, the Vatican's 
eighty-four-year-old ambassador to 
Catholicism's "separated brethren." 

Cardinal Bea's report came as a 
response to the World Council's Cen- 
tral Committee proposal to set up 
a joint "working group" with the 
Catholic Church in an effort to "clari- 
fy our positions and, if possible, ar- 
rive at mutual understanding." 

Brethren Service's William G. 
Willoughby reported from the 
stirrings in Geneva that a series of 
doctrinal concerns will be opened 
for discussion, including such deli- 
cate issues as mixed marriages, re- 
ligious liberty, and proselytism. 

To Dr. W. A. Visser 't Hooft, the 
World Council's general secretary 
since its inauguration in 1948, the 
cardinal's announcement of collabora- 
tion was a crowning event. 

Two years ago Dr. Visser 't Hooft 
warned the Central Committee 
against skepticism which says "there 
cannot be a real revolution in the 
attitude of the Roman Catholic 

Church toward other churches." At 
the same time he added: "We must 
not take the romantic line and speak 
and act as if the profound issues of 
faith and order between the Church 
of Rome and the other churches have 
been solved or almost solved." 

Still keenly aware that the funda- 
mental differences are stubborn 
realities. Dr. Visser 't Hooft amended 
his earher view only to add that the 
expressed desire for unity had be- 
come a "historical fact" and "now the 
work can begin." 

Hearing the native word 

Of the translation of the Bible 
there is no end. For as language con- 
tinues to develop e\'en the finest work 
will need revision. 

This is the case of the Gujarati 
Bible of India. In process now is a 
draft of the New Testament being 
translated principally by Indians, the 
first version produced by the native 
speakers of the language. 

This fact is significant, for the 
finished work will avoid the stigma 
of being written in "missionary 
Gujarati." By this is meant the ver- 
sion will carry genuinely indigenous 
forms of expression, correcting the 
stilted .style of foreign translators. 

Previous versions by missionaries 
ha\e been numerous. Since William 
Carey's pioneering translations in 
1820, the New Testament in Gujarati 
has been revised five times, the Old 
Testament four. The current New 
Testament translation may be com- 
pleted by 1970. For the proposed 

Cardinal Bea, Visser 't Hooft in their shining hour 

Old Testament revision, no date is 

A committee of eight, working 
under the Bible Society of India and 
Ceylon, employs the modem ap- 
proach to Bible translation, striving 
to be true to the original Greek and 
Hebrew but clothing meanings in 
constructions and idioms natural to 
the reader. 

Of importance too is the project's 
sponsorship by all Protestant denomi- 
nations of Gujarat, including the 
Church of the Brethren, which has 
some 8,200 Gujarati-speaking mem- 
bers. Even the Roman Catholics are 
cooperating unofficially, through a 
Spanish Jesuit observer who enters 
helpfully into the scholarly assign- 

"The prospect is that all Gujarati 
Christians will use the new Bible and 
find it to be a unifying force among 
us," explained missionary T. H. Lyle, 
the only foreigner on the eight- 
member revision committee. 

Ban on sexsational ads 

Chubchmen worried about pornogra- 
phy need not go to the corner drug- 
store to launch an attack against 
smut. Many can begin in their own 
living rooms by taking a second look 
at the movie ads in the local paper. 

The more open treatment of sex 
in commercial film fare has flooded 
movie advertising with suggestive 
copy and illustrations. Often com- 
mendable films are betrayed by the 
teasing pitch of gutter-minded pro- 

The situation is controllable. In 
Los Angeles, the Times and in Phila- 
delphia, the Inquirer and the Daily 
News recently banned ad pictures 
and copy intended for the prurient 
and the morbid. 

The reasons? The Philadelphia 
publishers said they acted because of 
"the large number of complaints re- 
ceived from readers." 

The Los Angeles Times also credit- 
ed their action to reader complaints. 
"We are convinced that moral and 
social values have not decayed as 
frequently portrayed," said an ad- 
vertising executive in a plea to film 
promoters to help find "a better 
standard of values in the area of 
'good taste.' " 

4-15-65 MESSENGER 19 


Cleveland's teen corps 

Tired and a trifle sore, a racially 
mixed group of teen-agers discussed 
the work camp which had just ended. 

"People of any race can work to- 
gether and have a ball," a Presby- 
terian youth reacted. 

"Sure, we're all friends now. But 
what about ten years from now?" a 
Baptist girl said thoughtfully. "Some- 
where along the line things change." 

A Covenant youth interrupted. "As 
far as the folks who live in those 
six homes we cleaned are concerned, 
they couldn't care less about our 
color. They were blind." 

These youth were among the more 
than 200 Cleveland area teen-agers of 
widely varying background — white, 
Negro, Protestant, Jewish, Catholic, 
urban and suburban — who have 
joined in a series of weekend com- 
munity-help work camps. Among 
them have been nine youth and two 
adult leaders from the First church 
and Brook Park Church of the Breth- 

Each camp is interfaith and inter- 
racial and is designed by the spon- 
soring Cleveland Area Church Fed- 
eration as "Adventures in Outreach." 

At the outset, it was diiEcult to 
find places to work. "Apparently all 
people do not rush to be helped by 
some eager-beaver young people re- 
gardless of their intentions," said 
Brook Park Pastor Mervin A. Cripe. 

One of the latest projects under 
consideration is rejuvenation of the 
Cleveland school system libraries. 

David Gray, a Brook Park CBYFer, 
worked with seven Negro girls at a 
home for the aged, cleaning layers of 
grime off woodwork. "The elderly 
ladies who watched us work were so 
filled with happiness and friendliness 
that they waved for five minutes as 
we walked away." 

Linda Block of the First Church 
of the Brethren recruited workers for 
the first camp. She later reflected, 
"Our attempts may be small com- 
pared to the magnitude of the world's 
problems, but the impressions made 
on all of us who have been touched 
cannot be measured." 

David Gray agreed. "We know 
thirty workers in a day and a half 
are not going to change the overall 
situation in Cleveland, but it definite- 
ly changes the people working and 
the people being helped." 

Women to declare war 

The first Friday in May has been 
marked for thirty-four years as May 
Fellowship Day. The usual observ- 
ance is for churchwomen to gather 
in local groups for fellowship and 

This year the coming together on 
May 7 is for action — to wage war, 
nonetheless. The war is on poverty, 
and the first campaign is the re- 
cruitment of 6,300 young women for 
the government's Job Corps program. 

Teaming together in the recruit- 
ment drive are the respective councils 
of United Church Women, Negro 
Women, Catholic, and Jewish Wom- 
en. A corporation. Women in 
Community Service, Inc., will deploy 
recruits to residential training centers 
in six pilot areas. New Orleans, Essex 
County, N. J., San Francisco, Pitts- 
burgh, Nashville, Tenn., and Portland, 

Young women sixteen to twenty- 
one, out of work and out of school, 
will be sought for the Job Corps 
which will offer occupational train- J 
ing, basic remedial education, and 
training in family life responsibility. 

Growing edges 

La Verne, Calif. — An impressive 
number of persons related to the 
La Verne Church of the Brethren 
are serving in conflict areas of Asia. 
Among them: Ron and June Pulcini, 
in International Voluntary Services, 
Hue, Vietnam; Phil and Cathy 
Walker, Can Tho, Vietnam; David 
Kinzie, M.D., with CARE in Viet- 
nam; Allan and Dorothy Bashor and 
Galen Beery, in International Volun- 
tary Services in Laos; and David E. 
Blickenstaff, director of the United 
Nations Information OflBce in Ma- 

Elkhart, Ind. — Twenty Church of 
the Brethren representatives from 
eight Central Region districts visited 
the program of the Oaklawn Psychi- 
atric Center here. The Brethren of 
Northern Indiana have been among 
the sponsors of the center for some 
time, and the other seven districts 
are considering becoming related to 
the Mennonite-initiated endeavor. 
Opened in 1964, the center includes 
several Brethren on its staff. 

Washington, D. C. — Three oil 
paintings by members of the Wash- 
ington City Church of the Brethren 
grace the church's lounge. 

Stephen E. Harris painted a scene 
depicting the church's founding in 
1708 at Schwarzenau, Germany. 
James D. Spart painted a scene of 
the first baptism in America, in the 
Wissahickon Creek near German- 
town, Pa. Mrs. Nancie M. Prather 
painted scenes of the local church 
as it appeared before the 1930 and 
1961 building additions. 

Independence, Kansas — The ac- 
cent was put on youth by the Church 
of the Brethren here at their last 
council meeting. Four nineteen-year- 
old men were called to the deacon 
board. The men are David Godsey, 
Harold Groth, Charles Peterson, and 
Eldon Sewell. At the same meeting 
the Rev. Donald Delaney was called 
to be interim pastor. 

20 MESSENGER 4-15-65 


Continued from page 12 

Death is not something to 
be endured but explored, 
examined, and understood 

any congregation. The members of the church 
should be the persons who decide and determine 
the approach made to funeral services, not funeral 
directors. A number of Christian funeral directors 
have told me personally that it is their duty to 
serve the public as the public desires to be 
served. I am sure that most funeral directors are 
open to suggestions from those to whom they 
minister in the span from death to interment. 

I would like to see the day come when the 
casket is always closed for a Christian memorial 
service, when the service is always held in the 
church for the dedicated Christian, when more 
of a typical worship service is held, with the 
singing of hymns, reading of scriptures, the pray- 
ing of prayers together as a congregation. I 
would like to see the body interred privately be- 
fore the memorial service, either the day before 
or hours before the actual worship hour is held 
in the church. This puts the emphasis on the 
life that was lived for Christ, not upon the body 
left, as precious as it may yet seem. 

In 1963, Jessica Mitford published the highly 
controversial book, The American Way of Death. 
It has been called "a brilliant and a devastating 
examination of our pagan and literally anti- 
Christian funeral customs." And, further, it 
"offers healthy alternatives to the keeping-up- 
with-the-Joneses kind of funeral in which we find 
ourselves trapped by custom." But beyond an 
analysis of the funeral industry. Miss Mitford 
points toward a concept of death for Christian 
believers. In essence, she says that more im- 
portant than what happens to the physical re- 
mains should be the spiritual understanding of 
death on the part of those who are left behind; 
that the real values gained in the passing of the 

loved one can be the personal confrontation on 
the part of the living with the seeming frailty of 
human existence but yet the sure triumph of the 
human spirit over the earthy and the seen; that 
the Christian way of death must be centered in 
the biblical view of man as total personality, be- 
ing, whole man who is saved from decay in 
the dust of the earth through individual belief 
that "this mortal can indeed put on the immortal." 

Dr. Edgar Jackson has approached the ques- 
tion of death from the standpoint of the thera- 
peutic values found in modem funeral procedures. 
He believes that most attempts in memorial serv- 
ices can be helpful in filling a need for those 
who are suS^ering grief and have most recently 
undergone sorrow. He and others of similar ap- 
proach have accentuated the belief, lifted up 
in biblical thought, that death is a very real part 
of life, more than the end of human duration, 
more than the cutting off of a life lived for God; 
it is an experience which can add to or detract 
from our faith in a God who is still good even 
though he permits death to come to all, whether 
gradually or suddenly. Death, he would say, is 
not something to be endured but explored, 
examined, and understood. 

Paul said: "O death, where is thy victory? 
O death, where is thy sting? . . . Thanks be to 
God, who gives us the victory through our 
Lord Jesus Christ." The victory is threefold: 
the victory at time of death, the victory of death 
in itself, the victory over death through the hope 
in the resurrection. 

What is death from the Christian standpoint? 
Death is relief from suffering which God permits 
at times. Death is reward for those who have 
lived well for Christ. Death is a transition from 
one form of existence to another through God's 
power to transform us completely. Death is ful- 
fillment of life which begins at birth and ends 
when death completes this temporal span of 
years. Death is victory over life, sin, the law, a 
victory won by all who believe in the victory 
Christ won over evil on the cross, over the throes 
of the tomb in which he was placed since God 
raised him from the dead. God raised Christ 
from the dead; Christ did not raise himself. Our 
hope is that God can raise us from physical 
death also and this is the victory through our 
Lord Jesus Christ. D 

4-15-65 MESSENGER 21 



The message of Easter is basically 
that of immortality, or "the doc- 
trine that the human person exists 
for eternity in spite of the event of 
physical death." This may have 
various immediate meanings to 
different groups of people. 

First, the message of immortality 
can have great meaning to the 
aged, the chronically ill, the in- 
curably ill, the deeply bereaved, 
the discouraged, and many others 
for whom this life might other- 
wise seem quite hopeless. For 
them to know that there will be a 
better life later on, that they can 
live with God, and that they can 
be again with their friends has 
great significance. 

Rufus Jones was on the high 
seas en route to Europe when his 
eleven-year-old son passed away 
with a sudden paralysis. The boy's 
mother had died several years pre- 
viously. In one of his writings, 
Jones reports that at the last 
moment of life the boy recovered 
his speech for a moment, lifted his 
hands in surprise, and said, "O 
mother." Rufus Jones wrote that 
it seemed that they found and 
recognized each other. 

He wrote further: "I know now, 
as I look back across the years, 
that nothing has carried me up 
into the life of God or done more 
to open out the infinite meaning of 
love than the fact that love can 
span the break of separation, can 
pass beyond the visible, and hold 
right on across the chasm. The 
mystic union has not broken and 
knows no end." How better ex- 
press this basic message of Easter! 

Second, the message of immor- 
tality brings about a higher level 
of spiritual and moral achievement 

to those strugghng to live the 
Ghristian life. This strengthening 
comes about in several ways. One 
lies in the fact that "eschatology 
determines ethics!" Put in more 
simple language, the quality of 
one's life is often determined by 
what he believes about the future. 
If men think that death ends all, 
they tend to say, "Let's eat, drink, 
and be merry, for tomorrow we 
die. " If they believe that there is 
a glorious life after death, it some- 
how often leads them to a life of 
communion with God and service 
to others. 

Dr. John Sutherland Bonnell 
says, "Our total outlook on life is 
frequently deteiTnined by whether 
we believe that death is a blind 
alley or an open road." He goes 
on to quote one man as saying: 
"If I become really convinced that 
humanity is headed for extinction 
I think I should cock my revolver 
and play 'Russian roulette' wth one 
bullet in the cylinder." While this 
may seem a negative and utili- 
tarian approach, it is one way of 
expressing the point that the doc- 
trine of immortality lifts the level 
of personal living. 

The term eternal life not only 
means endless life in terms of time, 
or the quantitative meaning. 
Eternal life has a qualitative mean- 
ing as well, and this is the more 
important concept. As committed 
Christians we can have a fore- 
taste of the glorious and perfect 
life to come. This partaking of 
eternal life here and now leads us 
to higher levels of spiritual and 
moral development, so necessary 
in confronting those forces which 
would destroy us. 

Third, the message of immor- 

tality gives individuals and the 
church as a whole a new vigor in 
confronting the world. Among 
Christ's followers everyone was 
sad from the ninth hour on the 
first Good Friday until the resur- 
rection on Easter Morning. When 
they discovered he was alive 
through a succession of appear- 
ances, a new hope and enthusiasm 
possessed them. They began to 
witness as never before. They 
preached to thousands. They fed 
the poor and ministered to the 

Sometimes people react to racial 
tensions, problems within the 
United Nations, wars in South- 
east Asia, unemployment by mil- 
lions, juvenile delinquency, de- 
terioration of home life, and other 
depressing phenomena as if it were 
the Saturday just after Christ died. 
But, fortunately, we live in post- 
resurrection days. Christ is alive 
and can and will guide us. He will 
fill us with courage and vigor as 
we go into the world and tackle 
these problems. 

Much has been said about the 
issue of "dirty hands." Some ask, 
"Can the Christian afford to get 
his hands dirty by trying to apply 
the gospel to complex community 
and world problems?" The answer 
seems clear. Just as no ordinary, 
daily work gets done without our 
hands becoming dirty, so it is 
impossible to do the Lord's work 
without dirtying our hands in the 
affairs of the world. But we need 
not suffer from infected hands. 
We can still work for Christ in the 
world and not be infected by the 

The fact that Christ lives eter- 
nally and that we can enter now 
into a relationship of life with him 
gives us at Easter — and all year 
long — the same joyous enthusiasm 
and boundless energy the early 
apostles had for building his im- 
mortal kingdom. 

A. Stauffer Curry 

Annual Conference Moderator 

22 MESSENGER 4-15-65 

a devotional guide for the family 

HAVE YOU FOUND death hard to explain? On November 24, 1964, the 
world was shocked to hear of the death of Dr. Paul Carlson, a missionary 
in the Congo. His wife, Lois, insisted on breaking the news to her children, 
aged seven and nine. Let us look at how she did it. 

When the three of them were alone that evening, she began by re- 
minding them that the day before their Daddy had been alive and well, 
but today he was called home to Jesus. The children immediately wanted 
to know why he was killed or why anyone wanted to kill him. Calmly and 
gently Lois suggested that they should not think of that now but instead 
focus their thoughts on how happy he is in heaven, how much he loved them, 
and how much they loved him. She did not say, "God took him." She 
emphasized the positive. The manner of dying was minimized, and attention 
was drawn to his new life in heaven. How well she did this was reflected 
by her children, who cried a bit, declared in faith that "God is always right," 
and then fell asleep. 

APRIL 18-24 

Mark 16:1-7. "Who is the greatest living man 
today?" asked the teacher. "Jesus Christ," an- 
swered the small boy. He lives! 

1 Cor. 15:17-23. Christianity is the only rehgion 
whose founder is alive! Because he lives, we too 
shall live! 

Rom. 8:35-39. God is with us everywhere, at all 
times. In fact, Ps. 139:7-14 says we cannot 
escape from him even if we want to! 

John 11:21-27. "Only believe and live." To obtain 
eternal life is as simple as that! Believe, and live 
what you believe! 

John 5:19-29. No magician, even the great 
Houdini, could release death's grip. Christ con- 
quered death because he was the Son of God. 

John 14:1-6, 19. Do not be sidetracked by suc- 
cess, materialism, or radio preachers. The only 
entrance into the Father's house is through Christ. 

J John 3:1-3; 1 Cor. 13:12. No one knows what 
our spiritual bodies will be like, but, knowing 
Christ, they will be perfect in every detail. 

APRIL 25 - MAY 1 

^ 2 Cor. 5:1-9. Being born requires leaving the 
familiar warmth of the womb; only by leaving 
this world can we enter eternal Hfe. 

W^t 1 Cor. 15:35-44, 49-50. Every creation of God 
is supplied with the equipment it needs — for 
living on land, in air, under water — or in heaven! 

tl Cor. 15:51-57. "Death, death thou hast con- 
quered me:/ 'Twas by thy darts I'm slain,/ But 
Christ shall conquer thee,/ and I shall rise again" 
(C. Sower, Jr.). 

\Mk/ Phil. 1:20-26. Lord, help us to be so aware of 
your companionship and presence that whether 
we live or die will not alter this relationship. 

tEccJes. 3:1-14. "Oh, how is the time so urgent 
which God gives us only once" (A. Mack, Sr. ). 
"Time wasted is existence — used is life." 

^ 2 Sam. 12:16-23. Although grief is natural, nor- 
^ mal, and should be expressed, life marches on. 
You remain because you still have work to do. 

^ Psalm 23. We need not fear death for God is by 
our side. "I only know I cannot drift beyond his 
love and care" (Whittier). 


4-15-65 MESSENGER 23 

Teach the Christian view of death 

An extra dividend resulting from worshiping 
together as a family is the opportunity to teach 
Christian principles. Children learn the scientific 
facts of life, creation, and death at school. Our 
privilege and responsibility are to enrich these 
facts with our Christian faith. 

Without the events of Easter, death is final 
and foreboding. However, through the fact of 
a risen Savior, death can be interpreted not as 
the end of a life but as the beginning of a differ- 
ent and more glorious one. 

Children ask many questions about death and 
it is good to discuss them before a loved one dies. 
What is death? What causes death? What will 
happen to me after death? 

Added help in answering these and other 
questions can be found in a pamphlet entitled 
Interpreting Death to Children, by Helen and 
Lewis Sherrill, published by The National Council 
of Churches, 475 Riverside Drive, New York, 
N. Y. 10027, and costing only 5c. A booklet, Life 
After Death, printed by Guideposts, Carmel, 
N. Y., is available for 35c. 

Rejoice! he lives! 

The inspiration of April with its springtime 
reminders, blossoming buds, new life, and Easter 
should make every family a singing family. Ex- 
press the joy you feel with "I Know That My 
Redeemer Liveth (No. 448, The Brethren 
Hymnal), "O Joyous Easter Morning" (No. 187), 
"Joy to the World" (No. 121), "Praise God, From 
Whom All Blessings Flow" (No. 632), and "He 

To symbolize life after death you may want 
to use the cross once again in your worship setting. 
To symbolize the beauty, purity, and vitality of 
resurrected life, attach several lilies to it or place 
it beside a blooming Easter plant. Even more ef- 
fective may be an arrangement of branches of 

forsythia, pussywillow buds, or peach blossoms, 
when placed in water in your warm house will 
be forced into bloom during these two weeks. 


"Think of stepping on shore — 

And finding it heaven! 
And taking hold of a hand — 

And finding it God's hand! 
Of breathing a new air — 

And finding it celestial air! 
Or feeling invigoration — 

And finding it immortality! 
Of passing from storm and tempest — 

To perfect calm! 
Of waking and knowing — 

'I am at home.'" (Poet unknown) 

Because Christ arose — 

Men will never bury me. 

I will not be placed under ground, in a box, 
in the cold and dark. 

Oh, yes, they may put my body there — 

But never me! 
Because Christ arose — 

I, too, will escape death. 

As a cicada, my shell will remain, cold and 
unmoving, the voice silent. 

But that will be merely an empty form, 

For I will be released from that frame — 

Forever free! 
Because Christ arose — 

I know what lies ahead. 

Someday I shall move from here — not to an 
unknown place in space 

But to a home prepared by Christ, 

Where I may dwell in peace and joy with him 

Eternally! (VSZ) 

CONTRIBUTORS: The pastor of the Peru congregation, 
Middle Indiana, Daniel C. Ftory, writes about the Christian 
attitude concerning death. A. StaufFer Curry, who discusses 
the message of Easter, is the director of family education 
for the Brotherhood and 1965 Annual Conference moder- 
ator. Joel Thompson, who for three years was a fraternal 
missionary to the Church of the Moluccas, teaching biblical 
studies in a theological seminary on the island of Ambon, 
Indonesia, is now director of missionary education and 

recruitment for the General Brotherhood Board. A Church 
of the Brethren minister and recently pastor of a Congre- 
gational church in Oak Park, Illinois, Merlin Clark is as- 
sistant to the dean. West Branch of Chicago Teachers Col- 
lege; he is also doing sociological research on Chicago's 
west side and is in charge of public relations for the col- 
lege and also chairman of the social science department. 
Ora W. Garber is book editor on the stafF of the General 
Brotherhood Board. 

24 MESSENGER 4-15-65 


Continued from page 9 

Leprosarium near Hong Kong, research into the 
work of a prosthetic branch of the United States 
Navy Medical Corps, and financial grants from 
the American Leprosy Mission have helped to 
keep the research program alive. 

During these years of experimentation. Dr. 
Pfaltzgraff has used many varied materials and 
a number of techniques. However, he now has 
been able to standardize to the extent that a 
major article on one of his techniques was pub- 
lished in the journal, Leprosy Review. The article 
described the method of making and fitting a 
prosthesis for below-knee amputees. "This method 
of rehabilitation," says Dr. Pfaltzgraff, "is per- 
haps the most dramatic in its appeal, but it is 
not nearly so effective in its total value as the 
simple sandal or the special shoe we have de- 

"The sandal we use is made very much like 
the common sandal fashioned out of old tires and 
used by so many Africans. We have modified this 
sandal by the addition of an insole made of foam 
rubber. A local sandal maker has been able to 
take over the production of this sandal for us. 

"The special shoe is made to fit the foot which 
has a severe deformity. Often this crippling has 
come about through an advanced or prolonged 
ulceration. This shoe has a foam rubber inner 
layer also, and a very rigid sole. The shoe is 
made directly on the foot of the patient and is 
technically very difficult to manufacture. It also 
involves a lot of time in fitting and construction. 
This shoe has been of real value to our people 
and has made many of them useful citizens of 
the community even though they formerly were 
total cripples." 

Recognized as one of the world's leading 
leprologists. Dr. Pfaltzgraff is currently serving 
on the staff of the United States Public Health 
Service hospital in Carville, Louisiana, as chief 
of rehabilitation. His work involves him closely 
with the department of plastic surgery, physio- 
therapy, orthopedics, and occupational therapy. 

Now on furlough from his mission post. Dr. 
Pfaltzgraff will return to Nigeria after one year 
of service at the only hospital in the continental 
United States treating Hansen's disease. While 
eighty-five percent of the leprosy cases of the 
world are found in six other countries, Dr. 

Roy Pfaltzgraff, missionary doctor and leprosy authority 

Pfaltzgraff indicated that "there are approxi- 
mately 750 known cases of Hansen's disease in 
the United States today." 

Dr. Pfaltzgraff has not only been making an 
important contribution to Carville, but he has 
also been gaining some valuable insights he be- 
lieves can be put to use in the Nigerian program. 
"A few years ago," he said, "after we had used 
the drug, Dapsone, in leprosy treatment, we 
began to wonder what would be the future of 
our leprosarium. We thought it might have to 
be reconverted into a tuberculosis sanitarium. 
But now it is quite clear that we must assume 
the task of becoming a rehabilitation center for 
victims of all kinds of crippling diseases and 

How right this analysis seems! How joyful 
will be the response of the men and women like 
Audu and Amina who are yet to be served by 
the Garkida leprosarium staff. Certainly, there 
are many persons who are yet to be given new 
hope for a better life by Dr. and Mrs. Pfaltzgraff 
and their co-workers. 

One can never forget what happened to 
Mai Sule, when he sought heafing at the Garkida 
institution. Mai Sule came as a young Moham- 
medan prince. His conversion at the hospital and 
subsequent decision to stay as pastor-evangelist 
after his disease had been arrested cut him ir- 
revocably from power, prestige, and wealth in 
an earthly kingdom. Pastor Mai Sule, first Ni- 
gerian to become an ordained elder in the Church 
of the Brethren, is an outstanding testimonial to 
the basic purpose of the ministry of the Adamawa 
Provincial Leprosarium. D 

4-15-65 MESSENGER 25 


THE SPIRE, by William Golding. Harcourt, 
Brace and World, 1964. 216 pp., $3.95 
THE MARTYRED, by Richard E. Kim. 
George Braziller, 1964. 316 pp., $4.50 
HOLY MASQUERADE, by Olov Hartman, 
translated by Karl A. Olsson. Eerdmans, 
1963. 142 pp., $3.00 

Whether you observe Lent for 
a period of forty days or whether, 
following the recent advice of one 
churchman, you set aside only a 
few days for intensive soul- 
searching, in any case it remains 
the season for honest self-examina- 
tion. The traditional use of Lenten 
readings may be a sufficient guide 
for the questions you put to your- 
self. But do not overlook the con- 
tribution of some thoughtful works 
of current fiction. 

By way of example, by way of 
illustrating how recent novels may 
force a reader to look at himself 
anew, consider three books pub- 
lished in recent months which 
deliberately ask the kind of pene- 
trating questions that no Christian 
dare evade. 

The setting for William Gold- 
ing's latest novel. The Spire, is in 
medieval England. This was the 
age of faith, a time when monu- 
mental cathedrals gave visible form 
to the aspirations of believers. To 

Fiction as an aid 
to self-examination 

Jocelin, dean of one such cathedra], 
came a vision instructing him to 
raise a spire four hundred feet in 
the air, a soaring pinnacle that 
would point toward heaven. Ob- 
sessed with his divine calling, the 
dean proceeded to use every means 
available to him to realize his 

Obviously, the spire could be 
raised to the glory of God and 
thereby inspire men for centuries 
to come. But what about the 
dangers to be encountered when 
there was no solid rock foundation 
to support so great a mass of tim- 
ber and stone? From the time the 
dream was first projected it was 
known as "Jocelin's Folly," as 
builders and workers doubted the 
wisdom of his plan. And despite 
the good that such a holy symbol 
might promise, the evil associated 
with the achieving of any such 
dream became immediately ap- 
parent. Services of worship had to 
be discontinued; the work of the 
church almost ceased as the build- 
ing project moved ahead; the sing- 
ing of the faithful gave way to the 
profanity of the workmen. Dark 
and sordid things happened to the 
people who lived in the shadow of 
the slowly rising spire. And Dean 
Jocelin himself, in spite of his 
great faith, was forced to ask him- 
self whether his cherished spire, 
creaking and groaning in the wind, 
would ever be an aid to devotion 

or simply stand like a threat of 

In the end the spire was still 
standing but a man lay broken 
and dying, tormented by the 
memories as well as the dreams 
that judged him. He said, "There 
is no innocent work. God knows 
where God may be." The reader, 
depending upon his own interpre- 
tation of the ending of the novel, 
must decide for himself whether 
faith or despair prevailed and 
whether a less ambiguous answer 
might be given to the efforts of 
man to express his vision of God. 

|T is a vast leap across the conti- 
nents and centuries to turn from 
England in the 14th century to 
Korea in the twentieth century. 
But the torturous questions that 
haunt thoughtful men are still with 
us and men's hearts are still as- 
saulted by anguish and doubt. 
The Martyred, a novel by Richard 
Kim, presently a teacher at Long 
Beach State College in California, 
tells of the attempt on the part of 
some Korean officials to learn ex- 
actly what happened to twelve 
Christian ministers who were put 
to death by communists in North 
Korea in 1950. In the process 
many questions are raised, ancj 
only some of them answered. The 
narrator. Captain Lee, is impressed 
by remarkable evidences of faith 

26 MESSENGER 4-15-65 

on the part of Korean Christians, 
although he is not a believer and 
he can never quite accept the ob- 
jective reality to which their faith 
bears witness. 

Fourteen ministers had been 
captured by the communists. Only 
two were spared. One of these 
had lost his mind. The other, 
Pastor Shin, is reluctant to tell all 
that he knows about the actual 
facts surrounding the death of the 
twelve martyrs. Were they really 
martyrs? Did they go nobly to 
their deaths? Or did some of them 
lose their faith, finding it impos- 
sible to pray in the face of intense 
suffering? Did they conclude that 
God was not just since he allowed 
his people to suffer so many hard- 
ships while the wicked went un- 

And suppose that the facts could 
never be known or that the truth 
was less heroic than the faithful 
thought? Might not a lie do more 
to strengthen the courage of people 
facing danger than for them to be 
disillusioned by the truth? 

It is clear that the author, while 
eager to probe deeply into the 
motivations and assumptions of 
Christians, is not yet ready to ac- 
cept the traditional answers that 
Christians offer. He seems to have 
greater respect for individual 
Christians, martyrs or not, than 
for the reality of the convictions 
that guide them. Therefore, his 
well-written novel is hard to classi- 
fy. It deals honestly with im- 
portant issues confronting men 
today. It takes religion seriously. 
But it leaves many of the most 
important questions unanswered. 
Reading it can be an exercise in 

Picking up a copy of Holy 
Masquerade, a novel by Olov Hart- 
man, a pastor in the national 
church of Sweden, a casual reader 
would see at first what might look 
to be a series of Lenten medita- 

tions. The chapters are headed by 
quotations from Latin and Swedish 
liturgies, and the development fol- 
lows a traditional course between 
Ash Wednesday and Good Friday. 
But let the reader be warned that 
what begins so innocently can end 
most frighteningly. The story picks 
up momentum and moves to a 
shattering climax that cannot easily 
be forgotten. 

Most of the novel appears in 
the form of a diary, kept week by 
week through Lent, by Klara 
Svensson, wife of the minister of 
a rural parish in Sweden. Though 
she regards herself honestly as an 
unbeliever, she is willing to ex- 
amine frankly and fearlessly the 
claims of faith. But she is deter- 
mined also to face the truth about 
her pious and somewhat super- 
ficial husband. With single-minded 
intensity she lays bare the double- 
mindedness, the hypocrisy, and the 
essential shallowness of the min- 
ister whom she knows so much 
better than his parishioners do. 

Many a minister will see far 
more of himself in the character 
of Klara's Albert than he would 
care to admit. This can be all 
to the good if it leads to self- 


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knowledge. But if he turns instead 
to excusing himself — as Albert 
does in a concluding section of the 
novel, he may simply speed the 
time of his own damnation. 

It is Klara, the pagan searcher 
for truth, rather than her preten- 
tious husband, who finds that re- 
moving masks, while it can lead to 
tragedy, can also lead to whole- 
hearted belief in and identification 
with Christ. There has seldom 
been a more honest novel dealing 
with individuals closely associated 
with the church. And seldom will 
one read one that can with more 
justice be called Christian. — k.m. 


Within the house of God, my heart aglow, 
I've spent a joyous and uplifting hour; 
I've felt anew the risen Savior's power 
And sensed what only trusting souls can know. 

The fragrant Easter lilies, white as snow, 
Bore muted witness to what life can be 
When touched by winds of that eternal sea 
From which all life-renewing winds must blow. 

The benediction has been gravely said; 
The holy hush of that glad hour has ceased. 
My troubled heart at rest, my fears released, 
I have His resurrection from the dead. 
And as I leave the church, life's sky seems 

Of stormy clouds. Where now, soul, from 


Ora W. Garber 

4-15-65 MESSENGER 27 


The Greatest Story 
Ever Told 

IT WOULD be easy — perhaps 
too easy — to be flippant about 
"The Greatest Story Ever Told" — 
starting out with some such com- 
ment as, "Ho, hum. Another 
Hollywood biblical spectacular. So 
what else is new?" 

However, George Stevens, 
whose guiding hand runs through- 
out the film as conceiver, producer, 
director, and co-screenwriter, has 
given evidence of a seriousness of 
purpose in approach and publicity 
that calls for our serious criticism. 
Thus, it is with a certain amount 
of sadness that we must report 
this movie fails as either good 
cinematography or as propagation 
of the gospel. 

"The Greatest Story Ever Told" 
almost becomes the dullest story 
ever told. Running a solid four 
hours (with intermission) evokes 
dangers in itself. But it is the 
pacing of the film that is particu- 
larly unfortunate: a slow, methodi- 
cal movement of scenes and actors 
that militates against the vibrancy 
of Christian faith. The fault for 
this must be laid at the feet of 
the director. Exceptions to this 
pacing are the climaxes of the first 
part and the end of the movie (the 
raising of Lazarus and the resur- 
rection of Christ), although the 
effectiveness of these scenes comes 
largely through the use of the 
Hallelujah Chorus. These scenes 
are meant to be, and are, the high- 
lights of the film. 

Another problem with the con- 
ception is that the story is told 
completely from a historical view- 
point rather than a theological one. 

That is, it is a pictorial representa- 
tion of the gospel narratives with 
no attempt at interpretation. This 
approach might have worked at 
the end of the 19th century, but 
it lacks a needed sense of authority 
for our age of anxiety. 

Moreover, the gospel narratives, 
as they deal with Jesus' travels and 
teachings, cannot sustain a dra- 
matic approach. There are some 
scenes inherently dramatic — such 
as driving the money changers out 
of the temple — but the stringing 
together of Jesus' sayings leaves 
something to be desired for 
cinema fonn. Also, there are a 
few glaring anachronisms: as 
when the film has Jesus saying, 
"Now exist faith, hope, and love; 
but the greatest of these is love." 

There are several good touches 
in the film, such as the imagery of 
the devil-tempter as an old hermit 
(Donald Pleasance) who continues 
to plague Jesus throughout his 
ministry, the earthiness of John the 
Baptist (Charlton Heston in one 
of his finer roles), and the casting 
of Sidney Poitier as Simon of 
Cyrene. But these are offset by a 
general lack of motivation on the 
part of most of the characters. 
Perhaps it was felt that the story 
is well enough known that motiva- 
tion need not be explained, but if 
someone could come to this film 
without knowing the story, what 
the characters do cannot really be 
defended on dramatic grounds. 
This is particularly true of Judas 
(David McCallum), who is depicted 
as not wanting to betray Jesus, and 
we are given no indication as to 

why he then does betray him. 

Casting Max von Sydow as Jesus 
has a certain irony, since Mr. 
von Sydow is known to us through 
the introspective films of Ingmar 
Bergman — especially as the ag- 
nostic knight of "The Seventh 
Seal" and the Satanic Vogler of 
"The Magician." His characteriza- 
tion of Jesus is plodding and 
methodical in keeping with the 
direction of the film. While some- 
thing of the strength of the man 
comes across to us, there is an 
aloofness — a disinterestedness — 
which keeps us from believing that 
Jesus really was actively involved 
with and concerned for this world. 

It is becoming increasingly diffi- 
cult to believe that the movie spec- 
tacular, as an art form, can be 
used to convey the intimateness of 
Christian truths. For one thing, an 
observer can get too wrapped up 
in the game of identifying the 
star in a cameo role. Experts at 
this game will be able to get 
Shelley Winters, who appears for 
about fifteen seconds as the woman 
who touches Jesus' cloak. More 
obviously there were rumbles of 
recognition across the audience as 
John Wayne or Pat Boone or Ed 
Wynn appeared. Content and 
identification are lost when this 
game becomes a part of the view- 
er's purpose and the movie's func- 

For another thing, the scope of 
a wide-screen color extravaganza 
leads it to a worship of its own 
technical accomplishments. There 
would seem to be no reason why 
this has to be so; yet it is very 
difficult to avoid, given the spec- 
tacular framework. Thus, the 
viewer becomes impressed with 
what he sees rather than identify- 
ing with or being challenged by it. 
Also, the financing of such a pro- 
duction along with the expected 
profits stand ironically over against 
Jesus' words about selling all you 
have to give to the poor and taking 
no thought for tomorrow. D 

28 MESSENGER 4-15-65 

by Dave Pomexoy 


realistic, and 
readable. . . 


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seeing God's love in everyday life . . . 

Washing Elephants 
And Other Paths to God 

MINTON C. JOHNSON. Twenty-one forthright 
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show God's grace, love, protection, and guidance. 
128 pages. $2.25 

crucial issues of personal living . . . 

On the Edge of the Absurd 

LANCE WEBB. This meaningful look at the most 
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interpretation of life that transcends the bore- 
dom, emptiness, lovelessness, and death of today. 
160 pages. $2.75 

concepts of Christian faith . . . 

A Church for These Times 

RONALD E. OSBORN. Provides a view of Chris- 
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volved and develops the significance of Christian 
concepts for church union. 192 pages. 

Papey, $1.95 

ideas and techniques for your ministry . . . 

Handbook of 
Effective Church Letters 

STEWART HARRAL. Professional know-how en- 
ables the minister to profit from experience in 
letter-writing to increase his effectiveness and 
maintain good two-way communication with his 
congregation. 208 pages. $3.50 

New Apex Paperbound Reprints 


CLOVIS C. CHAPPELL. Sixteen sermons forming a most 
helpful volume from one of America's best-loved min- 
isters. Vigor, humor, and reality. 224 pages. $1.25 


CLARENCE E. MACARTNEY. Eighteen sermons on fa- 
miliar texts that reaffirm the basic principles of the 
Christian faith. 224 pages. $1.25 


W. E. SANCSTER. Some actual questions people ask about 
religion in general and Christianity in particular, along 
with Dr. Sangster's answers. 144 pages. $1 


WALTER RUSSELL BOWIE. Thirty-one meditations and 
prayers assure the presence of Jesus. 144 pages. 69 < 


GRACE NOLL CROWELL. One of America's best-loved 
poets combines meditations with original poetry. Choice 
devotional literature which gives hope. 112 pages. 69* 


RALPH S. CUSHMAN. Twenty-one devotions in poem- 
Scripture-prayer sequence. 128 pages. 69< 

Order from your Bookstore 


Publisher of The Interpreter's Dictionary of the 
Bible and The Interpreter's Bible 


by Milt Hammer 

1 Add the letter in the first column, subtract the letter in the 
second column, and rearrange the letters so as to form a new 
word. For example, SHOWS plus E minus W equals SHOES. 
Now see if you can solve the ones listed below. 

(1) STATION plus N minus T equals 

(2) BLIMP plus minus P equals 

(3) TREAT plus S minus R equals 

(4) GOWNS plus A minus S equals 

(5) TRAIL plus N minus L equals 

(6) HEARD plus B minus H equals 

2 Place TWO PLUS and TWO MINUS SIGNS in each of fhe 
four rows of figures below so that the results given are correct. 

(a) 123456789 equals 100 

(b)1 23456789 equals 117 

(c) 123456789 equals 571 

(d)1 23456789 equals 208 

4 See if you can swap-a- 
letter in the words listed 
below, and make up six 
new words. For example, 
the word BROWN can be 
changed into BROWS by 
swapping the letter "N" for 
the letter "S." 

(1) Hotel (4) Spend 

(2) Sighs (5) Couch 

(3) Guild (6) Shell 


>< M 3 1 1 O «" (8) 

aiVD"! U) 

3 d V J B (9) 

I m O D s (S) 

J /9 sn|d s 5 

I s sn|d / snujt 
' 91 snid 9 snuiui s^ 
6 snujui g sn|d £i) sn 

aavaa (9) 
Nivai (s) 

N09V« (fr) 

Pling (E) 

•HS'S (z) 
l«|OW (I) -fr 

a 3 1 V O O (fr) 
a 1 V a a P (E) 
H ' 1 V Ji ' s {D 
PIIV39 (1) E 
uiui ttl snid I (P) 
95^ snid EZl W 
n|d E snmr- -• '-' 
!"■ Sf sn|d Ell (e) j; 

31ViS (E) 

awiiD (I) 





A "first" in religious television in California 
is the series of programs, "Capitol and 
Clergy," which began in February. Jointly 
sponsored by the Northern California Council 
of Churches, the Council of Churches in 
Southern California, and the Sacramento- 
Stockton Councils of Churches, each program 
is broadcast on major stations in communities 
throughout the state. State leaders discuss 
key issues with clergymen. The fourteen-week 
series of half-hour programs is being pro- 
duced in the studios of KCRA-TV, Sacramento. 
Topics in the series include: "Can You Legis- 
late Morals?" "Capital Punishment," "Divorce 
Reform," "Campaign Ethics," "Revolt on the 
Campus," "Violence in the Streets," "Censor- 
ship and Pornography," and "Religion and 
the Public Schools." 


Bert G. Richardson, executive secretary of 
the North and South Carolina and the Ten- 
nessee and Alabama districts, has been named 
to the executive board of the North Carolina 
Council of Churches. He is also chairman 
of the council's committee on ministry in the 
state and national parks. . . . Charles F. Rine- 
hart, Campobello, S. C, pastor of the Melvin 
Hill Church of the Brethren, received the 
Distinguished Service Award from the Kiwanis 

Wendell C. Bohrer, pastor at Morgantown, 
W. Va., was invited by President Johnson's 
Chaplaincy Committee for the House of Rep- 
resentatives, through Congressman Harley 
Staggers (W. Va.), to represent the ministers 
of the state during May 1966 in having the 
opening remarks and the invocation before 
the opening sessions of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. . . . William G. Willoughby, 
professor of philosophy and religion at 
Bridgewater from 1950 to 1963, will return 
Sept. 1, 1966, to head the department. Dr. 
Willoughby was coordinator of Brethren Col- 
leges Abroad in 1962-63. He then lived in 
Marburg, Germany. In 1963 he became direc- 
tor of the European program of the Brethren 
Service Commission. He will continue in this 
post until September 1966. 

T. Wayne Rieman, head of the Manchester 
College department of religion and philos- 
ophy, is making a six-month tour of Europe 
and the Holy Land. Dr. Rieman has been 
granted a sabbatical leave by the college 
during the spring term in order to make the 
trip. He is accompanied by Mrs. Rieman. 
A special feature of the trip will be approxi- 
mately six weeks of study at several schools 
of archaeology in the Holy Land and in the 
American School of Oriental Research. The 
Riemans plan to visit ancient cities and 
churches in the Near East founded by the 
apostle Paul. 


The circulation of the MESSENGER con- 
tinues to increase as more and more 
churches are adding new subscriptions. 
The printing order for the April 1 
issue was 44,000 and the prospects for 
steady growth are encouraging. 

On Feb. 28 Ray E. Zook retired as execu- 
tive secretary of Southern Indiana. Galen T. 
Lehman, retired regional executive, has been 
named to fill the vacancy. . . . Philip E. 
Trout, assistant professor of music at Bridge- 
water College for the past seven years, will 
become head of the department upon the 
retirement of Nelson E. HufFman on May 30. 

Raymond Risden's correct address is 1731 
N. W. Thirty-eighth St., Oklahoma City, Okla. 
It was incorrectly given in the Yearbook. . . . 
Mrs. Laurie Kingery of the Olympia church. 
Wash., was coordinator of the Washington 
State Legislative Conference, held Feb. 7-8 at 
Olympia and sponsored by the Washington 
Council of Churches. 


Fourteen of the Dead Sea Scrolls will be 
on display in six U. S. cities this year. They 
have already been on exhibit in the Smith- 
sonian Institute in Washington and will be 
seen later in Philadelphia, Baltimore, Berkeley 
and Claremont, Calif., and Omaha, Nebr. 

Individuals and churches having books 
they might want to contribute to the new 
library in the Pontiac church, Mich., should 
write to Mrs. Leatha Thrasher, 1311 Mt. Clem- 
ens Road, Pontiac, Mich. . . . Lois Cooprider, 
1522 N. W. 17, Oklahoma City, Okla. 73106, 
is trying to locate someone who could give 
her information about the Browand or 
Provont family. She is especially interested 
in knowing when they came to this country 
and where they first settled. She will be 
glad to exchange information about the 


The Middle River church in Virginia will 
dedicate its new sanctuary on April 25. D. 
Howard Keiper, a former pastor, will speak 
in the morning and Robert Sherfy in the 

April 18 Easter 

April 25 National Christian College Day 

April 25 -May 1 Mental Health Week 

May 2-9 Christian Family Week 

May 3-5 District Leaders' Conference 

May 7 May Fellowship Day 

May 9 Festival of the Christian Home (Mother's Day) 

May 23 Rural Life Sunday 

June 6 Pentecost 

June 6 Annual Conference Offering 

June 13 Children's Day 

June 20 Father's Day 


Curry, Annie S., Palmyra, Pa., on Jan. 3, 

1965, aged 76 
Evans, Lizzie, Sheldon, Iowa, on Jan. 3, 

1965, aged 81 
Fausnacht, Mary B., Palmyra, Pa., on June 

10, 1964, aged 73 
Forry, Gertrude E., Palmyra, Pa., on Sept. 6, 

1964, aged 47 

Kauer, Herma, Kansas City, Mo., on Jan. 7, 

1965, aged 67 

Kessler, Mary, Astoria, HI., on Dec. 26, 1964, 

aged 58 
Liepke, Arnold, Cando, N. Dak., on Dec. 20, 

1964, aged 46 
Locke, Eflfie A., New Castle, Ind., on Oct. 29, 

1964, aged 80 
McCoy, LeRoy P., Albia, Iowa, on Aug. 14, 

1964, aged 62 
Marberger, Charles F., Palmyra, Pa., on July 

21, 1964, aged 90 
Martin, Lizzie V., Palmyra, Pa., on Aug. 5, 

1964, aged 92 
Matile, Mary Buck, McPherson, Kansas, on 

Oct. 9, 1964 
Maxcy, Delilah, Chico, Calif., on Dec. 18, 

1964, aged 100 

Meashey, Velma M., Hershey, Pa., on July 

17, 1964, aged 54 
Miller, Frank, Longmont, Colo., on Jan. 6, 

1965, aged 92 
Moist, Naomi B., Lebanon, Pa., on Jan. 13, 

1965, aged 72 
Mummert, Elias, York, Pa., on Oct. 4, 1964, 

aged 68 
Peffley, Jesse D., Clayton, Ohio, o.n Dec. 23, 

1964, aged 76 
Rairigh, Blair W., Baltimore, Md., on Aug. 22, 

1964, aged 67 
Riggleman, George E., New Market, Va., on 

Jan. 3, 1965, aged 82 
Sayre, Rose C, Empire, Calif., on Sept. 26, 

1964, aged 77 
Schmenner, Charles H., Baltimore, Md., on 

Oct. 19, 1963, aged 80 
Showalter, Lerty I., Martinsburg, Pa., on Dec. 

29, 1964, aged 66 
Sipherd, Hugh, Empire, Calif., on Sept. 18, 

1964, aged 87 
Stultz, Minnie A., Baltimore, Md., on April 

25, 1964, aged 91 
Yancy, Emma J., Braymer, Mo., on Dec. 25, 

1964, aged 94 

4-15-65 MESSENGER 31 


Throw open the doors! 

Unbar the doors! Throw open the doors!" 

These are the words T. S. Eliot gives to 
Thomas a Becket in his play about the martyr- 
dom of that 12th century archbishop. Near the 
end of the drama, when the king's henchmen 
have come up to the doors of Canterbury 
Cathedral, prepared to take Becket's life, his 
priests run to bar the door of the church, so 
that their archbishop can be safe while he 
remains in the sanctuary. 

But their leader gives them different in- 
structions. The doors of the church should 
remain open. He says, "I will not have the 
house of prayer, the church of Christ, the 
sanctuary, turned into a fortress . . . The church 
shall be open, even to our enemies. Open the 

Would that the archbishop's cry might still 
be heeded. In far too many instances the 
doors of the church are barred, not only 
against its possible enemies, but even to some 
of its would-be friends. 

Some churches are afraid really to open 
their doors because the men and women in- 
side want only a sanctuary for their own safety. 
So they take action in council which says, in 
effect, "Bar the door. Keep out the unwanted. 
Protect us from the strange, the undesirable, 
the unknown." 

Some doors are closed because the church 

misunderstands its mission — which is not to 
flee from the world but to be open to the 
world, not to wall itself off from the world but 
to serve the world. 

Some church doors are barred be- 
cause men and women have patterned it 
after themselves and not after Jesus Christ. 
They insist that it is their church, for persons 
of their color, their language, their nation, their 
cultural level, their economic status, or their 
understanding of religion. 

Some churches have closed their doors 
because they disregard the swirling waves of 
humanity around them, holding on to forms 
and phrases that are no longer meaningful. 
They are sincere but aloof and, therefore, ir- 

Why are so many doors barred? The traits 
we mention are symptoms of a serious sick- 
ness in the church. They reflect a failure of 
nerve, a lack of faith. Christians have ap- 
parently forgotten the central fact about which 
all their beliefs center: that Christ has already 
won a victory over fear and death. Not only 
the stone before his tomb, but every door has 
been shaken loose. If Christ's resurrection 
means anything to the church, it should insist 
that the church has nothing to fear and its 
doors, therefore, should be unbarred and 
open, "even to our enemies." — K.M. 

Whatever the weather 

Every day since last October there has been 
a daily conversation between Washington and 
Moscow. This is not the famous "hot-line" 
kept in readiness for direct contact in case of 
emergencies, but a routine exchange of in- 
formation about the weather. So far the opera- 
tors on each side have not seen each other 
but they recognize each other's voices. They 
converse in English. 

Surely there is need for more frequent 
conversation between the U.S.A. and the 
U.S.S.R. No doubt a good way to begin is 
with the weather. That is how many conversa- 

tions start. But only the most casual end 

Why not a regular daily discussion in 
more depth — but still friendly, of course — 
about some of the issues that divide East and 
West? Why not go on from the weather to 
explore ways of negotiating a settlement in 
Vietnam, for instance? If we hurl insults and 
threats at each other, if we resort to attacks 
and counterattacks, retaliation and recrimina- 
tion, we can so quickly escalate our disputes 
into a disaster no one can survive — whatever 
the weather. — K.M. 

32 MESSENGER 4-15-65 

love ;bookg 


THE MIDDLE MAN Dorothy Davis and Sara Davis 
Tells some of the important facts about Elder John Kline, Brethren 
martyr. Illustrated by 5-year-old Sara and authored by her mother. 
Ages 5-7. $1.50 

MENNONITE MARTHA Margaret Pitcairn Strachan 
All of Martha's family had been helping her father pay for a reaper. 
Mixed in with the hard work and struggle to reconcile her own desires 
with the Mennonite ways, is the loving relationship of the home. 10-12 
year-olds. $2.79 

When David John asks his mother questions about very familiar things, 
her answers lead to stories about Jesus. These twelve stories offer a 
here-and-now quality to the Bible which makes them especially ap- 
pealing to young children. Ages 6-9. $2.95 

THE TALL MAN Dorothy Davis and Carl Davis 
An account of Elder John Naas' refusal to serve in the personal body- 
guard of the king of Prussia. Illustrated by 5-year-old Carl and written 
by his mother. Ages 5-7. $1.25 

This is the kind of Bible reference book teachers and parents have been 
hoping to find — a Bible reference book youngsters themselves can use. 
Even the youngest Bible student will love looking at the hundreds of 
colorful pictures. Children 7 to 12 will be fascinated with the Bible 
facts and stories because they are written in their own language. Size 
8x10 inches. $3.95 

When Willy Wells learns a new baby brother has been added to his 
family, he begins to feel alone and rejected. Searching for a place to 
feel wanted he goes to grandma's and then to Uncle John's. Then, 
deciding to go home, Willy finds that this is where he is really wanted, 
and moreover, that he honestly likes his new brother. Ages 4-8. $2.00 




THE LAST DAYS of Jesus' ministry fiave been variously represented in the 
world of master artists, including Rembrandt. A selection of his paintings 
and drawings is featured on pages 1-7. 

THAT MEN MAY WALK AGAIN. There is new hope for persons crip- 
pled by leprosy, thanks to the work of mission doctors like Roy Pfaltzgraff. 
by Joel Thompson, page 8 

THE CHRISTIAN WAY OF DEATH. Death comes to everyone, but Chris- 
tians can learn to live beyond death and above death, by Daniel 0. Flory. 
page 10 

ONE MILLION PEOPLE IN NEED constitute an obvious mission field, in 
danger of being neglected by those near at hand, according to one ob- 
server. Merlin Clark "speaks up." page 14 

THE MESSAGE OF EASTER, a meditation on the meaning of eternal life. 
by A. Stauffer Curry, page 22 

OTHER FEATURES include a special report on responses — pro and con 
— to the new youth curriculum (page 17), reviews of three recent novels 
(page 26), and a critical look at Hollywood's treatment of "The Greatest 
Story Ever Told" (page 28). 


Pictures and text describe a seminary program of clinical training for 
future pastors. . . . The deeper meaning of motherhood is explored in 
a meditation for Mother's Day by Sherwood Eliot Wirt. . . . Grant Stoltzfus 
maintains that sex is a gift to be guarded. . . . Rufus King explains why 
he thinks a will is necessary. . . . Lucile Long Strayer, in a review article, 
describes the world of 0. S. Lewis. . . . Recent efforts to abolish the death 
penalty are the subject of a special news report. 

VOL. 114 NO. 

'■' to bis guarded 


; : ; CHURCH OF THE BRETHREIt %i^,4/29/6S^ 

* » 

The Fteal iVEother's E>ay 

_ ■ ■ ■ ptage S 



In answer to a recent article by 
Wilbur Dunbar (Feb. 18) let me 
simply say, "Wilbur, you and I served 
shoulder to shoulder in CPS for the 
better part of four years. I don't 
feel that any minister needs ask for- 
giveness for foregoing that rare ex- 
perience or a similar amount of time 
in any branch of service." 

In view of the shortage of clergy 
nationwide and worldwide, why 
waste precious time of young men 
who are training to correct this def- 
icit? The rest of us can try to please 
Caesar, if he insists, and bless him 
for allowing my minister to serve 

Henry A. Campbell 
Kokomo, Ind. 


I do not feel that a minister is 
any less of a Christian because he 
has not served "twenty-four consecu- 
tive months in the national interest." 
More humbleness would not hurt any 
of us, but I see no reason for all 
present ministers to repent and all 
future ministers to be forced to do 
two years of voluntary service. 

Instead, I feel that the approach 
should be that we would exert our 
efforts to discontinue the draft. Then 
there would be no draft dodgers as 
Mr. Dunbar worries that our minis- 
ters are. Those who choose to serve 
the country could do so, and those 
who choose to serve humanity could 
do so, whether it would be as a 
teacher, minister, doctor, or social 
worker and whether it would be as 
a profession or only two years of 
voluntary service. 

Keith H. Workman 
Orrville, Ohio 


We ministers who have objected to 
being treated as different from the 

people of our churches ought to from 
a clear conscience seek the ending 
of special treatment. . . . 

Why have we accepted exemptions 
when we could have served along 
with others of the church as our own 
consciences directed? I am not sug- 
gesting that accepting an exemption 
was cowardly, but I realize that il 
was a way out, a way of implying 
that I was different and somehow de- 
served this special recognition. 

We can at least encourage those 
who plan to enter the ministry to 
engage in two years of BVS or 
alternative service as a part of their 
preparation for their work. We can 
also urge the government to stop 
granting ministerial deferments for 
those who plan to enter the ministry 
or are in the ministry and are eligible 
for drafting. Conscription demands 
two years of a young man's life re- 
gardless of what type of work he 
plans to enter. I feel that it may be 
as important for those young men 
who plan to enter the ministry to 
engage in BVS or alternative service, 
as it is for other young men of the 

Dean Kindy 

Creston, Ohio 


In facing the challenge of the draff 
one is faced with the opportimity of 
giving more than a negative response 
to the call to arms. One is also chal- 
lenged to ask, "How can I present 
a positive, lifelong witness to the way 
of the cross in every circumstance of 
human conflict?" Obviously the min- 
istry provides such an opportunity. . . . 

According to the Selective Service 
Law one is to apply for the lowest 
classification to which he is entitled. 
In my case this meant IV-D, or a 
ministerial exemption. However, I 
felt I had to come to grips with the 
issue conscientiously. I was person- 
ally convinced that the ministry of- 
fered an excellent form of alternative 
service on a lifetime basis, but I felt 
this must be clarified before my draft 

board. So I informed m.y draft board 
that I would apply for a I-O classi- 
fication should my ministerial status 
change, because I was conscientiously 
opposed to war as a method of solv- 
ing human conflict and would be us- 
ing the ministry to advance this 

The result was disastrous. The 
board refused to grant any CO classi- 
fications and this statement made the 
granting of a IV-D classification 
equal to a I-O. I struggled with the 
draft board over this issue until I 
was well into seminary training. 

I mention this experience because 
I sense in Brother Dunbar's remarks 
the feeling that "exempted pastors" 
have not given their "pound of flesh" 
to the public as he seems to feel 
they should. However, the consci- 
entious pastor gives his "pound of 
flesh" again and again throughout his 
ministry as he courageously witnesses 
to Christ's way in the face of prevail- 
ing attitudes and patterns of behavior 
in society. Surely, there is more than 
one way in which we "share the 
common burdens of the day" in this 
matter of peace and war. No pastor 
can honestly deal with the demands 
of the gospel and remain aloof. 

If the ministry is just another pro- 
fessional career and is not an ade- 
quate form of "alternative service," 
then the exemption of pastors should 
be reconsidered. This matter should 
be reviewed if for no other reason 
than to clarify its purpose within the 
whole frame of the Selective Service 
system. Personally, I believe that the 
ministry is as valid as many I-W proj- 
ects for alternative service and it 
doesn't end in two years but lasts for 

If Brother Dunbar feels a barrier 
between himself and a pastor who 
has been exempted on these grounds, 
I suggest he "take a hard look" at 
his own presumptions which may be 
causing the trouble more than some 
imaginary ministerial privilege. 

E. Stanley Smith 

Akron, Ohio 

MESSENGER, Vol. 114, No. 9. April 29, 1965, publi- 
cation of the Church of the Brethren continuing "The 
Gospel Messenger" 

Editor: Kenneth I. Morse 
Managing Editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh 
Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Weigle 
Director of News Service: Howard E. Royer 

MESSENGER, official publication of the Church of the Brethren, is 
owned and published every other week by the General Brotherhood 
Board — Church of the Brethren, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120, 
Norman J. Baugher, general secretary. Editor, Kenneth I. Morse; 
managing editor, Wilbur E. Brumbaugh; editorial assistant, Elizabeth 
Weigle. Filing date, Oct. 1, 1963. Entered as second-class matter Aug. 
20, 1918, under Act of Congress of Oct. 17, 1917. Second-class postage 
paid at Elgin, III. 

MESSENGER is copyright 1965 by the General Brotherhood Board, 
Church of the Brethren. 

She put it simply: "Keep the weeds away," 

to have a flower garden. Grandma knew 

how faithfully perennials will stay, 

how seed will sprout where last year's flowers grew 

This came with years of garden care, with sod 

swapped in a clump from neighbors for its start 

of purple blossom, with late rains when God 

let Grandma's plants have water. She took heart 

and kept the weeds away, let roots have room 

for growth of choice selections springtimes past 

contributed to make this autumn's bloom 

old-fashioned with quaint promises to last: 

"The root you want will sprout and bloom and seed, 

Tending to flower because you pulled the weed." 

Myrtle Chance Allen 

J\ MESSENGER is a member of the Associated Church Press and 

subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 
Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherv^/ise indicated, are 

P from the Revised Standard Version. 

Subscription rates; $3.75 per year for individual subscriptions; $3.00 
per year for church group plan; $2.50 per year for every home plan; 
life subscription, $60; husband and wife, $75. 

If you move, clip old address from MESSENGER and send with new 
address. Allow at least fifteen days for address change. 

PHOTO CREDITS: 2 "The Bath" by Mary Cassatt, courtesy of The Art 
Institute of Chicago; 5 Religious News Service photo; 6 Max Tharpe; 
11 Philip Gendreau; 16 Don Honick; 19 illustration by Janie Russell; 
21, 22 Bruce Bennett 

ABOUT THE COVER: The drawing was done by Mary Cassatt (1844- 
1926), often called America's greatest woman painter. The background 
was photographed from a towel homemade nearly two hundred years 
ago. It was shredded from flax, spun into thread, and woven into 
cloth — all by hand. 


miili MffliTllIt 



If I tvere hanged on the highest hill, 

I know whose love would follow me still. 

When Rudyard Kipling wrote these 
words, he was not simply being sentimental 
about his mother. He was touching upon 
reality. Whether we admit it or not, the 
one stable element in human society, the 
one great civilizing force of history, the 
one fountainhead of morality, has been 
neither school nor church nor hall of justice 
but the concern of a mother for her young. 
The picture of Hannah kneeling in the 
primitive temple of Shiloh, her lips moving 
in silent prayer for the child yet to be 
born, is the classic stance of motherhood. 

Since that early day the church of God 
which mothers helped to build has re- 
mained a sanctuary where their hopes and 
longings have been planted and watered 
and where they have bom fruit. That is 
another way of saying that the Christian 
faith has developed and encouraged the 
finest in human motherhood through the 

Converts to Christianity from other 
faiths, such as Sundar Singh of India and 
Masahisa Uemura of Japan, have paid 
tribute to their non-Christian mothers, tell- 
ing of the devotion they showed in fulfilling 
their vows to the idols and deities of their 
respective cults. Women of great character, 
they obviously were, greater, by any meas- 
ure, than the images they worshiped. 

Jesus of Nazareth, by contrast, added 
a whole new dimension to motherhood. He 
taught mothers the meaning of their voca- 
tion. More than one historian has de- 

scribed him as the emancipator of the sex. 
I once heard the evangelist Billy Graham 
remark, "If I were a woman, I would run 
to Christ. He is the best friend womankind 
ever had." The mothers of ancient civiliza- 
tions, as they appear in the records, dis- 
played many virtues, including heroism and 
self-sacrifice; yet so often something seems 
to be missing from their makeup. 

The concept of motherhood that we 
draw from the history of the church is of 
a different cast. The Christian mother is 
seen to be tender without forsaking firm- 
ness, gentle without becoming flabby, lov- 
ing without yielding an inch to unrighteous- 
ness. She does not think of herself as a 
heroine, nor does she coddle her young 
as a "doting" parent. She thinks of herself, 
like Mary, as the handmaiden of the Lord, 
as a steward, responsible to God for the 
upbringing of children who will honor and 
glorify him with their lives. 

Monica, the mother of Aurelius Augus- 
tinus, was a Christian woman who (like 
many in our own day) went through some 
heartbreaking experiences in child rearing. 
She was one of those of whom Joaquin 
Miller wrote, "The greatest battle ever 
fought . . . was fought by the mothers of 
men." Her husband was a pagan with no 
interest whatever in Christ or the church, 
and her teen-age son drifted into an im- 
moral life. Yet Monica was a woman who 
believed in Jesus Christ, and she prayed 
for ten years. So far as we know, her hus- 
band was never reached, but her son be- 
came St. Augustine, and the world is her 

4-29-65 MESSENGER 3 

Susannah Wesley, the mother of John and 
Charles Wesley; Mary Edwards Dwight, the 
mother of Timothy Dwight; Nancy Hanks, the 
mother of Abraham Lincoln: these and many 
others have made motherhood a sacred vocation 
that has blessed all humanity. 

Now, it is clear that many questions facing 
mothers in the year 1965 differ from those with 
which their grandmothers and great-grandmothers 
dealt. Ours is a day in which the individual is 
losing his significance; where the demographic 
explosion is making masses out of persons; where 
the psychiatric social worker is forcing us to speak 
sociologically, to think of sibling relationships in- 
stead of children and of units and groups rather 
than persons. 

A mother is no longer worshiped on a pedestal 
as the noblest work of creation; she is catalogued 
as a unit of society who is (until she is proved 
incompetent) entrusted with the responsibility for 
other social units, namely, her own offspring. 

What are the problems that are being raised 
for mothers today that our own mothers did not 
have to contend with? Consider the increased 
availabilitv and hazard of motor transportation; 
the new leisure; television; racial adjustments; 
limited floor space; hazardous traffic problems; the 
free flow of money in an affluent societv; the 
stepped-up advertising programs of the tobacco 
and liquor industries; the enormous expansion of 
the drug market; social misfits loose on the streets 
in alarming numbers; the invention of new and 
synthetic ways of seeking thrills; the rush for 
status symbols; automation; urban blight; the lack 
of adequate city recreational facilities; oral con- 
traceptives; the disappearance of the countryside 
— and these are only a few! 

To be sure, the mothers have not been idle. 
They have organized to meet emergencies; they 
have helped to provide, particularly in the areas 
of health and education, the greatest benefits of 
any society in history. Yet even as they have 
labored, other social forces in North America have 
been at work; juvenile problems have soared to 
an all-time high; crime has jumped ten percent 
each year; sexual laxity has thrown Western soci- 
etv into a moral crisis. And everywhere there are 
new questions! 

Now, in all fairness, it ought to be reported 
that in some quarters the mothers themselves are 
being blamed for some of these ills. Do you re- 

member the things Philip Wylie wrote about 
"momism " in A Generation of Vipers? The church 
has had its say about working mothers and with 
some reason, perhaps. Yet let me ask. Where 
would the labor force of our century be without 
the working mothers? What would happen to 
commerce and industry? Be realistic. To order 
them back to their homes and to return to the 
economy of 100 years ago, to the black stockings 
and knickerbockers for schoolchildren, and the 
daily tasks of homemade bread and jam (to say 
nothing of ice cream) are just not feasible. 

The first step in motherhood, as every mother 
knows, is to face reality with the family she has, 
not with some ideal color advertisement of what 
family life used to be like or ought to be. And 
she will very soon find that, while the questions 
are all different in our century, most of the answers 
are the same that they have always been. 

Ouccessful motherhood in 1965 is built upon 
the same spiritual foundation that it had in the 
beginning. The opportunity to inculcate ideas of 
truth, love, courage, justice, equality, and faith 
are as present as they ever were. The standards 
of value that existed in the time of Christ are the 
same standards of value that exist today, despite 
all the prurient writers, the sex merchants, and the 
"new morality" theologians. 

Right is still right and wrong is still wrong; 
the Ten Commandments have not been abrogated. 
The slaughter of the children in Bethlehem was 
no different in God's sight from the slaughter of 
the missionaries and African Christians in the 
Congo. A hit-run crime at First and Main Streets 
is no different from the crime of Macbeth or of 
Joab. An act of mercy in a Judean cave is no 
different from an act of mercy in a ten-story mod- 
ern hospital. Nor has the responsible relationship 
of the mother to the child changed in an age of 
psychological "mother-figures" and artificial in- 

Yes, the questions are all different, but the an- 
swers are the same. If this fact could be driven 
home to the millions of young mothers who are 
starting the long haul, it could turn Mother's Day 
into something more than a floral fiesta. 

God, and only God, can give to motherhood 
the depth and breadth of character needed for an 
age which talks about the "Great Society." A He- 

MESSENGER 4-29-65 

brew chaplain once pointed out that, under the 
English code, all statutory law is based on common 
law, all common law is based on moral law, and 
all moral law is based on divine law. Giant social 
experiments behind the iron curtain aim to prove 
this thesis false. But who would relish the prospect 
of learning his morals and his jurisprudence from 
a tyrant? 

Our highly industrialized society does bring 
to the surface some problems that bafHe the ex- 
perts, let alone the preachers. How, for example, 
does the gospel of Christ bear on the question of 
railroad featherbedding or the arrangement of 
shifts in a factory? How does a church pronounce- 
ment help in these issues? 

But in the matter of a mother's relation to 
her child, the Christian approach is still limpid 
and clear: 

"Train up a child in the way he should go, 
and when he is old he will not depart 
from it." 
What is the way he should go? Robert 
Browning put it: 

"I say the acknowledgment of God 

in Christ, 
Accepted by thy reason, solves for 

All questions in the world and out 
of it." 

And Whittier added this observation: 

"We search the world for truth, we cull 

The good, the true, the beautiful. 

From graven stone and written scroll. 

And all old flower-fields of the soul; 

And, weary seekers of the best, 

We come back laden from our quest. 

To find that all the sages said 

Is in the Book our mothers read." 

A few years ago child psychologists and reli- 
gious educators were claiming that theological 
concepts should not be taught the young child, 
that youngsters could not possibly grasp these 
issues until they reached high school. Such claims 
have since been exposed as anachronistic. The 
whole history of the church is, in fact, against it. 
It is true that the mother needs all the wisdom 
she can get, all the spiritual discernment that .she 
can receive, to drop the seed of faith in the heart 
of her child. But, if she neglects to do just that, 

she is depriving her child of the most useful, and 
most glorious, asset of his future life. 

What the child needs is Jesus Christ as a 
friend and a guide in his emerging life, not a 
Christ who is a mere "good fairy" of pretty tales, 
nor yet a Christ who is forever shaking his finger 
at us, but a Christ "in us" with the whole Bible 
behind him, the whole church behind him, and 
the whole home behind him. 

As the years of motherhood pass, the mother's 
influence is cumulative. Her steadfastness of faith 
becomes the standard of reference by which the 
child builds his concepts of reality. He matures 
but he does not forget. He drifts, even, for this 
is the world, but not without the inner feeling that 
one day he will return. And the rock-bottom con- 
victions that make up the difference between a 
good life and a bad life are still the same. A good 
mother is still a blessing to all mankind and a 
bad woman is still a reproach to her sex. 

The joys of motherhood are many, but surely 
there is no greater joy than this, to see the fruit 
of one's womb stand before his or her Maker and 
acknowledge the Lordship of Jesus Christ. This 
is the real Mother's Day, the day for which she 
was bom, the day for which she entered into 
marriage and bore her child. This, too, is the 
hope of the future, for in all the marvels and 
risks and terrors of the space age, the place of 
motherhood is secure, and where there is life, 
there is hope. D 



i| m5''4^ *■ 




by Grant Stoltzfus 


SOMETIMES we feel like the woman who lifted 
her eyes from the evening paper, looked with 
confused face across the living room at her hus- 
band, and said, "It seems to me as though this 
is one of those centuries when everything went 

Now of all the things that go wrong in our 
confused and confusing world, none, it would 
seem, is more pervasive than sex. What is right 
and wrong here? Who says so and why? 

There are many signs that all is not well with 
our sex mores. There is, for example, the in- 
crease in illegitimate births among teen-age girls 
from 8.4 per thousand in 1940 to 16 per thousand 
in 1961. Social scientists report a marked increase 
in venereal diseases among teen-agers. 

There is the fairly widespread notion that sex 
is a purely private affair, that nothing is inviolable 
or sacred, nothing absolutely forbidden. We are 
told — and by people with academic degrees — 
that a new morality is needed to fit the times of 
new freedom. 

The count on campus 

Colleges from time to time find that they must 
stand up to be counted. This happened when the 
president of Vassar College, Miss Sarah Gibson 
Blanding, addressed her assembled students in 
April of 1962. She had been asked to interpret 
the college catalog's statement which said, "The 
college expects every student to uphold the high- 
est standards." As a part of the interpretation of 
this statement, she said that premarital sexual re- 

lations are immoral and that any student who 
could not live up to the college standards in these 
matters had better withdraw voluntarily. 

The commotion which this statement caused 
in the press and on college campuses elsewhere 
would make a long story. While strongly sup- 
ported in her position by parents and large seg- 
ments of the public, she was also challenged. 
One counterthnist was the assertion that since 
sex and sex conduct on a college campus are pure- 
ly private affairs, the only real scandal is the at- 
tempt made to restrict privileges — even those 
privileges which turn out to be wide-open in- 
vitations to immorality. 

Of course, the skirmish on campuses is only 
one phase of the sex controversy being waged on 
a wider front. The legions arrayed against soci- 
ety's sex mores include, writes William Graham 
Cole in Sex and Love in the Bible, the band of 
"so-called beatniks . . . who divide their time be- 
tween drinking at bars and being 'on the road.' 
. . . They seek to drain the last drop of sensation 
from each cup that life proffers to them."" The 
opposing forces also include writers and essayists 
who say the time has come to change all moral 
standards. Sometimes these would-be innovators 
are reinforced by experimental psychologists who 
compile data on the sex life of mammals in general 
and apply it to humans in particular. And there 
are psychiatrists and psychotherapists who tell us 
that the sooner we get rid of inhibitions the sooner 
we will get rid of guilt. And they tell us we must 
get rid of guilt for our mental health's sake. 

Reprinted by permission from Christian Living, Mennonite 
Publishing House, Scottdale, Pa. 

' Sex and Love in the Bible by William Graham Cole, 
Association Press. Used by permission. 

4-29-65 MESSENGER 7 

In a word, we are told: "We have grown up. 
Let us, therefore, discard rehgion and ethics, 
which are vahd for the childhood of the race but 
can now be replaced by the responsible pursuit 
of scientific truth." 

Any word from the Lord? 

In all this confusion, debate, and battle over 
the centuries-old question of sex, what does the 
Christian faith have to say? Is there any word 
from the Lord? I believe there is. I believe there 
always has been a word from the Lord on this 
topic, even though the word has not always been 
clearly understood and not always very well com- 
municated by its chief guardian, the church. 

The Bible is our source book for the unique 
view in all human history which tells us that sex 
is a part of the grand creation by a loving Creator. 
This record begins "in the beginning" and sees 
the creation of male and female not as a punish- 
ment, as the Greeks held it to be, but as a positive 
good. Man is created in the image of God. Ac- 
cording to the scripture, sex is a gift and sex in 
the divine plan is good; it affords companionship 
or community and provides for the ongoing of the 
race. Marriage provides a setting for sex, al- 
though the Bible does recognize a high place for 
the unmarried. 

Sex is not only a gift that is good; it is also 
clear from the Bible that sex is a gift to be 
guarded. There are good and bad uses of it. 
There is a right and wrong way to use this 
most creative, this most beautiful of human 
endowments. Premarital and extramarital sex re- 
lations are contrary to the will of God. Such acts 
are not only unsatisfactory. They are wrong. 
Much of our society today has not learned this. 
Every time a person indulges in this wrong use 
he makes himself less able to do right. He mars 
the image of God; the consequences are eternal. 

Freedom that does not free 

We live in a sex-saturated age (witness the 
advertisements, songs, fashions, and art), but we 
also live — and here is the paradox — in a sex- 
starved age (witness the fracture of homes, the 
spread of homosexuality, the loneliness of men 
and women). 

In desperation modern man strikes out for 
freedom. But Time's lead article on sex (January 
24, 1964) states, "The new sex freedom in the 

United States does not necessarily set people free." 
An article, which appeared the same week in 
Christian Century, sizes up the situation like this: 
"Young people today are losing control of their 
lives. They are having babies when they don't 
want them. They are getting married before they 
really want to. They are taking jobs before they 
are adequately prepared for them. And this is the 
new freedom! But freedom is precisely what is 
being lost." 

We can only conclude that if sex is a gift to 
be guarded, the laws of God which govern it must 
be obeyed. Along with the gift comes the obliga- 
tion to use it wisely. For this God promises his 
grace and his blessing when we cooperate. We 
have the assurance of God that he sanctifies man 
and woman in a permanent marriage bond. 

We live in an age of knowledge and the dif- 
fusion of knowledge. We must affirm that char- 
acter is more important for success in marriage 
than, if you please, detailed knowledge of the 
human anatomy. (It ought to be said that char- 
acter and knowledge can and should be found 
together. There is, however, a priority of char- 
acter that should never be overlooked.) 

Persons who want pat answers on petting and 
lovemaking might be able to supply these answers 
themselves after they have seen the true nature 
and purpose of sex in the plan of God. We live 
in a society where men sacrifice the future for 
the sake of the present. Successful marriages are 
made by persons who sacrifice the present for the 
sake of the future. 

If a car is to reach its destination safely over 
the hills and around the curves of today's high- 
ways, brakes are as essential as a motor. Auto- 
mobile engineers, it is said, build brakes three 
times more powerful than the motor. Christians 
should show as much wisdom in their discipline 
of sex. 

We live in an age when people will have what 
they want, and they will have it right away. For 
youth, it is a part of wisdom to know that true 
love says wait. For in waiting we are tested, and 
in meeting the test we become stronger and more 
mature. We are making ourselves ready for a 
great venture that is worthy of us as children of 
a loving God. We are taking the long view — 
even into eternity itself — when we guard this high 
gift of sex so well that we can give as much as we 
get on our wedding day. D 

8 MESSENGER 4-29-65 

by Rufus B. King 


Several years ago a rather well-to-do church member said to 
me: "I don't have a will and 1 don't intend to have one drawn! 
I have planned for the disposal of my estate without a will. A 
will isn't necessary!" 

The person who made this remark was in his early sixties 
and had a sizable estate to dispose of. He was a family man 
with a wife and four grown c